Fragments by cuiliqing

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									    Two Types of Clauses
Independent clause (Main clause)
 Can stand alone as a sentence
 Can be joined to another clause
 Fred filled a cardboard tube with gunpowder.
Dependent clause (Subordinate clause)
   Cannot stand alone as a sentence
   Must be joined to an independent clause
   Because he wanted to make his own firecrackers.



              A word that joins clauses is a conjunction
         Joining Clauses
A dependent clause can be joined to
an independent clause to make a
sentence
 Fred  filled a cardboard tube with
  gunpowder because he wanted to make
  his own firecrackers.
                       Or
 Because he wanted to make his own
  firecrackers, Fred filled a cardboard tube
  with gunpowder.
                 When the sentence starts with the
                 dependent clause, it must have a comma
                 before the independent clause
              Fragments
 Fragments look like sentences but
 are missing a subject or a verb, or
 they are put together incorrectly.
         Fragment                Error
Told everyone to get out    No subject
of the way.
Disposable lighter in his   No verb
hand.
Before he lit the fuse.     A dependent
                            clause by itself
    Correcting Fragments
Subjects or verbs can be added
Fragments can be joined together
All of the following are correct
 With his disposable lighter in his hand, he told
  everyone to get out of the way. Then he lit the fuse.
 Pulling out his disposable lighter, Fred told everyone
  to get out of the way before he lit the fuse.
 He pulled out his disposable lighter. Fred told
  everyone to get out of the way and then he lit the
  fuse.
                      Run-ons
         Run-ons (fused sentences)
         occur when clauses are joined
         incorrectly.
          He didn’t throw the firecracker, he placed
 Comma    it between his legs, he wanted to put the
 splice   lighter away first.


          The fuse burned too quickly before he could
Run-on    throw it the explosive blew up between his
          legs.
Four Ways to Correct Run-ons
 1. Join the clauses with a comma and a
    coordinating conjunction
      And, or, but, so, yet
      He wanted to put the lighter away first, so Fred
       placed the firecracker between his legs, and he
       didn’t throw it.
 2. Join the clauses with a subordinating
    conjunction
      Because, although, if, when, since, after
      Because the fuse burned too quickly before he
       could throw it, the explosive blew up between his
       legs.
Four Ways to Correct Run-ons
 3. Make the clauses into separate
    sentences
   X Fred fell down screaming when the
     smoke cleared we all expected to see
     a bloody mess.
    Fred fell down screaming. The smoke
     cleared. We all expected to see a
     bloody mess.
    Fred fell down screaming. When the
     smoke cleared, we all expected to see
     a bloody mess.
Four Ways to Correct Run-ons
4. Join two independent clauses with a
   semicolon (;)if they are closely related.
     You may include a conjunctive adverb along with
      the semicolon:
     however, for example, therefore, moreover,
      indeed, consequently
  X Fred hadn’t taped the tube properly and most of the
      force was released out the ends of the tube the
      explosion did direct some pressure against his groin.
     Fred hadn’t taped the tube well and most of the force
      was released out the ends of the tube; however, the
      explosion did direct some pressure against his groin.
                  Notice how the sentence
                  is punctuated
     Correct the following
1.   Fred managed to make it home and change
     his clothes, and he told his parents he fell
     off his bicycle, he avoided punishment for
     playing with explosives.
        Fred managed to make it home and change his
         clothes. He told his parents he fell off his bicycle,
         thus avoiding punishment for playing with
         explosives.
        Fred managed to make it home. He changed his
         clothes and told his parents that he fell off his
         bicycle. He avoided punishment for playing with
         explosives.
2.   I left town shortly after. Didn’t see him
     again for five years.
        I left town shortly after and didn’t see him again
         for five years.
     Correct the following
3.   Took a trip home last summer. I ran
     into Fred after my long absence he is
     unable to have children. Didn’t ask if
     he still plays with firecrackers.
      During a trip home last summer, I ran
       into Fred after a long absence. He is
       unable to have children. I didn’t ask if
       he still plays with firecrackers.
      After a long absence, I took a trip home
       last summer. I ran into Fred, who is
       unable to have children. I didn’t ask if he
       still plays with firecrackers.

								
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