Greek Tragedy_ Sophocles and Euripides by dffhrtcv3

VIEWS: 15 PAGES: 51

									Greek Tragedy, Euripides and Medea




                                      Week 15



                     Alice Y. Chang
The fifth century BCE and intellectual revolution

   Most of these plays date from the last half of the
    fifth century B.C.; they were written in and for an
    Athens that, since the days of Aeschylus, had
    undergone an intellectual revolution.
    It was in a time of critical reevaluation of accepted
    standards and traditions that Sophocles produced
    his masterpiece, Oedipus the King, and the problems
    of the time are reflected in the play.


                                      Alice Y. Chang
       Mysterious + contemporary
   The use of the familiar myth enabled the
    dramatist to draw on all its wealth of
    unformulated meaning, but it did not prevent
    him from striking a contemporary note.
   Oedipus, in Sophocles’ play, is at one and the
    same time the mysterious figure of the past
    who broke the most fundamental human
    taboos and a typical fifth-century Athenian.
   His character contains all the virtues for
    which the Athenians were famous and the
    vices for which they were notorious.

                               Alice Y. Chang
      Pericles and Oedipus
   The Athenian devotion to the
    city, which received the main
    emphasis in Pericles’ praise of
    Athens, is strong in Oedipus; his
    answer to the priest at the
    beginning of the play shows that
    he is a conscientious and
    patriotic ruler.


                             Alice Y. Chang
EURIPIDES



 480-406 B.C.

     Alice Y. Chang
Euripides
   「舞台上的哲學家」的美稱
   悲劇內容大多以家庭生活為題材,討論戰爭、民主、
    貧富、宗教、婦女地位…等問題
   討論雅典奴隸民主制衰弱時期的社會思想
   寫實
   現存十八部作品,是傳世作品最多的古希臘悲劇家




                   Alice Y. Chang
The Works of Euripides
   Alcestis                   Hecuba
     Written 438 B.C.E           Written 424 B.C.E

                                Helen
    Andromache                   Written 412 B.C.E
     Written 428-24 B.C.E        Translated by E. P.
                                Coleridge

    The Bacchantes              The Heracleidae
     Written 410 B.C.E           Written ca. 429 B.C.E
                                 Translated by E. P.
                                Coleridge
                                  Alice Y. Chang
Works of Euripides
   Iphigenia At Aulis           Rhesus
      Written 410 B.C.E            Written 450 B.C.E

    Iphigenia in Tauris           The Suppliants
      Written 414-412 B.C.E        Written 422 B.C.E
      Translated by Robert         Translated by E. P.
    Potter                        Coleridge

    Medea                         The Trojan Women
     Written 431 B.C.E             Written 415 B.C.E
     Translated by E. P.
    Coleridge
                                    Alice Y. Chang
Medea
 an ancient Greek tragedy written by
  Euripides, based upon the myth of
  Jason and Medea and first produced
  in 431 BC.
 The plot centers on the barbarian
  protagonist as she finds her position
  in the Greek world threatened, and the
  revenge she takes against her
  husband Jason who has betrayed her
  for another woman.
                       Alice Y. Chang
Jason bringing Pelias the Golden Fleece




                       Alice Y. Chang
       Medea

   Euripides’ Medea, produced in 431 B.C., the
    year that brought the beginning of the
    Peloponnesian War, appeared earlier than
    Sophocles’ Oedipus the King, but it has a
    bitterness that is more in keeping with the
    spirit of a later age.




                                 Alice Y. Chang
Alice Y. Chang
Alice Y. Chang
Prologue of Medea
   NURSE
   Oh how I wish that ship the Argo
       had never sailed off to the land of Colchis,
       past the Symplegades, those dark dancing rocks
      which smash boats sailing through the Hellespont.
       I wish they'd never chopped the pine trees down
       in those mountain forests up on Pelion,
       to make oars for the hands of those great men
       who set off, on Pelias' orders,
       to fetch the golden fleece.


                                 Alice Y. Chang
Nurse
                       Then my mistress,
    Medea, never would've sailed away
    to the towers in the land of Iolcus,
    her heart passionately in love with Jason.
    She'd never have convinced those women,
    Pelias' daughters, to kill their father.
    She'd not have come to live in Corinth here,
    with her husband and her children—well loved
    in exile by those whose land she'd moved to.
    She gave all sorts of help to Jason.


                             Alice Y. Chang
     Jason and Medea fled to Corinth.
   When Jason and Medea returned to Iolcus, Pelias still
    refused to give up his throne. Medea conspired to have
    Pelias' own daughters kill him.
   She told them she could turn an old ram into a young ram
    by cutting up the old ram and boiling it (alternatively, she
    did this with Aeson, Jason's father).
   During the demonstration, a live, young ram jumped out of
    the pot. Excited, the girls cut their father into pieces and
    threw him into a pot.
   Having killed Pelias, Jason and Medea fled to Corinth.

                                       Alice Y. Chang
Alice Y. Chang
Alice Y. Chang
Alice Y. Chang
米蒂亞 Medea
   米蒂亞是科奇斯島國的公主,也是女祭師,一生命運
    乖舛,她愛上來自外地為了取得金羊毛與她父親作對
    的傑遜王子,不過,這段姻緣最後卻以悲劇收場。
   米蒂亞是月亮女神的乾女兒,所以她懂得使用許多的
    黑魔法,她會調製靈藥、占卜、下毒。
   不但法術高強也非常聰明與殘忍,他曾為了傑遜,親
    手殺了他自己的弟弟。後因為傑遜移情別戀,與鄰國
    的公主結婚,被情人拋棄的米蒂亞一怒之下,製作了
    一件沾滿毒藥的禮服,送給傑遜的未婚妻,將其殺害
    。甚至還親手殺了自己為傑遜生下的兩名稚子,最後
    騎著馬離開傷心地。

                 Alice Y. Chang
golden coronet, covered in poison
   In Corinth, Jason abandoned Medea for the king's
    daughter, Glauce.
   Medea took her revenge by sending Glauce a dress and
    golden coronet, covered in poison.
   This resulted in the deaths of both the princess and the
    king, Creon, when he went to save her.




                                     Alice Y. Chang
Alice Y. Chang
Luigi Cherubini:
Medea
http://www.amazon.com/Luigi-
Cherubini-
Medea/dp/B001JFKW8A/ref=sr
_1_6?s=music&ie=UTF8&qid=12
93028145&sr=1-6




  Alice Y. Chang
The golden chariot
   According to the tragic poet Euripides,
    Medea continued her revenge,
    murdering her two children by Jason.
    Afterward, she left Corinth and flew to
    Athens in a golden chariot driven by
    dragons sent by her grandfather
    Helios, god of the sun.



                          Alice Y. Chang
 Medea (about to
 murder her
 children) by
 Eugène
 Ferdinand
 Victor Delacroix
 (1862).
Alice Y. Chang
     Ironic expression

   If Oedipus is, in one sense, a warning to a generation
    that has embarked on an intellectual revolution,
    Medea is the ironic expression of the disillusion
    that comes after the shipwreck.
   In this play we are conscious for the first time of an
    attitude characteristic of modern literature, the
    artist’s feeling of separation from the
    audience, the isolation of the poet.


                                      Alice Y. Chang
        rejected by his contemporaries
   The common background of audience and poet is
    disappearing, the old certainties are being
    undermined, the city divided.
   Euripides is the first Greek poet to suffer the fate of
    so many of the great modern writers: rejected by
    most of his contemporaries (he rarely won first
    prize and was the favorite target for the scurrilous
    humor of the comic poets), he was universally
    admired and revered by the Greeks of the centuries
    that followed his death.

                                       Alice Y. Chang
        Private and intellectual life

   It is significant that what little biographical
    information we have for Euripides makes no
    mention of military service or political office; unlike
    Aeschylus, who fought in the ranks at Marathon,
    and Sophocles, who took an active part in public
    affairs from youth to advanced old age, Euripides
    seems to have lived a private, an intellectual life.




                                       Alice Y. Chang
       Questioning the received ideas

   Younger than Sophocles ( though they died in the
    same year), he was more receptive to the critical
    theories and the rhetorical techniques offered by
    the Sophist teachers;
   his plays often subject received ideas to
    fundamental questioning, expressed in vivid
    dramatic debate.




                                    Alice Y. Chang
Euripides’ Medea
   His Medea is typical of his iconoclastic approach; his
    choice of subject and central characters is in itself a
    challenge to established canons.
   He still dramatizes myth, but the myth he chooses is
    exotic and disturbing, and the protagonist is not a
    man but a woman.




                                    Alice Y. Chang
    The citizen rights?


   Medea is both woman and foreigner—that is, in
    terms of the audience’s prejudice and practice she
    is a representative of the two free-born groups in
    Athenian society that had almost no rights at all
    (though the male foreign resident had more rights
    than the native woman).




                                    Alice Y. Chang
        Anti-social

   The tragic hero is no longer a king, “one who is
    highly renowned and prosperous such as Oedipus,”
    but a woman who, because she finds no redress for
    her wrongs in society, is driven by her passion to
    violate that society’s most sacred laws in a rebellion
    against its typical representative, Jason, her husband.




                                      Alice Y. Chang
       Earth and Sun

   All through Medea the human beings involved call
    on the gods; two especially are singled out for
    attention: Earth and Sun.
    It is by these two gods that Medea makes Aegeus
    swear to give her refuge in Athens, the chorus
    invokes them to prevent Medea’s violence against
    her sons, and Jason wonders how Medea can look
    on Earth and Sun after she has killed her own
    children.

                                   Alice Y. Chang
        The Magic Chariot

   These emphatic appeals clearly raise the question
    of the attitude of the gods, and the answer to the
    question is a shock.
   We are not told what Earth does, but Sun sends
    the magic chariot on which Medea makes her
    escape.




                                     Alice Y. Chang
rejected by most of his contemporaries
   Euripides is the first Greek poet to suffer the fate of so
    many of the great modern writers: rejected by most of
    his contemporaries (he rarely won first prize and was
    the favorite target for the scurrilous humor of the
    comic poets), he was universally admired and revered by
    the Greeks of the centuries that followed his death.




                                     Alice Y. Chang
Iconoclastic
   His Medea is typical of his iconoclastic approach; his
    choice of subject and central characters is in itself a
    challenge to established canons.
   He still dramatizes myth, but the myth he chooses is
    exotic and disturbing, and the protagonist is not a man
    but a woman.
   Medea is both woman and foreigner, that is, in terms of
    the audience’s prejudice and practice she is a
    representative of the two free-born groups in Athenian
    society that had almost no rights at all (though the male
    foreign resident had more rights than the native woman).

                                     Alice Y. Chang
great intellectual power
   She is not just a woman and a foreigner, she is also a
    person of great intellectual power.
   Compared with her the credulous king and her
    complacent husband are children, and once her mind is
    made up, she moves them like pawns to their proper
    places in her barbaric game.
   The myth is used for new purposes, to shock the
    members of the audience, attack their deepest prejudices,
    and shake them out of their complacent pride in the
    superiority of Greek masculinity.


                                     Alice Y. Chang
Finds no redress
   The tragic hero is no longer a king, “one who is highly
    renowned and prosperous such as Oedipus,” but a
    woman who, because she finds no redress for her
    wrongs in society, is driven by her passion to violate that
    society’s most sacred laws in a rebellion against its typical
    representative, Jason, her husband.




                                       Alice Y. Chang
Earth and Sun
   All through Medea the human beings involved call on the
    gods; two especially are singled out for attention: Earth
    and Sun.
   It is by these two gods that Medea makes Aegeus swear
    to give her refuge in Athens, the chorus invokes them to
    prevent Medea’s violence against her sons, and Jason
    wonders how Medea can look on Earth and Sun after she
    has killed her own children.
   These emphatic appeals clearly raise the question of the
    attitude of the gods, and the answer to the question is a
    shock. We are not told what Earth does, but Sun sends
    the magic chariot on which Medea makes her escape.

                                     Alice Y. Chang
Cinema and television
 In the 1963 film Jason and the Argonauts, Medea
  was portrayed by Nancy Kovack.
 In the 2000 Hallmark presentation Jason and
  the Argonauts, Medea was portrayed by Jolene
  Blalock.
 In 1970, the Italian director Pier Paolo Pasolini
  directed a film adaptation of Medea featuring
  the opera singer Maria Callas in the title role.


                              Alice Y. Chang
Latest films
   In 2007, director Tonino De Bernardi filmed a modern
    version of the myth, set in Paris and starring Isabelle
    Huppert as Medea, called Médée Miracle. The character of
    Medea lives in Paris with Jason, who leaves her.
   In 2009,"Medea" was shot by director Natalia Kuznetsova.
    Film was created by the tragedy of Seneca in a new for
    cinema genre of Rhythmodrama, in which the main basis
    of acting and atmosphere is music written before
    shooting. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%22Medea%22




                                    Alice Y. Chang
電影版劇情簡介: (1970)
http://www.imdb.cn/title/tt0066065

 美狄亞,或譯米蒂亞,是古往今來最著名的復仇女性,也是所
 有受背叛、嫉妒所苦的女性的守護神。爲了愛上一個外邦人傑
 森,她抛卻公主地位、竊走國寶金羊毛、殺死弟弟,甘願隨夫
 遠走他鄉、漂泊失所。然而她的勇敢愛情和偉大犧牲最終卻變
 成一則笑話:丈夫決定另娶柯林斯公主,換取穩定名位。美狄
 亞走投無路之下,展開恐怖報復:先是獻毒衣焚殺丈夫的新
 歡,繼而手刃兩個小孩,乘太陽神的華車遠颺,留下一無所
 有的負心丈夫。


                       Alice Y. Chang
導演:皮耶‧保羅‧帕索里尼
Pier Paolo Pasolini
   從希臘悲劇到現代戲劇,這個故事被翻寫過無數
    回。Pasolini的版本抛開三一律(注)古典包袱,
    以一位來自遠古的情欲象徵──半人半馬怪爲敘
    事者,把來龍去脈從頭說起。他到土耳其和敘利
    亞取鏡,將場景拉回故事發生的高加索蠻荒世界,
    開場恍如人類學影片:一場驚心動魄、交糅恐怖
    與狂喜的原始儀式,美狄亞正是祭司,殺人獻祭
    的過程呼應了後來的血腥報復手腕。兩性戰爭被
    轉化爲美狄亞的史前泛靈世界與傑森的現代務實
    世界的對比。美狄亞嫁給傑森後,在理性世界中
    彷佛淪落得法力盡失。


                      Alice Y. Chang
ending
   最後,在希臘悲劇中揚長而去的美狄亞,電影卻讓她消失
    在熊熊烈焰中──太陽神的華輦也被現實化了,直接關涉
    到美狄亞的熾烈性情。就像《定理》中的性瓦解了中産價
    值,《美狄亞》中的巫術神話力量也反撲了現代文
    明。    別以爲你看錯了:飾演這位剛烈女性的,的確是歌
    劇女神瑪麗亞卡拉絲。雖然她在片中從未開口歌唱,但那
    雙引人著魔的眼睛仍然噴出了烈火。

   http://video.mail.ru/mail/karelina-
    natalia/4815/28316.html

                               Alice Y. Chang
Jason
   [shouting into the house, as he shakes the doors]
                             You slaves in there,
    remove the bar from this door at once,
     withdraw the bolts, so I may see two things—
    my dead sons and their murderer, that woman
        on whom I shall exact revenge.




                                     Alice Y. Chang
The exodus of Medea
 Jason  shakes the doors of the house,
  which remain closed.
 Medea appears in a winged chariot,
  rising above the house.The bodies of the
  two children are visible in the chariot]



                         Alice Y. Chang
Medea
   Why are you rattling the doors like that,
     trying to unbar them so you can find
    their bodies and me, the one who killed them?
     Stop trying. If you want something from me,
         then say so, if you want to. But you'll never
         have me in your grasp, not in this chariot,
         a gift to me from my grandfather Helios,
         to protect me from all hostile hands.


                                 Alice Y. Chang
CHORUS [Exit Chorus]
   Zeus on Olympus,
    dispenses many things.
    Gods often contradict
    our fondest expectations.
    What we anticipate
    does not come to pass.
    What we don't expect
    some god finds a way
   to make it happen.
    So with this story.
                          Alice Y. Chang
Translation:
   https://records.viu.ca/~johnstoi/euripides/medea.htm




                                     Alice Y. Chang
         The Life
         and Death
         of Jason


Alice Y. Chang
Alice Y. Chang

								
To top