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Cold War 1) George Kennan's "containment" policy proposed A) restrictions on American expansionist plans. B) long-term neutrality for the United States with respect to European affairs. C) American vigilance regarding Soviet expansionist tendencies. D) economic aid for the USSR. E) a series of aggressive maneuvers toward the Soviet Union. 2) Soviet bitterness toward the U.S. immediately after World War II was primarily a result of A) the U.S. refusal to provide economic aid to the U.S.S.R. B) personal differences between Truman and Stalin. C) the U.S. dropping the atomic bomb on Japan. D) broken American promises regarding the future of Berlin. E) American threats to take military action against Eastern Europe. 3) The Truman Doctrine was developed as a response to problems in A) North Africa. B) Italy. C) Greece. D) Berlin. E) Southeast Asia. 4) George Kennan believed firmly that A) public opinion should be of paramount importance in determining foreign policy. B) American foreign policy should be left to an elite of experts. C) America should return to its pre war isolationist policies. D) the Soviets posed no real threat to the U.S. E) Congress should be allowed a leading role in foreign affairs. 5) The North Atlantic Treaty Organization A) continued the old American tradition of involvement in European alliances. B) represented a departure from traditional American isolationism. C) was perceived as nonthreatening by the Soviets. D) received little support from European nations. E) was created as a response to the Korean War. 6) Truman's handling of the Berlin Blockade A) was a reversal of the containment policy. B) showed his indecisiveness in confronting the Soviet threat. C) led the Soviets to view him as a weak president. D) caused many to question his leadership abilities. E) was an important factor in his victory in the election of 1948. 7) The passage of the National Security Act in 1947 A) indicated America's desire to decrease its military strength. B) served only to further divide the Defense Department. C) weakened the intelligence gathering capabilities of the United States. D) acted to coordinate and unify America's military establishment. E) affirmed congressional support for the hydrogen bomb program. 8) Eisenhowers New Look program based on massive retaliation ensured that the dominant branch of the American armed forces would be the A) marines. B) air force. C) navy. D) army. E) submarine forces. 9) American policy toward Japan after World War II A) allowed shared U.S.-Soviet responsibility for the Japanese islands. B) was aimed at preventing the recovery of the Japanese economy. C) allowed Japanese control of Manchuria. D) emphasized the continuation of traditional Japanese institutions. E) brought the transition of the Japanese government into a constitutional democracy. 10) Republican senators blamed the Communist success in China on A) the Truman administration's refusal to take a hard line on communism. B) the bad leadership of Chiang Kai-shek. C) an overly aggressive American military policy. D) the great personal popularity of Mao Tse-tung. E) the failure of the Marshall plan. 11) During the Korean War, General Douglas MacArthur A) warned Truman against overly aggressive tactics. B) looked to the United Nations in planning strategy. C) acted cautiously, always aware of the threat from China. D) cooperated with Truman in devising an effective strategy. E) wanted to take over North Korea, and take on the Chinese army. 12) The launching of the Soviet SPUTNIK in 1957 A) led to a massive reformation in American education. B) was widely praised by American citizens. C) proved Soviet technological inferiority to the United States. D) followed the successful launch of a U. S. satellite. E) was a hoax. 13) The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 A) was welcomed by U.S. labor leaders. B) was part of Truman's Fair Deal program. C) was largely proposed by liberal Democrats. D) was meant to correct the labor-management imbalance created by the Wagner Act. E) continued the pro-labor reforms of the Roosevelt years. 14) In the Korean War, the Chinese threatened a massive invasion of Korea if the United States A) broke out of the Pusan perimeter. B) invaded North Korea. C) attacked Inchon. D) attempted to aid South Korea. E) did not withdraw its troops. 15) Which of the following individuals is incorrectly matched with his foreign policy activities? A) Bernard Baruch--nuclear weapons. B) Eisenhower--massive retaliation. C) Dean Acheson--U.S. invasion of Cuba. D) George Marshall--economic assistance for Western Europe. E) George Kennan--containment policy. 16) Which of the following was not a major issue between the Soviet Union and the United States in the post-war years 1945-1950? A) establishment of Communist governments in Eastern Europe. B) occupation zones in Japan. C) access to Berlin. D) Marshall plan aid. E) development and control of atomic weapons. 17) "In these circumstances, it is clear that the main element of any United States policy toward the Soviet Union must be that of a long term, patient, but firm vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies." This statement is taken from A) President Roosevelt's speech at the Yalta conference. B) Winston Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech. C) George Marshall's introduction of the Marshall Plan. D) George Kennan's article, "The Source of Soviet Conduct". E) General MacArthur's letter to Congressman Joseph Martin. 18) The primary purpose of the Marshall plan was to A) end the rift between the United States and the Soviet Union. B) establish a uniform world currency. C) aid the economic recovery of war-devastated Europe. D) set up a military alliance of anticommunist nations. E) hinder the economic recovery of nations under Soviet control. 19) Which of the following best describes Truman's foreign policy from 1945 to 1952? A) relunctance to involve the United States in foreign conflicts. B) willingness to negogiate differences with the Soviet Union. C) aggressive use of U.S. troops in Europe and Asia. D) commitment to containing communist challenges. E) extending foreign aid only with U. N. approval. 20) Which of the following contributed the LEAST to the growth of the Red Scare in the 1950s? A) loss of atomic bomb secrets to the Soviets. B) the Army-McCarthy hearings. C) Alger Hiss case. D) fall of China to the communists. E) investigations by the House Un-American Activities Committee. 21) President Eisenhower's "modern Republicanism" can best be described as A) a return to the economic policies of Coolidge and Hoover. B) a general acceptance of the New Deal programs and a balanced budget. C) an effort to shift taxes from the wealthy to lower income Americans. D) opposition to all liberal causes, including civil rights. E) the return of social and welfare programs to the states. 22) John Foster Dulles' "new look" to U. S. foreign policy included all of the following except A) taking Communist Nations to the brink of war to force them to back down. B) threatening massive retaliation with nuclear weapons to prevent Soviet aggression. C) supporting but not sending troops in to fight in nations under communist hold. D) reducing conventional forces of the Army and Navy. E) total disarmament of all nuclear weapons. 23) "We declare that however acute the ideological differences between the two systems- the socialist and the capitalist- we must solve questions in dispute among states not bywar, but by peaceful negogiation." This statement by Nikita Khrushchev in 1957 expressed the idea of A) massive retaliation. B) de-Stalinization. C) inevitability of the triumph of communism. D) peaceful coexistence. E) cultural revolution.
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