Foreigners in China by yurtgc548

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									Foreigners in China

  The reaction of Chinese
government, Chinese people
      and Westerners
    Portugese are first
 Began trading in 1500’s. Became the
  middlemen in trading Chinese goods
  around the world
 Also sent missionaries (Jesuits). Huge
  population without an established
  religion in their minds. Attempted to
  match teachings to Confucian ideals
    Chinese Government
         reactions:
 strict restrictions and walls built around
  the settlements so they could not
  poison Chinese culture.
 Only allowed to stay 6 months at a
  time during “trading season.”
 Missionaries welcomed at court as
  interesting intellectuals, few
  conversions.
    People’s reactions:
 uninterested but respect Jesuit
  education.
 Don’t convert

 Eventually take offense at missionaries
  judgment of their culture.
 Eventually see these missionaries as
  representatives of the barbaric
  foreigners.
    Portugese reactions:

 Send more missionaries
 Frustration and judgment of people.

 Desire more influence

 Jesuits write much about Chinese
  culture so Europe becomes interested.
  Unfortunate.
     Other Westerners
        reactions:
 Curious about Chinese art, porcelain,
  furniture, gardens and culture.
 Want to come see for themselves and
  trade for those goods themselves.
 The Chinese continue to restrict trade
  from any foreigners.
       Chinese edict
       announced to
  foreigners attempting
     to trade in China
  “The products of China are abundant; what
  need have we for the small and insignificant
goods of the distant barbarians? Just because
 you wanted to trade we have had compassion
for men from afar and did not prohibit you from
  coming. Now you are not able to keep your
   place and obey the laws…the laws will be
 upheld and feelings will be pacified. Everyone
     will return to harmonious cooperation.”
    1800’s Europeans pressure
              more
 By 1800’s the Europeans wanted more
  trade and more spheres of influence
 Why? What is happening in Europe at
  this time?
 New wave of European Imperialism
  around the world as revolutions have
  kicked them out of America and Latin
  America
 Tension and competition among
  European nations as industrialization
  has flourished. Race for new markets
  and resources.
     Chinese government
          reaction:
   Opened a little more trade but still wanted to
    keep foreigners away.
   Disgusted by arrogance of Europeans.
   Shocked by the Europeans view of the
    Chinese as inferior.
   Expel missionaries (Pope had told Jesuits
    they could not attach ideas to Confucianism
    anymore)
   Still believed they were superior but did
    nothing to change their ways. Problem,
    why?
    People’s Reactions
 Insulted by European behavior
 Dislike of missionaries, some violence
  will occur
 Oblivious: China is big and not all the
  people know what’s going on.
    European Reaction
 More pressure.
 Judge the Chinese as backward: won’t
  industrialize and won’t Christianize.
 Viewed as weak.

 Continuous trade in restricted port
  areas.
 Looking for a way to force more trade
  on Chinese. They find it…opium
              Opium
 The Chinese had used it for medicinal
  purposes.
 By 1800’s started being used as a
  drug and people were addicted.
 Coming in along Silk Road from Iran,
  India, Turkey and Afghanistan
    Chinese government
         reaction:
 Outlawed opium smoking (but, oops,
  some government officials are already
  addicted)
 Outlawed foreigners from trading
  opium.
       Chinese people
 Get addicted
 Get involved in the trade too

 Oblivious: China is a really big place
           Europeans
 England especially continues to
  smuggle.
 1839: Create a situation for war as a
  Chinese official came to destroy their
  supplies.
 Superior navy. Why?
           Opium War
 Over quickly
 Treaty of Nanking 1842: “unequal
  treaty” first of many. More ports
  opened to Britain and Hong Kong
  given to Britain.
 Extraterritoriality: Foreigners did not
  have to follow China’s laws on China’s
  soil.
    Chinese Government
         Reaction:
 Not much.
 Still feel superior and still see no need
  to change a thing.
     Chinese people’s
         reaction:
 Anger at Europeans and own
  government. Resented missionary and
  merchant presence.
 Suspicious of missionary practice of
  adopting unwanted children: rumor
  that they were eating the babies or
  using their eyes for medicine.
 More violence against foreigners
    European Reaction:
 They want more!
 React to violence by sending more
  gunboats up rivers. Gaining more and
  more territory in China.
 Weakening China to semi-colonial
  status.
 Everybody wants a sphere of
  influence. Gobble Gobble
    Chinese government
         reaction:
 Not much.
 Still felt superior even though more
  and more European nations were
  encroaching on Chinese territory.
 Signed more and more unequal
  treaties.
      Chinese people:
 Rebellion
 Population had been growing faster
  than resources.
 Widespread poverty and government
  wasn’t doing anything to help.
 Frustrated with foreign barbarian
  occupation.
     Taiping Rebellion
 1850
 Aimed at Qing Dynasty.

 Rebellion grows in Southern China
  and fighting is fierce.
 Europeans stay out of it but appreciate
  how it weakens the dynasty.
 1864 peace, 40 million dead and
  Southern China lying in waste.
     Chinese government
          reaction:
   1860 Self-Strengthening policy.
   Still believed they were superior to
    Westerners but saw a need for some
    changes.
   Adopted western military style. Aim is
    modernization but very slow progress.
   Remain stubborn and call the “hairy
    barbarians’ technology a few monkey
    tricks.”
          Chinese people
   Work for foreigners at ports and along rivers
    but then realized they are being treated as
    second-class citizens in their own territory.
   Some get educations at Jesuit universities
    and read western books that had been
    translated by Jesuits: new education
    spreads ideas of freedom and more ideas of
    rebellion against Qing.
    Western reaction:
 Continued pressure for Chinese trade.
 Begin tense competition among each
  other for access.
 America wants in too and forces an
  Open Door Policy on the Chinese and
  other western nations.
     Open Door Policy
 1899
 America late in the imperialism game
  so wants to catch up.
 Europeans scared to destroy China
  because they may go to war over its
  spoils.
 China too weak to deny access.
    Chinese government
         reaction:
 Self-strengthening had been too little
  too late.
 Some leaders still addicted to opium

 Emperor’s mother builds a new
  summer palace with a huge marble
  boat with money that was to be used
  to ease peasant hunger and suffering.
       Chinese people
 Poor and hungry except in merchant
  areas and then just insulted.
 Most hate everything foreign (except
  those getting university educations)
 Impoverished bandits rebel against
  Qing Dynasty.
       Boxer Rebellion
 1900
 Original rebellion against Qing but the
  Empress Dowager turns the bandits on
  missionaries and foreigners.
 Either kill the white devils or send them
  into the sea.
 Rampage of burning and killing and
  believe spiritually protected from
  bullets’ harm.
    European Reaction
 Fight back to defend their countrymen.
 Boxers aren’t protected from bullets so
  European technology easily victorious.
 Win the Rebellion
 Europeans decide
not to tear China to
   pieces. Why?
    Government reaction
 Weaker than ever
 Gone in 1912
      People’s reaction
 Many different reactions:
 Some still oblivious. China is a big
  place
 Feeling of being defeated both
  militarily but also culturally. Self doubt.
 Rebellion. End the Qing Dynasty
  forever.

								
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