Foreigners in China The reaction of Chinese government, Chinese people and Westerners Portugese are first Began trading in 1500’s. Became the middlemen in trading Chinese goods around the world Also sent missionaries (Jesuits). Huge population without an established religion in their minds. Attempted to match teachings to Confucian ideals Chinese Government reactions: strict restrictions and walls built around the settlements so they could not poison Chinese culture. Only allowed to stay 6 months at a time during “trading season.” Missionaries welcomed at court as interesting intellectuals, few conversions. People’s reactions: uninterested but respect Jesuit education. Don’t convert Eventually take offense at missionaries judgment of their culture. Eventually see these missionaries as representatives of the barbaric foreigners. Portugese reactions: Send more missionaries Frustration and judgment of people. Desire more influence Jesuits write much about Chinese culture so Europe becomes interested. Unfortunate. Other Westerners reactions: Curious about Chinese art, porcelain, furniture, gardens and culture. Want to come see for themselves and trade for those goods themselves. The Chinese continue to restrict trade from any foreigners. Chinese edict announced to foreigners attempting to trade in China “The products of China are abundant; what need have we for the small and insignificant goods of the distant barbarians? Just because you wanted to trade we have had compassion for men from afar and did not prohibit you from coming. Now you are not able to keep your place and obey the laws…the laws will be upheld and feelings will be pacified. Everyone will return to harmonious cooperation.” 1800’s Europeans pressure more By 1800’s the Europeans wanted more trade and more spheres of influence Why? What is happening in Europe at this time? New wave of European Imperialism around the world as revolutions have kicked them out of America and Latin America Tension and competition among European nations as industrialization has flourished. Race for new markets and resources. Chinese government reaction: Opened a little more trade but still wanted to keep foreigners away. Disgusted by arrogance of Europeans. Shocked by the Europeans view of the Chinese as inferior. Expel missionaries (Pope had told Jesuits they could not attach ideas to Confucianism anymore) Still believed they were superior but did nothing to change their ways. Problem, why? People’s Reactions Insulted by European behavior Dislike of missionaries, some violence will occur Oblivious: China is big and not all the people know what’s going on. European Reaction More pressure. Judge the Chinese as backward: won’t industrialize and won’t Christianize. Viewed as weak. Continuous trade in restricted port areas. Looking for a way to force more trade on Chinese. They find it…opium Opium The Chinese had used it for medicinal purposes. By 1800’s started being used as a drug and people were addicted. Coming in along Silk Road from Iran, India, Turkey and Afghanistan Chinese government reaction: Outlawed opium smoking (but, oops, some government officials are already addicted) Outlawed foreigners from trading opium. Chinese people Get addicted Get involved in the trade too Oblivious: China is a really big place Europeans England especially continues to smuggle. 1839: Create a situation for war as a Chinese official came to destroy their supplies. Superior navy. Why? Opium War Over quickly Treaty of Nanking 1842: “unequal treaty” first of many. More ports opened to Britain and Hong Kong given to Britain. Extraterritoriality: Foreigners did not have to follow China’s laws on China’s soil. Chinese Government Reaction: Not much. Still feel superior and still see no need to change a thing. Chinese people’s reaction: Anger at Europeans and own government. Resented missionary and merchant presence. Suspicious of missionary practice of adopting unwanted children: rumor that they were eating the babies or using their eyes for medicine. More violence against foreigners European Reaction: They want more! React to violence by sending more gunboats up rivers. Gaining more and more territory in China. Weakening China to semi-colonial status. Everybody wants a sphere of influence. Gobble Gobble Chinese government reaction: Not much. Still felt superior even though more and more European nations were encroaching on Chinese territory. Signed more and more unequal treaties. Chinese people: Rebellion Population had been growing faster than resources. Widespread poverty and government wasn’t doing anything to help. Frustrated with foreign barbarian occupation. Taiping Rebellion 1850 Aimed at Qing Dynasty. Rebellion grows in Southern China and fighting is fierce. Europeans stay out of it but appreciate how it weakens the dynasty. 1864 peace, 40 million dead and Southern China lying in waste. Chinese government reaction: 1860 Self-Strengthening policy. Still believed they were superior to Westerners but saw a need for some changes. Adopted western military style. Aim is modernization but very slow progress. Remain stubborn and call the “hairy barbarians’ technology a few monkey tricks.” Chinese people Work for foreigners at ports and along rivers but then realized they are being treated as second-class citizens in their own territory. Some get educations at Jesuit universities and read western books that had been translated by Jesuits: new education spreads ideas of freedom and more ideas of rebellion against Qing. Western reaction: Continued pressure for Chinese trade. Begin tense competition among each other for access. America wants in too and forces an Open Door Policy on the Chinese and other western nations. Open Door Policy 1899 America late in the imperialism game so wants to catch up. Europeans scared to destroy China because they may go to war over its spoils. China too weak to deny access. Chinese government reaction: Self-strengthening had been too little too late. Some leaders still addicted to opium Emperor’s mother builds a new summer palace with a huge marble boat with money that was to be used to ease peasant hunger and suffering. Chinese people Poor and hungry except in merchant areas and then just insulted. Most hate everything foreign (except those getting university educations) Impoverished bandits rebel against Qing Dynasty. Boxer Rebellion 1900 Original rebellion against Qing but the Empress Dowager turns the bandits on missionaries and foreigners. Either kill the white devils or send them into the sea. Rampage of burning and killing and believe spiritually protected from bullets’ harm. European Reaction Fight back to defend their countrymen. Boxers aren’t protected from bullets so European technology easily victorious. Win the Rebellion Europeans decide not to tear China to pieces. Why? Government reaction Weaker than ever Gone in 1912 People’s reaction Many different reactions: Some still oblivious. China is a big place Feeling of being defeated both militarily but also culturally. Self doubt. Rebellion. End the Qing Dynasty forever.
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