Chapter 15 Section 2 & 3 Notes
15.2 Atmospheric Heating Notes
What is radiation? the transfer of energy as electromagnetic waves
What does Earth get enough radiation to Drive the water cycle and make Earth habitable.
What is conduction?
the transfer of energy through a material
Thermal conduction is always transferred Warm to cold
from ________ to ________ areas.
When is thermal energy transferred to the When air molecules come into direct contact with
atmosphere? the warm surface of Earth.
What is convection? the transfer of thermal energy by the circulation or
movement of a liquid or gas
As air is heated it becomes less ______ Dense; rises
Cool air is denser so it ______. sinks
What is a convection current? cycle of warm air rising and cool air sinking causing a
circular movement of air
What percent of the radiation that enters
Earth’s atmosphere is absorbed by clouds ___70___ %
and the Earth’s Surface?
What is the greenhouse effect? the process by which gases in the atmosphere, such
as water vapor and carbon dioxide, absorb thermal
energy and radiate it back to Earth.
What do scientists hypothesize is the Increase in greenhouse gases
reason for the global warming trend?
15.3 Global Winds and Local Winds
What is wind? The movement of air caused by differences in air
Wind moves faster when there is a greater Greater difference in air pressure
What, generally, causes differences in air Unequal heating of the Earth
What is a convection cell? huge, circular patterns from the poles to the equator
What is a pressure belt? bands of high pressure and low pressure found about
every 30° of latitude
What is the Coriolis effect? The apparent curving of the path of winds and ocean
currents due to the Earth’s rotation
Because of the Coriolis effect, winds in the East; West
north tend to curve _______, and winds in
the south tend to curve _______.
What are global winds?
Patterns of air circulation
What are the polar easterlies? wind belts that extend from the poles to 60° latitude
in both hemispheres
What are the westerlies? wind belts found between 30° and 60° latitude in
What are the trade winds? the winds that blow from 30° latitude almost to the
What is a jet stream? narrow belts of high-speed winds that blow in the
upper troposphere and lower stratosphere
Jet streams do not follow…. regular paths around the Earth
Jet streams affect the movement of …
Local winds generally move… Short distances & can blow from any direction
Sea and Land Breezes
Day - _________ heats up faster Land; Water; warmer than the air above the
than _________. So the air above ocean.
land becomes what?
Night – land ________ faster than Cools; water; towards the ocean.
_______, so the wind blows
Mountain and Valley Breezes
Day – warm air rises where? Up the mountain slopes
Night – cool air moves where? Down the slopes into the valley
Finish labeling the diagram below with the appropriate winds: Polar Easterlies,
Westerlies, Trade Winds.