consumer attitude by tempvaltemp


									Consumer Attitude

• A learned predisposition to behave in a
  consistently favorable or unfavorable manner
  with respect to a given object
• A positive attitude is generally a necessary,
  but not sufficient, condition for purchase
     Characteristics of Attitudes
• Attitudes have an “object”
• Attitudes are learned
  – Can ‘unlearn’
• Attitudes have behavioural, evaluative and
  affective components
  – Predisposition to act
  – Overall evaluation
  – Positive or negative feelings
    Characteristics of Attitudes

• Attitudes have consistency
• Attitudes have direction, degree, strength
  and centrality
  – Positive or negative
  – Extent of positive or negative feelings
  – Strength of feelings
  – Closeness to core cultural values
• Attitudes occur within a situation
 Four Basic Functions of Attitudes
• The Utilitarian Function
  – How well it performs
• The Ego-defensive Function
  – To protect one’s self-concept
• The Value-expressive Function
  – To convey one’s values and lifestyles
• The Knowledge Function
  – A way to gain knowledge
Marketers want consumers to like their products, so
they want to know:

1. What are existing attitudes toward our brand,
2. How do we form consumer attitudes?
3. How do we change consumer attitudes?
4. And how do we get consumer behaviors to
   match up with consumer attitudes?

               Consumer Attitudes
• Represent what we like and dislike – relatively enduring

• Not easy to determine because attitudes are an internal

• Attitudes toward
   –   Product
   –   Company
   –   Retailer
   –   Product attributes
   –   Brand associations (logos, symbols, product endorsers)
   –   Advertising and spokespersons
   –   One self (self-esteem)
   –   Goals (represent a person’s values)
                  Measuring Attitudes

• Attitude toward the ad (Ad) – whether the
  consumer likes or dislikes an ad
   – Determinants of Ad attitude include attitude toward the
     advertiser, evaluation of the ad execution itself, the mood
     evoked by the ad, and the degree to which the ad affects
     viewers’ arousal levels
• Attitude toward the university – whether the
  consumer likes or dislikes the university
   –   Measured by:
        • I believe the university is on the right track for the
        • This university is a strong and viable institution
        Attitudes are formed based on…

• What one Feels-- Affective dimension

• What one does – Behavioral dimension

• What one thinks – Cognitive dimension
                         Attitude Dimensions

• The ABC Model of Attitudes (or Hierarchies of Effect Models)
        – Think  Feel  Do
           • involvement, attitude formed based on cognitive involvement
             (compensatory choice processes)
        – Think  Do  Feel
               learn from experience, attitude formed from doing
               (noncompensatory choice processes)
        – Feel  Do  Think
           • attitude formed based on whether a consumer got to experience
             the pleasure s/he wanted to (choices based on feelings)

         The Fishbein Model
• Companies want consumers to perceive
  their products as:
   –Possessing desirable attributes
   –Not possessing undesirable attributes

 Benefits of Multiattribute Models
• Determine WHY consumers like or dislike
• Can develop Importance-Performance
  grids from them to guide marketing
• Provide information for segmentation
• Used to help predict behavior
        Another Example

  The Role of Feelings in Attitude Formation

• Feelings: affective state or reaction
   – + or –
   – Overwhelming or nonexistent
• Moods
   – Influence attitude formation
• Reactions
   – Often a significant part of the consumption experience
     (how do you feel when consuming this product?)
   – Influence post-consumption evaluations and product
     attitudes (how do you feel after consuming this product?)
    Theory of Reasoned Action

A comprehensive theory of the interrelationship
  among attitudes, intentions, and behaviour
 Attitude-Toward-Behaviour Model

• A consumer’s attitude toward a specific
  behaviour is a function of how strongly he
  or she believes that the action will lead to a
  specific outcome (either favorable or
Cognitive Dissonance Theory

• Holds that discomfort or dissonance occurs
  when a consumer holds conflicting
  thoughts about a belief or an attitude
• Post-purchase Dissonance
  – Cognitive dissonance that occurs after a
    consumer has made a purchase commitment
Why Might Behaviour Precede Attitude

 • Cognitive
   Dissonance                    Behave (Purchase)
 • Attribution
                 Form Attitude          Form Attitude
     Attribution Theory
• Examines how people assign casualty to
  events and form or alter their attitudes as
  an outcome of assessing their own or other
  people’s behaviour.
• Examples
  – Self-perception Theory
  – Attribution toward others
        Self-Perception Theory
• Attitudes developed by reflecting on their own
• Judgments about own behaviour
• Internal and external attributions
          Self-Perception Theory

• Consumers are likely to accept credit for
  successful outcomes (internal attribution) and
  to blame other persons or products for failure
  (external attribution).
• Foot-In-The-Door Technique
       How We Test Our Attributions

•   Distinctiveness
•   Consistency over time
•   Consistency over modality
•   Consensus
 Attitudes and Marketing Strategy
• Appeal to motivational functions of attitudes
• Associate product with a special group, cause
  or event
• Resolve conflicts among attitudes
• Influence consumer attributions
 Attitudes and Marketing Strategy
• Alter components of the attitude
  – Change relative evaluation of attributes
  – Change brand beliefs
  – Add an attribute
  – Change overall brand evaluation
• Change beliefs about competitors’ brands
 Attitudes and Marketing Strategy
• Change affect first through classical
• Change behaviour first through operant

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