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Bloom's Taxonomy in Developing Objectives Bloom's taxonomy by cuiliqing


									                                   Bloom’s Taxonomy in Developing Objectives

Bloom’s taxonomy provides a useful structure in which to ask questions and identify learning
outcomes whether this is done at the course level or the program level. The following are verb
examples that represent the three overlapping domains: cognitive, psychomotor, and affective.
The taxonomy was revised by Anderson and Krathwohl in 2001 including the addition of create as the
highest cognitive skill ; .

Cognitive Learning:

  Knowledge -- involves               arrange, define, duplicate, label, list, memorize, name, order,
  recalling or remembering            recognize, relate, recall, reproduce, tell, describe, identify, show,
  facts without necessarily           collect, examine, tabulate, quote
  understanding them.

   Comprehension -- involves          classify, describe, discuss, explain, express, interpret, contrast, predict,
   understanding learned              associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend, translate,
   information.                       review, restate, locate, recognize, report

   Application – is the ability to apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret,
   put ideas and concepts to       operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve, use, calculate, complete,
   work in solving problems.       show, examine, modify, relate, change, experiment, discover

   Analysis – involves breaking       analyze, appraise, calculate, categorize, compare, contrast, criticize,
   information into its               differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question,
   components to see                  test, separate, order, connect, classify, arrange, divide, infer
   interrelationships and ideas.

   Synthesis – is the ability to      arrange, assemble, collect, compose, construct, create, design, develop,
   use creativity to compose          formulate, manage, organize, plan, prepare, propose, set up, rewrite,
   and design something               integrate, create, design, generalize

   Evaluation – involves              appraise, argue, assess, attach, defend, judge, predict, rate, support,
   judging the value of               evaluate, recommend, convince, judge, conclude, compare, summarize
   information based on
   established criteria.

Psychomotor Learning                  Bend, grasp, handle, operate, reach, relax, shorten, stretch,
                                      differentiate (by touch), express (facially), perform (skillfully)

Affective Learning                    accept, attempt, challenge, defend, dispute, join, judge, praise,
                                      question, share, support

Bloom B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives, Handbook I: The cognitive domain. New
      York: David McKay Co .

Anderson, L.W., & Krathwohl, D.R. (Eds.) (2001). A taxonomy of learning, teaching, and assessment:
       A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Longman.

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