BLOOM's REVISED TAXONOMY - rt3ncpd

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BLOOM's REVISED TAXONOMY - rt3ncpd Powered By Docstoc
					The Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy:
         An Overview
Think about all who are
responsible for student
     achievement
Student Achievement is a
    Shared Responsibility
   The Department of Public Instruction Deploys
    STANDARDS
   The District Designs

   LOCAL CURRICULUM
   The Teachers Design
    INSTRUCTION
    Importance of Alignment
   Alignment is an even stronger predictor of
    student achievement on standardized
    tests than are socioeconomic status,
    gender, race, and teacher effect.
     (Elmore & Rothman, 1999: Mitchell, 1998; Wishnick,1989)
    Learning occurs best when
             there is:
 A purposeful process that aligns what is:
   – Written
   – Taught
   – Tested
 Attention to both:
   – Content
   – Cognitive Type
Taxonomies are tools for
       aligning
Bloom’s Taxonomy as a Framework

 A taxonomy of educational objectives “could do much to
 bring order out of chaos in the field of education. It could
 furnish the conceptual framework around which our
 descriptions of educational programs and experiences
 could be oriented. It could furnish a framework for the
 development of educational theories and research. It could
 furnish the scheme needed for training our teachers and for
 orienting them to the varied possibilities of education”
 (Bloom, 1949)
     Bloom’s is familiar to MOST
              educators
   Show old model

   Voiceover, “It has its limitations”
Bloom’s is familiar to MOST educators


               Evaluation

              Synthesis

               Analysis

              Application

            Comprehension

              Knowledge
             It has limitations
   The single dimension of the original
    Bloom’s Taxonomy limits its utility in well
    aligned instructional design.
                INSTRUCTION
   Teachers provide learning experiences, aligned with
    local curriculum expectations, to prepare students to
    meet the standards set by the state
   These learning experiences are framed by objectives
Objectives are statements of what
a teacher wants students to learn
   as a result of the instruction
             provided.

 Standards are simply mandated
           objectives.
The Common Format of Objectives



 Subject    Verb      Object
    S         V          O
The SUBJECT is the Learner or
        the Student.

 The student (will)
 The student (should)
 The students (might)

Quite often, the subject is
implicit or understood.
  The verbs provide clues as to the
cognitive process category intended
by the person or persons writing the
standard. Adopted from the original
  Bloom’s taxonomy of educational
  objectives, there are six cognitive
         process categories.
 Bloom            Revised Bloom
                    • Create
• Evaluation

• Synthesis         • Evaluate

• Analysis          • Analyze
• Application       • Apply

• Comprehension     • Understand

• Knowledge         • Remember
Each of the six cognitive process
categories was divided into specific
cognitive processes. Nineteen (19)
specific cognitive processes were
identified.
          Cognitive Processes
   Remember           Recognizing
                       Recalling
   Understand         Interpreting
                       Exemplifying
                       Classifying
                       Summarizing
                       Inferring
                       Comparing
                       Explaining
Cognitive Processes (continued)
   Apply        Executing
                 Implementing
   Analyze      Differentiating
                 Organizing
                 Attributing
   Evaluate     Checking
                 Critiquing
   Create       Generating
                 Planning
                 Producing
      THE TAXONOMY TABLE
              COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION

    1.                2.            3.               4.              5.          6.
REMEMBER       UNDERSTAND         APPLY         ANALYZE         EVALUATE      CREATE
Recognizing     Interpreting     Executing    Differentiating    Checking    Generating
 Recalling     Exemplifying    Implementing    Organizing       Critiquing    Planning
                Classifying                    Attributing                   Producing
               Summarizing
                  Inferring
                 Comparing
                 Explaining
Unlike the verbs, the objects of the
standards are subject-specific (e.g.,
math, science, social studies).

The objects specify the CONTENT
of the standard. For clarity,
CONTENT was replaced by
KNOWLEDGE.
        What are Differences Between
          Content and Knowledge?
   Content is subject-matter specific. If you
    focused on content, then, you would need as
    many taxonomies as there are subject matters
    (e.g., one for science, one for history, etc.).

   Content exists outside the student. A major
    problem, then, is how to get the content inside
    the student. When content gets inside the
    student, it becomes knowledge. This
    transformation of content to knowledge takes
    place through the cognitive processes used by
    the student.
    Four Types of Knowledge
 Factual Knowledge
 Conceptual Knowledge
 Procedural Knowledge
 Metacognitive Knowledge
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2 14-oz cans artichoke hearts
16 oz. mayonnaise
1 c. grated Parmesan cheese
Garlic salt (optional)
====================================
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2. Mash artichokes with fork.
3. Mix with mayonnaise, cheese, and garlic
   salt.
4. Bake at 350 degrees for 15 minutes or
   until cheese is melted.
5. Serve with crackers or party rye.
                      THE TAXONOMY TABLE
                              COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION

                    1.                2.            3.               4.              5.          6.
KNOWLEDGE       REMEMBER       UNDERSTAND         APPLY         ANALYZE         EVALUATE      CREATE
                Recognizing     Interpreting     Executing    Differentiating
DIMENSION                                                                        Checking    Generating
                 Recalling     Exemplifying    Implementing    Organizing       Critiquing    Planning
                                Classifying                    Attributing                   Producing
                               Summarizing
                                  Inferring
                                 Comparing
                                 Explaining

FACTUAL
KNOWLEDGE


CONCEPTUAL
KNOWLEDGE


PROCEDURAL
KNOWLEDGE


METACOGNITIVE
KNOWLEDGE
                         THE TAXONOMY TABLE


                       1.               2.            3.               4.              5.          6.
                   REMEMBER      UNDERSTAND         APPLY         ANALYZE         EVALUATE      CREATE
                   Recognizing    Interpreting     Executing    Differentiating    Checking    Generating
                    Recalling    Exemplifying    Implementing    Organizing       Critiquing    Planning
                                  Classifying                    Attributing                   Producing
                                 Summarizing
                                    Inferring
                                   Comparing
                                   Explaining

  A. Factual
  Knowledge           A1             A2             A3             A4               A5           A6
 B. Conceptual
  Knowledge           B1             B2             B3             B4               B5           B6
 C. Procedural
  Knowledge           C1             C2             C3             C4               C5           C6
D. Metacognitive
   Knowledge          D1             D2             D3             D4               D5           D6
How it Works
Explain the political alliances and
policies that impacted the United
States in the latter part of the 20th
Century, including NATO, the UN,
            and OPEC
 Verb = Explain
 Object = the political alliances
 and policies that impacted the
 United States in the latter part
 of the 20th Century
including NATO, the UN, and OPEC
    [Extraneous information]
Verb = Explain = Understand

Object = the political alliances
and policies that impacted the
United States in the latter part
of the 20th Century =
Conceptual Knowledge
  Summarize the provisions of the
13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to
the Constitution, including how the
amendments protected the rights of
 African Americans and sought to
 enhance their political, social, and
       economic opportunities
Verb = Summarize
Object = Provisions of the 13th,
14th, and 15th Amendments to
the Constitution
Including how the amendments
protected the rights of African
Americans and sought to enhance their
political, social, and economic
opportunities [Extraneous information]
Verb = Summarize = Understand

Object = Provisions of the 13th,
14th, and 15th Amendments to
the Constitution = Factual
Knowledge
                      THE TAXONOMY TABLE
                              COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION

                    1.                2.            3.               4.              5.          6.
KNOWLEDGE       REMEMBER       UNDERSTAND         APPLY         ANALYZE         EVALUATE      CREATE
                Recognizing     Interpreting     Executing    Differentiating
DIMENSION                                                                        Checking    Generating
                 Recalling     Exemplifying    Implementing    Organizing       Critiquing    Planning
                                Classifying                    Attributing                   Producing
                               Summarizing
                                  Inferring
                                 Comparing
                                 Explaining

FACTUAL
KNOWLEDGE                     Standard 2

CONCEPTUAL
KNOWLEDGE                     Standard 1


PROCEDURAL
KNOWLEDGE


METACOGNITIVE
KNOWLEDGE
The SVO format of standards in
   combination with the two-
  dimensional structure of the
 Taxonomy Table allows us to
classify standards so we better
  understand their intent and
 meaning in terms of student
            learning.
  Content Alignment
    This is about the rows in RBT




 “Does the teacher teach
and test the topics listed in
     the curriculum?”
Cognitive Type Alignment
   This is about the columns in RBT




“Do the students get to work
  and think at the level the
   curriculum prescribes?”
         Additional Benefits
 Increase curriculum alignment
 Improve validity of assessments
 Improve quality of instruction
              Curriculum Alignment
Assessments                                Objectives

                    Curriculum
                    Alignment




               Instructional Activities/
                      Materials
 Why is Alignment Important?
 Increases  validity of assessment
 Increases students’ opportunity to
  learn
 Provides more accurate estimates
  of teaching effectiveness
 Permits better instructional
  decisions to be made
       Traditional Alignment
 What content is included in the objective?
 What content is included on the
  assessment(s)?
 Is the content included in the objective
  and/or on the assessment included in the
  instructional materials?
 If the content is the same, there is a high
  level of alignment.
    Importance of Alignment
   Alignment is an even stronger predictor of
    student achievement on standardized
    tests than are socioeconomic status,
    gender, race, and teacher effect.
     (Elmore & Rothman, 1999: Mitchell, 1998; Wishnick,1989)
Objectives                  ALIGNMENT                                 Assessments

                            USING THE
                            TAXONOMY
                              TABLE




                                Instructional
                                Activities



                 Remember   Understand   Apply   Analyze   Evaluate     Create


    Factual


    Conceptual


    Procedural


    Meta-
    Cognitive
The Role of the Teacher
    Aligning Cognitive Type
                    Remember
The learner is able to recall, restate and
  remember learned information.
  –   Recognising
  –   Listing
  –   Describing
  –   Identifying
  –   Retrieving
  –   Naming
  –   Locating
  –   Finding
 Can you recall information?
       Remember in the Classroom
Teacher roles       Student roles

   Directs            Responds
   Tells              Absorbs
   Shows              Remembers
   Examines           Recognises
   Questions          Memorises
   Evaluates          Defines
                       Describes
                       Retells
                       Passive recipient
    Task Stems for Remember
 Make a list of the main events of the
  story.
 Make a time line of events.
 Make a facts chart .
 Write a list of any pieces of information
  you can remember.
 Make a chart showing…
 Make an acrostic.
             Artifacts for Remember
   Make a list of the main events of the story.
   Make a time line of events.
   Make a facts chart .
   Write a list of any pieces of information you can remember.
   Make a chart showing…
   Make an acrostic.
                      Understand
The learner grasps the meaning of information by
  interpreting and translating what has been learned.
   –   Interpreting
   –   Exemplifying
   –   Summarising
   –   Inferring
   –   Paraphrasing
   –   Classifying
   –   Comparing
   –   Explaining
 Can you explain ideas or concepts?
    Understand in the Classroom
Teacher roles     Student roles

 Demonstrates     Explains
 Listens          Describes
 Questions        Outlines
 Compares         Restates
 Contrasts        Translates
 Examines         Demonstrates
                   Interprets
                   Active participant
      Task Stems for Understand
   State in your own words.
   Which are facts?
   What does this mean?
   Is this the same as. . .?
   Give an example.
   Select the best definition.
   What would happen if . . .?
   Explain what is happening.
   What part doesn't fit?
   Explain what is meant.
   What seems likely?
   Which statements support . . ?
               Artifacts for Understand
   Write in your own words…
   Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events .
   Write a brief outline to explain this story to someone else
   Explain why the character solved the problem in this particular way
   Write a summary report of the event.
   Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events.
   Paraphrase this chapter in the book.
   Retell in your own words.
   Outline the main points.
   Use pictures to show a particular event.
   Illustrate what you think the main idea may have been.
                     Apply
The learner makes use of information in a context
 different from the one in which it was learned.

  – Implementing
  – Carrying out
  – Using
  – Executing

 Can you use the information in another
familiar situation?
          Apply in the Classroom
Teacher roles        Student roles

   Shows               Solves problems
   Facilitates         Demonstrates use of
   Observes             knowledge
   Evaluates           Calculates
   Organises           Compiles
   Questions           Completes
                        Illustrates
                        Constructs
                        Active Participant
       Task Stems for Apply
 Predict what would happen if
 Choose the best statements that apply
 Judge the effects
 What would result
 Tell what would happen
 Tell how, when, where, why
 Tell how much change there would be
                    Artifacts for Apply
   Construct a model to demonstrate how it looks or works
   Practise a play and perform it for the class
   Make a diorama to illustrate an event
   Write a diary entry
   Take and display a collection of photographs to demonstrate a
    particular point.
   Make up a puzzle or a game about the topic.
   Write an explanation about this topic for others.
   Continue the story…
                        Analyze
The learner breaks learned information into its parts to
  best understand that information.
   –   Comparing
   –   Organising
   –   Deconstructing
   –   Attributing
   –   Outlining
   –   Finding
   –   Structuring
   –   Integrating

Can you break information into parts to explore
  understandings and relationships?
          Analyze in the Classroom
Teacher roles            Student roles

   Probes                  Discusses
   Guides                  Uncovers
   Observes                Argues
   Evaluates               Debates
   Acts as a resource      Thinks deeply
   Questions               Tests
   Organises               Examines
   Dissects                Questions
                            Calculates
                            Investigates
                            Inquires
                            Active participant
         Task Stems for Analyze
   Which events could not have happened?
   If. ..happened, what might the ending have been?
   How is...similar to...?
   What do you see as other possible outcomes?
   Why did...changes occur?
   Can you explain what must have happened when...?
   What are some or the problems of...?
   Can you distinguish between...?
   What were some of the motives behind..?
   What was the turning point?
   What was the problem…?
                      Artifacts for Analyze
   Use a Venn Diagram to show how two topics are the same and different
   Design a questionnaire to gather information.
   Survey classmates to find out what they think about a particular topic. Analyse the
    results.
   Make a flow chart to show the critical stages.
   Classify the actions of the characters in the book
   Create a sociogram from the narrative
   Construct a graph to illustrate selected information.
   Make a family tree showing relationships.
   Devise a roleplay about the study area.
   Write a biography of a person studied.
   Prepare a report about the area of study.
   Conduct an investigation to produce information to support a view.
   Review a work of art in terms of form, colour and texture.
   Draw a graph
   Complete a Decision Making Matrix to help you decide which breakfast cereal to
    purchase

   Write a commercial to sell a new product
   Construct a graph to illustrate selected information.
   Make a family tree showing relationships.
   Write a biography of a person studied.
                      Evaluate
The learner makes decisions based on in-depth
  reflection, criticism and assessment.
  –   Checking
  –   Hypothesising
  –   Critiquing
  –   Experimenting
  –   Judging
  –   Testing
  –   Detecting
  –   Monitoring
 Can you justify a decision or course of action?
          Evaluate in the Classroom
Teacher roles          Student roles

   Clarifies             Judges
   Accepts               Disputes
   Guides                Compares
                          Critiques
                          Questions
                          Argues
                          Assesses
                          Decides
                          Selects
                          Justifies
                          Active participant
      Task Stems for Evaluate
 Is there a better solution to...?
 Judge the value of... What do you think
  about...?
 Can you defend your position about...?
 Do you think...is a good or bad thing?
 How would you have handled...?
 What changes to.. would you recommend?
 Do you believe...? How would you feel if. ..?
 How effective are. ..?
              Artifacts for Evaluate
   Write a letter to the editor
   Prepare and conduct a debate
   Prepare a list of criteria to judge…
   Write a persuasive speech arguing for/against…
   Make a booklet about five rules you see as important. Convince
    others.
   Form a panel to discuss viewpoints on….
   Write a letter to. ..advising on changes needed.
   Write a half-yearly report.
   Prepare a case to present your view about...
   Complete a PMI on…
   Evaluate the character’s actions in the story
                     Create
The learner creates new ideas and information
  using what has been previously learned.
  –   Designing
  –   Constructing
  –   Planning
  –   Producing
  –   Inventing
  –   Devising
  –   Making
Can you generate new products, ideas, or ways
 of viewing things?
        Create in the Classroom
Teacher roles       Student roles


   Facilitates      Designs
   Extends          Formulates
                     Plans
   Reflects
                     Takes risks
   Analyses
                     Modifies
   Evaluates
                     Creates
                     Proposes
                     Active participant
       Task Stems for Create
 Can you design a...to...?
 Can you see a possible solution to...?
 If you had access to all resources, how would
  you deal with...?
 How could you devise your own way to...?
 What would happen if ...?
 How many ways can you...?
 Can you create new and unusual uses for...?
                       Artifacts for Create
   Use the SCAMPER strategy to invent a new type of sports shoe
   Invent a machine to do a specific task.
   Design a robot to do your homework.
   Create a new product. Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign.
   Write about your feelings in relation to...
   Write a TV show play, puppet show, role play, song or pantomime about..
   Design a new monetary system
   Develop a menu for a new restaurant using a variety of healthy foods
   Design a record, book or magazine cover for...
   Sell an idea
   Devise a way to...
   Make up a new language and use it in an example
   Write a jingle to advertise a new product.

   Invent a machine to do a specific task.
   Design a building to house your study.
   Create a new product. Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign.
   Write a TV show play, puppet show, song or pantomime about..
   Design a record, book or magazine cover for...
   Sell an idea

				
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