Blood Type - DOC

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					SBI 3U                                      Blood Type                               Name: _____________________

A person’s blood type depends on 2 different proteins found on his or her erythrocytes (blood):
1) ________________ – found on the membranes of red blood cells
2) ______________________ – found in the plasma, body’s response to antigens

       The 4 basic blood types are: 1) _________   2) __________ 3) __________ 4) __________

       There are 2 types of antigens (____ and ____).
       There are 2 types of antibodies (____ and B____).

Type                  Antigen                       Antibody                 Reaction with          Reaction with
                                                                                Anti-A                 Anti-B
    A       A                            Anti-B                                Clumping              No clumping


    B       B                            Anti-A                               No clumping             Clumping


    AB      A and B                      Neither                                 Clumping             Clumping


    O       Neither                      Anti-A & Anti-B                      No clumping            No clumping



       If you give the wrong blood to a patient, you are placing alien antigens in their body and thus instigating an
        antibody attack on these RBC’s. Therefore, agglutination (or clumping) will occur in veins and arteries.

The Rhesus (Rh) Factor
       another protein (D-antigen) which may be found on the surface of RBC’s
       85% of humans have the Rh factor and are called Rh ______________ (Rh____)
       15% of humans do not have the factor and are called Rh _______________ (Rh____)
       possible blood groups: ______________________________________________________________________
       If and Rh- person receives Rh+ blood, they will make antibodies that are directed against the Rh factor and
        agglutination will occur.


How do you figure out whether the recipient and donor are compatible?

1. Make an antigen/antibody key.
   This will help you draw “puzzle pieces”.


2. Draw the recipient’s RBCs with antigens. This will help
   you figure out what the recipients antibodies would look like.
   THEN draw the donor’s RBCs with the antigens on them.


3. If the “puzzle pieces” fit (recipients antibodies and donor’s RBC antigens) then there will be clumping and that
   blood type is NOT compatible with the person.

4. If the “puzzle pieces” don’t fit (recipients antibodies and donor’s RBC antigens), then the blood is compatible.

Good luck!
                                                        Antigen   Shape    Antibody   Shape
Case Studies                                 KEY:




             Case Studies                            Victim                       Who can donate?
1. Greg is a 17-year-old who was
admitted to the hospital following a
car crash. He suffered a crushing
injury to his right leg and is booked
for surgery.
Greg’s blood group is Type AB+.
Who can give blood to Greg?

2. Benjamin is a three-month-old who
was born with a major heart defect.
He requires surgery to enable him
to live past his first birthday.
Benjamin’s blood group is Type B-.
Who can give blood to Benjamin?

3. Sarah is a five-year-old leukemia
patient.
She visits the hospital regularly to
receive blood transfusions that she
requires to continue fighting her disease.
Sarah has Type A+ blood.
Who can give blood to Sarah?

4. Bill is a 50-year-old father of three
teenage children. He is booked for
heart surgery as two of the arteries
in his heart are blocked.
Bill’s blood group is Type O-.
Who can give blood to Bill?

5. John is a 60-year-old man who has
just been admitted to the
Emergency Department. He is vomiting
large amounts of blood. His wife
tells the physician that her
husband has two stomach ulcers. The
physician orders blood right away
for this man. John’s blood type is
unknown.
What blood group will this man receive?

6. Sam is a 20-year-old man who was
shot
in the lower abdomen by accident.
Because the hospital didn’t know his
blood type, Sam received three units
of Type O negative blood in Emergency.
He is now booked for surgery.
We now know that Sam’s blood is Type
AB-. Who can give blood to Sam?


1. What blood type is considered the universal donor?         __________

2. What blood type is considered the universal recipient?     __________

				
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