STOCKS AND SAUCES

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					 STOCKS AND SAUCES

STOCK - FRENCH TRANSLATION - ‘FOND’

THE BASIS OF ALL SKILLS IN THE KITCHEN

THE FOUNDATION FOR SOUPS, SAUCES,
BRAISED MEATS, AND STEWS

THE HIGHER THE QUALITY THE STOCK-THE
FINER THE CUISINE
  elements of a good stock

CLARITY - removing impurities through
blanching and refreshing bones, and by removing
the scum from the top of the stock.

BODY - obtained from the dissolution of certain
proteins in protein based stocks. Veg stocks
tend to have less body.

FLAVOUR - from the mirepoix, the sachet, (and
the browning of bones for brown stock).
     To Ensure Body, Clarity,
            Flavour


1.Use only cold water.

2. Never cover during cooking.

3.Always cook a stock at a simmer, NOT a boil.

4.Never stir a stock.
                 Types of Stocks
 White Stock - simmering chicken, beef or veal bones in water with
vegetables and seasonings.

Brown Stock - bones are browned before simmering with vegetables
and seasonings.

Fish Stock - Sweating aromatic vegetables and adding white, lean fish
bones.

Court Bouillon - simmering vegetables and seasonings in liquid with
an acidic liquid such as vinegar or wine; used for poaching fish,
shellfish, or vegetables.

Vegetable stock - made without meat, with vegetables that do not
contain too much starch, color, and flavors.
        INGREDIENTS
BONES

 CHICKEN FOR CHICKEN STOCK

 BEEF/VEAL OR COMBO FOR WHITE STOCK

 BEEF/VEAL (BROWNED) FOR BEEF STOCK

 FISH BONES AND TRIMMINGS -FISH
 STOCK

 SPECIALTY STOCKS -LAMB/GAME/TURKEY
              ingredients


MEAT

 Additional meat is rarely added to stock

 Broth refers to a flavourful derive from
 simmering meats and vegetables.
                 ingredients
MIRE POIX

The vegetable that make up the second portion of
the stock.

ONIONS, CARROTS, CELERY - ratio - 2:1:1

A basis flavouring combination used in many
aspects of cooking

WHITE MIREPOIX - no carrots - for a colorless
stock

Cut vegetables into roughly uniform size - large or
                 MATIGNON

•   MATIGNON - a standard mirepoix with the
    addition of smoked ham or smoked bacon.

•   Can also contain mushrooms and herbs.

•   Sometimes called an EDIBLE MIREPOIX.

•   Cut more uniformly and left in the finished dish as
    a garnish.
              ingredients

ACID

 used to break down connective tissue

 BROWN STOCK - uses tomatoes for extra
 flavour and breaking down connective tissue of
 the heavier beef bone

 WINE - for acidity and flavour of fish stock
       seasoning & spices
NEVER USE SALT IN STOCK

HERBS AND SPICES USED SPARINGLY

BOUQUET GARNI - an assortment of fresh
herbs and other aromatic ingredients, tied in a
bundle to add flavour.

SACHET - French for ‘bag of spices’, aromatic
ingredients tied in a cheesecloth bag, the
standard sachet contains; parsley stems,
peppercorns, dried thyme, bay leaves and
cloves.
         bouquet garni

THYME

BAY LEAVES

PEPPERCORNS

PARSLEY STEMS

CLOVES, WHOLE

GARLIC, OPTIONAL
        INGREDIENT
       PROPORTIONS


BONES - 50 %

MIREPOIX - 10%

WATER - 100%
    VEGETABLE STOCK
VEGETABLES, HERBS, WATER, SPICES,
(WINE)

ADJUST FLAVOR BY TYPE OF VEGETABLE

BALANCE PROPORTIONS TO AVOID
STRONG FLAVORS

STARCHY VEGETABLES CREATE A CLOUDY
STOCK

AVOID BRUSSEL SPROUTS, ARTICHOKES,
CAULIFLOWER
       Principles of Stock Making
          (applies to all stocks)
A. Start the stock in cold water - Draws out impurities,
  impurities coagulate slowly and are drawn to the surface.
  Hot water causes the impurities to remain immersed in
  the stock and this makes it cloudy.

B. Simmer the stock gently - Bring to a boil and then
  simmer gently. Ingredients release flavors gently while
  simmering. Rapid boiling causes fats and impurities to
  blend with the liquid, making it cloudy.

C. Skim the stock frequently - To avoid allowing the
 impurities to make the stock cloudy.
        Priciples - Continued
D. Add Mirepoix, Spices and Herbs - Some chefs add
 the mirepoix at the beginning to add continuos flavor,
 other chefs prefer to add the mirepoix during the last
 2-3 hours so the flavors are as fresh as possible.

E.Strain the Stock Carefully - It is important not to
  disturb the solids when removing the liquid.
        i. Skim as much fat and impurities from the surface
           before removing it from the heat.

        ii. Carefully ladle the stock from the pot without stirring
            it.

        iii. Strain the stock through a china cap lined with
      Procedure - Continued
F.Cool the Stock Quickly - Use appropriate
  methods for cooling large quantities of hot
  liquids.

G. Store the Stock Properly - Transfer to food
 grade plastic or non-reactive metal and store in
 the refrigerator. Store for up to a week in the
 fridge or frozen for several months. When
 reheated, simmer for 20 minutes.

H. Degrease the Stock - When the stock is in the
 fridge, the fat cools and rises to the top. When it
 has hardened it can be lofted or scaped away.
        PROCEDURE


BLANCHING BONES - BONES MAY REQUIRE
BLANCHING IF THEY ARE NOT FRESH -
FRESH BONES ARE ORDERED ESPECIALLY
FOR STOCK

BLANCHING RIDS BONES OF IMPURITIES
BEFORE THE STOCK PROCESS BEGINS
      blanching procedure


Rinse bones in cold water

Place in pot and cover with water

Bring water to boil

Drain and rinse bones well
     white stock procedure

Cut bones into pieces

Rinse bones in cold water

Place in stock pot and cover with cold water

Bring water to a boil and reduce to simmer, skim
the scum - skimming enhances clarity

Add mirepoix and herbs
               procedure

Do not let the stock boil, keep it at a low simmer

Keep the water level above the stock, add if
necessary

Simmer

  Beef/Veal - 6 to 8 hours

  Chicken - 2 to 3 hours

  Fish - 30 to 45 minutes
               procedure


Skim the surface and strain off through a china
cap

Cool as quickly as possible

Refrigerate in covered containers, keep 2 - 3
days or freeze
    brown stock procedure

Cut the bones into pieces (3-4 inches long)

Do not wash or blanch bones

Place the bones in a roasting pan in a hot oven
(190 degrees or higher)

When well browned, remove from pan and place
in stock pot. Cover with cold water and simmer

Drain the fat from the roasting pan
             brown stock
Deglaze the pan by adding water and stirring
over heat, scraping up the brown bits in the pan,
add to stock pot

Place the mirepoix in the roasting pan with some
fat and brown the vegetables well in the oven

Add the vegetables and tomatoes to the stock
pot

When the water in the stock pot comes to boil,
simmer and continue as for white stock

Finish as with other stocks
              Remouillage

A Stock made from bones that have been used
once before.

French term - “re-wetting”

Uses up remaining flavour in the bones

not as clear or flavourful

Used in place of water
                Court Bouillon

•   Prepared in the same manner as stocks

•   French for “short broth”.

•   A flavored liquid of water, wine and vinegar

•   Used to poach fish and shellfish

•   Ingredients: water, vinegar, lemon juice, salt,
    mirepoix, peppercorns, bay leaves, dried thyme,
    parsley stems.
                       Nage

•   “a la nage” - swimming

•   A court bouillon served as the accompanying
    sauce for poached items.

•   Made with wine or citrus juice, not vinegar.

•   Cooking liquid is reduced and finished with
    cream, butter, or olive oil.
       reductions & glazes


Reduction occurs when the liquid is simmered
and begins to evaporate

It produces a concentrated flavour

A reduced stock has more body (is thicker)
because the gelatin is concentrated
                 glaze
A STOCK THAT HAS BEEN REDUCED UNTIL
IT COATS THE BACK OF A SPOON

REDUCE BY 3/4 OR MORE - SOLID AND
RUBBERY WHEN COOLED

USED AS FLAVOURING IN SAUCES IN
SMALL AMOUNTS

MEAT GLAZE - glace de viande

CHICKEN GLAZE - glace de volaille

FISH GLAZE - glace de poisson
         preparing glazes
Reduce the stock over moderate heat

Skim the surface frequently

When reduce by two-thirds, strain into a smaller
heavy saucepan, and continue to reduce over
low heat until it is syrupy and coats a spoon

Pour into containers, keep cool and refrigerate

Glazes will keep for several weeks or longer.
Freezes well
             Sauces
HAVE LOST SOME OF THEIR STATUS IN
COMPETITION WITH PREPARED AND
PACKAGED SAUCES

SAUCES ARE NOT MEANT TO OVERPOWER
THE FOOD

THEY ARE MEANT TO ACCOMPANY AND
ENHANCE THE FOOD

SAUCE MAKING IS A BASIC REQUIRED
COOKING TECHNIQUE
  DEFINTION OF SAUCE
A FLAVORFUL LIQUID, USUALLY
THICKENED, THAT IS USED TO SEASON,
FLAVOR, AND ENHANCE OTHER FOODS

QUALITIES IT PROVIDES TO FOOD:

      MOISTNESS

      FLAVOR

      RICHNESS

      APPEARANCE
      Two Groups of Sauces


1. Basic Sauce, Leading Sauce, Mother Sauce
     i. Bechamel, Veloute, Espangnole, Hollandiase,
        Tomato Sauce

2. Derivative, Smaller Sauces, Secondary Sauces -
  Derived from the five mother sauces.
         STRUCTURE



LIQUID - THE BODY OF THE SAUCE

A THICKENING AGENT

ADDITIONAL SEASONING AND FLAVORING
             LIQUID
PROVIDES THE BODY OR BASE OF THE
SAUCE

CLASSIC SAUCES BUILT ON ONE OF FIVE
LIQUID BASES

    WHITE STOCK

    BROWN STOCK

    MILK

    TOMATO
   THICKENING AGENTS
A SAUCE MUST BE THICK ENOUGH TO
CLING LIGHTLY TO THE FOOD

STARCHES ARE THE MOST COMMON
THICKENING LIQUIDS

FLOUR IS THE PRINCIPAL STARCH
(cornstarch, arrowroot, potato starch, bread
crumbs

GELATINIZATON -Starch granules absorb water
and swell
         FLAVOURING
        INGREDIENTS

THE LIQUID PROVIDES THE BULK OF THE
FLAVOUR

SPECIFIC FLAVOURS ARE THE KEY TO
CLASSIC SAUCES

ADDING FLAVOURING TO ONE OF THE FIVE
BASIC SAUCES PROVIDES AN ARRAY OF
DIFFERENT SAUCES
              ROUX

A COOKED MIXTURE OF FLOUR AND FAT OF
EQUAL PARTS BY WEIGHT

FAT

      CLARIFIED BUTTER

      MARGARINE

      ANIMAL FATS

      VEGETABLE OIL AND SHORTENTING
            ROUX

FLOUR

  DEPENDS ON THE STARCH CONTENT

  ALL PURPOSE AND PASTRY FLOUR
  HAVE A HIGHER STARCH CONTENT

  AS SAUCES SIMMER, THE IMPURITIES
  FROM THE STARCHES CAN BE SKIMMED
  OFF
             PROPORTIONS
FAT AND FLOUR - EQUAL PARTS BY WEIGHT

Sauce Butter Flour Roux Liquid    A good roux
                                  is stiff,
thin/lig
   ht
         190 g 190 g 375 g   4L   not runny or
                                  pourable
mediu
      250 g 250 g 500 g      4L
 m

thick/h
        375 g 375 g 750 g    4L
 eavy
   White, Blond, Brown Roux

1. White Roux - Cooked only briefly, remove from
  heat as soon as frothy, bubbles appear.

2.Blond Roux - Cooked a little longer, begins to
  take on a little color as the flour caramelizes.
  Used in ivory colored sauces, such as veloute.

3. Brown Roux - Cooked until it develops a dark
  color and has a nutty aroma and flavor. Used in
  brown sauces when a dark color is desired.
      PREPARATION
WHITE, BLOND, BROWN
1. MELT FAT
2. ADD CORRECT AMOUNT OF
FLOUR AND STIR UNTIL MIXED
3. COOK TO PRODUCE
REQUIRED COLOUR
                LUMP FREE
•   LIQUID MAY BE ADDED TO A ROUX
•   ROUX MAY BE ADDED TO LIQUID
•   LIQUID MAY BE HOT OR COOL, NOT ICE COLD
•   ROUX MAY BE WARM OR COLD, NOT SIZZLING
•   THE PRODUCT MUST COME TO A BOIL FOR
    THE ROUX TO ACTIVATE AND THICKENING TO
    BEGIN.
•   IT IS NECESSARY TO COOK THE ROUX TO
       THICKENING AGENTS
•   BEURRE MANIE - equal amounts butter and
    flour worked together to form a smooth paste -
    quick thickening -use in small quantities

•   WHITEWASH - flour and water - not
    recommended

•   CORNSTARCH - clear and glossy sauce - no
    starchy taste - 2X thickening of flour

•   ARROWROOT - clearer than cornstarch- high
    cost

•   WAXY MAIZE - sauces to be frozen
       THICKENING AGENTS


•   PREGELATINIZED OR INSTANT STARCHES -
    thicken cold liquids - used in baking

•   BREAD CRUMBS - absorb liquid - does not
    provide smooth texture

•   VEGETABLE PUREES - provides thickness
    when pureed
               LIAISON
•   A LIAISON IS MIXTURE OF EGG YOLKS
    AND CREAM
•   ENRICHES AND LIGHTLY THICKENS
    SAUCES
•   THE COAGULATION OF THE EGG
    PROTEIN IS THE THICKENER
•   LIAISON IS ADDED TO THE SAUCE OR
    SOUP JUST BEFORE SERVICE.
       PROCEDURE FOR A
           LIASION
1.Whisk together one part egg yolk and three parts
  heavy cream. This combination allows the egg
  yolk proteins to coagulate at a higher
  temperature, to avoid lumping. (Plain egg yolks
  coagulate at 65° - 70°)

2.Temper the mixture by slowly adding a small
  amount of hot liquid while stirring constantly.

3.When enough liquid has been added, the mixture
  can then be added to the hot liquid. The eggs will
  coagulate (the proteins thicken as they heat) at
  82° - 85° C degrees. Temperatures over 85° C
         EGG YOLK
       EMULSIFICATION


•   EMULSION IS THE UNIFORM
    MIXTURE OF TWO UN-
    MIXABLE LIQUIDS
             REDUCTION


•   SIMMERING A SAUCE TO EVAPORATE THE
    WATER

•   RESULTS IN THE THICKENING OF THE
    SAUCE

•   THE FLAVOR BECOMES BOLDER AS THE
    WATER EVAPORATES
     FINISHING TECHNIQUES

•   Reduction -
        •   to concentrate flavors
        •   adjust texture
        •   add new, by adding reduced
            liquids
        •   reduce by 1/2, 3/4, au sec
           finishing techniques

•   Straining - smoothness is important -
    adjusts the texture of sauces -
    removes lumps and impurities
•   Deglazing -use a liquid in a saute
    pan to dissolve the cooked particles
    of food on the bottom of the pan
        Finishing Techniques

•   Seasoning - salt, lemon juice, cayenne,
    white pepper, Sherry, Madeira
•   Enriching with butter or cream
        •   Liaison - for richness &smoothness
        •   Heavy cream - for richness
        •   Butter - monter au buerre - shine
       LEADING SAUCE
   LIQUID     THICKENING   LEADING SAUCE
                AGENT
   MILK       WHITE ROUX     BECHAMEL

WHITE STOCK    WHITE OR      VELOUTE
              BLOND ROUX
BROWN STOCK   BROWN ROUX   BROWN SAUCE
                           OR ESPAGNOLE
TOMATO PLUS OPTIONAL ROUX TOMATO SAUCE
   STOCK
  BUTTER      EGG YOLKS    HOLLANDAISE
                   The Bechamel Family
                                     Milk



                                  Bechamel



 Cream        Cheddar -           Mornay -            Nantua -            Soubise -
                                                   heavy cream,
                     cheddar
Sauce - heavy grateddash
              and a
                                  Gruyere,
                                  parmesan, cream, crayfish butter,
                                                                          sweated onion,
                                                                          cream, strained
cream and a few drops
                        tabasco   and butter       paprika, finish with   through a sieve.
lemon juice
                                                      diced crayfish
                            The Veloute Family
                                                      White
                                                      Stock

                                                      Veal or
                                                      Chicken
                                                      Veloute
                                     Veal                        Chicken
                                  Allemand                      Supreme
                                  e                               (adding cream
                                                                and mushroom
                                  lemon,
                                                                trimmings)
                                  mushrooms,
                                  liaison
Horseradish      Mushroom           Poulette                                        Hungarian
Cream, dry
                                                                  Ivory             Onions, paprika,
                                                                                                       Aurora
                 Sliced           sliced mushrooms,             Add glace de
mustard, fresh   mushrooms, white shallots, butter,                                 white wine,        Tomato
grated                                                          volaille (chicken
                 wine, butter     lemon juice,                  glaze)              cream              Sauce
horseradish
                                  parsley
                          Fish Veloute
                               Fish Stock



                                 Fish
                               Veloute


Vin Blanc      Bercy            Cardinal               Normandy
White wine   White wine,       Bechamel, heavy         Mushroom trimmings,
             shallots, heavy   cream, lobster, butter, shellfish liquor, lemon
             cream             brandy                  juice, finish w/ liaison
              Espagnole - Brown sauce
                                                 Brown
                                                 Stock


                                    Glace Espagnol Jus de Jus Lie
                                    de     e       Roti   brown stock
                                                          thickened
                                    Viande                with
                                                                              cornstarch



                                                 Demi
                                                 Glace-
                                                 reduced by half


Bordelais   Chausseur   Chateau Madeira Mushroom Piquant Robert                            Poivrade   Perigueu
e           mushroom    briand Maderia  mushrooms, cornichons Onion, dry                  crushed     x
shallots,   , brandy,   shallots,   wine or Port red or white      , capers   mustard,win peppercorns truffls to
by leaf     tomatoe     butter,                  wine                         e                       maderia
thyme,      concasse    tarragon                                                                      sauce
            Tomato Sauce Family

                               Tomato Sauce
                               - tomatoes,
                               vegetables, white
                               stock, roux



 Creole -        Spanish                           Bolognese Provencale
green pepper,   Sliced sweet                       Ground           (Not a Derivative
                peppers,                           beef/veal, fresh of Tomato
okra, olives    garlic,                            herbs            Sauce)
                mushrooms,                                          Tomato
                tomato                                              concasse, garlic,
                concasse,                                           shallots
                chiles
     The Hollandaise Family

                      Hollandaise
                      Emulsified Sauces




  Grimrod             Mousseline           Maltaise
Infuse a hollandaise Fold in heavy cream Add blood orange
reduction with       and glaze under a   juice and zest.
Saffron              broiler.
              Bernaise Sauce



•   Formally a derivative of Hollandaise

•   Now presented as a basic sauce

•   Shallots, Tarragon, Chevril, white wine vinegar
    reduction added to Hollandaise.
    Beurre Blanc & Beurre Rouge
•   Emulsified butter sauces made without egg yolks.

•   Lecithin and other emulsifiers naturally found in
    butter are used to form an oil-in-liquid emulsion.

•   They have a class of their own.

•   Thinner and lighter than Hollandaise and
    Bernaise.

•   Smooth and slightly thicker than heavy cream.

•   Rich and buttery, with a light acidic flavor.
            Compound Butters

•   Incorporating various seasonings into softened
    whole butter.

•   Butter and flavoring can be combined in a food
    processor or mixer.

•   The compound butter is then formed into a tube
    and rolled in parchment or plastic wrap.

•   The butter is chilled and then sliced as needed.
                      Coulis

•   A sauce made from puree of vegetables or fruit,
    thinned down to sauce consistency.

•   A liquid such as stock, water, or cream, may be
    added to thin the puree.

•   A coulis should be as smooth as possible.

•   The flavor should be that of the main ingredient.
       Salsa, Relish, Chutneys

•   Salsa- a chunky mixture of raw tomato,
    vegetables, chiles, and cilantro.

•   Relish - Cooked or pickled sauces made with
    vegetables or fruits and used as a condiment.

•   Chutney - a sweet and sour condiment made od
    fruits or vegetables cooked in vinegar with sugar
    and spices.

				
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