STOCKS AND SAUCES
STOCK - FRENCH TRANSLATION - ‘FOND’
THE BASIS OF ALL SKILLS IN THE KITCHEN
THE FOUNDATION FOR SOUPS, SAUCES,
BRAISED MEATS, AND STEWS
THE HIGHER THE QUALITY THE STOCK-THE
FINER THE CUISINE
elements of a good stock
CLARITY - removing impurities through
blanching and refreshing bones, and by removing
the scum from the top of the stock.
BODY - obtained from the dissolution of certain
proteins in protein based stocks. Veg stocks
tend to have less body.
FLAVOUR - from the mirepoix, the sachet, (and
the browning of bones for brown stock).
To Ensure Body, Clarity,
1.Use only cold water.
2. Never cover during cooking.
3.Always cook a stock at a simmer, NOT a boil.
4.Never stir a stock.
Types of Stocks
White Stock - simmering chicken, beef or veal bones in water with
vegetables and seasonings.
Brown Stock - bones are browned before simmering with vegetables
Fish Stock - Sweating aromatic vegetables and adding white, lean fish
Court Bouillon - simmering vegetables and seasonings in liquid with
an acidic liquid such as vinegar or wine; used for poaching fish,
shellfish, or vegetables.
Vegetable stock - made without meat, with vegetables that do not
contain too much starch, color, and flavors.
CHICKEN FOR CHICKEN STOCK
BEEF/VEAL OR COMBO FOR WHITE STOCK
BEEF/VEAL (BROWNED) FOR BEEF STOCK
FISH BONES AND TRIMMINGS -FISH
SPECIALTY STOCKS -LAMB/GAME/TURKEY
Additional meat is rarely added to stock
Broth refers to a flavourful derive from
simmering meats and vegetables.
The vegetable that make up the second portion of
ONIONS, CARROTS, CELERY - ratio - 2:1:1
A basis flavouring combination used in many
aspects of cooking
WHITE MIREPOIX - no carrots - for a colorless
Cut vegetables into roughly uniform size - large or
• MATIGNON - a standard mirepoix with the
addition of smoked ham or smoked bacon.
• Can also contain mushrooms and herbs.
• Sometimes called an EDIBLE MIREPOIX.
• Cut more uniformly and left in the finished dish as
used to break down connective tissue
BROWN STOCK - uses tomatoes for extra
flavour and breaking down connective tissue of
the heavier beef bone
WINE - for acidity and flavour of fish stock
seasoning & spices
NEVER USE SALT IN STOCK
HERBS AND SPICES USED SPARINGLY
BOUQUET GARNI - an assortment of fresh
herbs and other aromatic ingredients, tied in a
bundle to add flavour.
SACHET - French for ‘bag of spices’, aromatic
ingredients tied in a cheesecloth bag, the
standard sachet contains; parsley stems,
peppercorns, dried thyme, bay leaves and
BONES - 50 %
MIREPOIX - 10%
WATER - 100%
VEGETABLES, HERBS, WATER, SPICES,
ADJUST FLAVOR BY TYPE OF VEGETABLE
BALANCE PROPORTIONS TO AVOID
STARCHY VEGETABLES CREATE A CLOUDY
AVOID BRUSSEL SPROUTS, ARTICHOKES,
Principles of Stock Making
(applies to all stocks)
A. Start the stock in cold water - Draws out impurities,
impurities coagulate slowly and are drawn to the surface.
Hot water causes the impurities to remain immersed in
the stock and this makes it cloudy.
B. Simmer the stock gently - Bring to a boil and then
simmer gently. Ingredients release flavors gently while
simmering. Rapid boiling causes fats and impurities to
blend with the liquid, making it cloudy.
C. Skim the stock frequently - To avoid allowing the
impurities to make the stock cloudy.
Priciples - Continued
D. Add Mirepoix, Spices and Herbs - Some chefs add
the mirepoix at the beginning to add continuos flavor,
other chefs prefer to add the mirepoix during the last
2-3 hours so the flavors are as fresh as possible.
E.Strain the Stock Carefully - It is important not to
disturb the solids when removing the liquid.
i. Skim as much fat and impurities from the surface
before removing it from the heat.
ii. Carefully ladle the stock from the pot without stirring
iii. Strain the stock through a china cap lined with
Procedure - Continued
F.Cool the Stock Quickly - Use appropriate
methods for cooling large quantities of hot
G. Store the Stock Properly - Transfer to food
grade plastic or non-reactive metal and store in
the refrigerator. Store for up to a week in the
fridge or frozen for several months. When
reheated, simmer for 20 minutes.
H. Degrease the Stock - When the stock is in the
fridge, the fat cools and rises to the top. When it
has hardened it can be lofted or scaped away.
BLANCHING BONES - BONES MAY REQUIRE
BLANCHING IF THEY ARE NOT FRESH -
FRESH BONES ARE ORDERED ESPECIALLY
BLANCHING RIDS BONES OF IMPURITIES
BEFORE THE STOCK PROCESS BEGINS
Rinse bones in cold water
Place in pot and cover with water
Bring water to boil
Drain and rinse bones well
white stock procedure
Cut bones into pieces
Rinse bones in cold water
Place in stock pot and cover with cold water
Bring water to a boil and reduce to simmer, skim
the scum - skimming enhances clarity
Add mirepoix and herbs
Do not let the stock boil, keep it at a low simmer
Keep the water level above the stock, add if
Beef/Veal - 6 to 8 hours
Chicken - 2 to 3 hours
Fish - 30 to 45 minutes
Skim the surface and strain off through a china
Cool as quickly as possible
Refrigerate in covered containers, keep 2 - 3
days or freeze
brown stock procedure
Cut the bones into pieces (3-4 inches long)
Do not wash or blanch bones
Place the bones in a roasting pan in a hot oven
(190 degrees or higher)
When well browned, remove from pan and place
in stock pot. Cover with cold water and simmer
Drain the fat from the roasting pan
Deglaze the pan by adding water and stirring
over heat, scraping up the brown bits in the pan,
add to stock pot
Place the mirepoix in the roasting pan with some
fat and brown the vegetables well in the oven
Add the vegetables and tomatoes to the stock
When the water in the stock pot comes to boil,
simmer and continue as for white stock
Finish as with other stocks
A Stock made from bones that have been used
French term - “re-wetting”
Uses up remaining flavour in the bones
not as clear or flavourful
Used in place of water
• Prepared in the same manner as stocks
• French for “short broth”.
• A flavored liquid of water, wine and vinegar
• Used to poach fish and shellfish
• Ingredients: water, vinegar, lemon juice, salt,
mirepoix, peppercorns, bay leaves, dried thyme,
• “a la nage” - swimming
• A court bouillon served as the accompanying
sauce for poached items.
• Made with wine or citrus juice, not vinegar.
• Cooking liquid is reduced and finished with
cream, butter, or olive oil.
reductions & glazes
Reduction occurs when the liquid is simmered
and begins to evaporate
It produces a concentrated flavour
A reduced stock has more body (is thicker)
because the gelatin is concentrated
A STOCK THAT HAS BEEN REDUCED UNTIL
IT COATS THE BACK OF A SPOON
REDUCE BY 3/4 OR MORE - SOLID AND
RUBBERY WHEN COOLED
USED AS FLAVOURING IN SAUCES IN
MEAT GLAZE - glace de viande
CHICKEN GLAZE - glace de volaille
FISH GLAZE - glace de poisson
Reduce the stock over moderate heat
Skim the surface frequently
When reduce by two-thirds, strain into a smaller
heavy saucepan, and continue to reduce over
low heat until it is syrupy and coats a spoon
Pour into containers, keep cool and refrigerate
Glazes will keep for several weeks or longer.
HAVE LOST SOME OF THEIR STATUS IN
COMPETITION WITH PREPARED AND
SAUCES ARE NOT MEANT TO OVERPOWER
THEY ARE MEANT TO ACCOMPANY AND
ENHANCE THE FOOD
SAUCE MAKING IS A BASIC REQUIRED
DEFINTION OF SAUCE
A FLAVORFUL LIQUID, USUALLY
THICKENED, THAT IS USED TO SEASON,
FLAVOR, AND ENHANCE OTHER FOODS
QUALITIES IT PROVIDES TO FOOD:
Two Groups of Sauces
1. Basic Sauce, Leading Sauce, Mother Sauce
i. Bechamel, Veloute, Espangnole, Hollandiase,
2. Derivative, Smaller Sauces, Secondary Sauces -
Derived from the five mother sauces.
LIQUID - THE BODY OF THE SAUCE
A THICKENING AGENT
ADDITIONAL SEASONING AND FLAVORING
PROVIDES THE BODY OR BASE OF THE
CLASSIC SAUCES BUILT ON ONE OF FIVE
A SAUCE MUST BE THICK ENOUGH TO
CLING LIGHTLY TO THE FOOD
STARCHES ARE THE MOST COMMON
FLOUR IS THE PRINCIPAL STARCH
(cornstarch, arrowroot, potato starch, bread
GELATINIZATON -Starch granules absorb water
THE LIQUID PROVIDES THE BULK OF THE
SPECIFIC FLAVOURS ARE THE KEY TO
ADDING FLAVOURING TO ONE OF THE FIVE
BASIC SAUCES PROVIDES AN ARRAY OF
A COOKED MIXTURE OF FLOUR AND FAT OF
EQUAL PARTS BY WEIGHT
VEGETABLE OIL AND SHORTENTING
DEPENDS ON THE STARCH CONTENT
ALL PURPOSE AND PASTRY FLOUR
HAVE A HIGHER STARCH CONTENT
AS SAUCES SIMMER, THE IMPURITIES
FROM THE STARCHES CAN BE SKIMMED
FAT AND FLOUR - EQUAL PARTS BY WEIGHT
Sauce Butter Flour Roux Liquid A good roux
190 g 190 g 375 g 4L not runny or
250 g 250 g 500 g 4L
375 g 375 g 750 g 4L
White, Blond, Brown Roux
1. White Roux - Cooked only briefly, remove from
heat as soon as frothy, bubbles appear.
2.Blond Roux - Cooked a little longer, begins to
take on a little color as the flour caramelizes.
Used in ivory colored sauces, such as veloute.
3. Brown Roux - Cooked until it develops a dark
color and has a nutty aroma and flavor. Used in
brown sauces when a dark color is desired.
WHITE, BLOND, BROWN
1. MELT FAT
2. ADD CORRECT AMOUNT OF
FLOUR AND STIR UNTIL MIXED
3. COOK TO PRODUCE
• LIQUID MAY BE ADDED TO A ROUX
• ROUX MAY BE ADDED TO LIQUID
• LIQUID MAY BE HOT OR COOL, NOT ICE COLD
• ROUX MAY BE WARM OR COLD, NOT SIZZLING
• THE PRODUCT MUST COME TO A BOIL FOR
THE ROUX TO ACTIVATE AND THICKENING TO
• IT IS NECESSARY TO COOK THE ROUX TO
• BEURRE MANIE - equal amounts butter and
flour worked together to form a smooth paste -
quick thickening -use in small quantities
• WHITEWASH - flour and water - not
• CORNSTARCH - clear and glossy sauce - no
starchy taste - 2X thickening of flour
• ARROWROOT - clearer than cornstarch- high
• WAXY MAIZE - sauces to be frozen
• PREGELATINIZED OR INSTANT STARCHES -
thicken cold liquids - used in baking
• BREAD CRUMBS - absorb liquid - does not
provide smooth texture
• VEGETABLE PUREES - provides thickness
• A LIAISON IS MIXTURE OF EGG YOLKS
• ENRICHES AND LIGHTLY THICKENS
• THE COAGULATION OF THE EGG
PROTEIN IS THE THICKENER
• LIAISON IS ADDED TO THE SAUCE OR
SOUP JUST BEFORE SERVICE.
PROCEDURE FOR A
1.Whisk together one part egg yolk and three parts
heavy cream. This combination allows the egg
yolk proteins to coagulate at a higher
temperature, to avoid lumping. (Plain egg yolks
coagulate at 65° - 70°)
2.Temper the mixture by slowly adding a small
amount of hot liquid while stirring constantly.
3.When enough liquid has been added, the mixture
can then be added to the hot liquid. The eggs will
coagulate (the proteins thicken as they heat) at
82° - 85° C degrees. Temperatures over 85° C
• EMULSION IS THE UNIFORM
MIXTURE OF TWO UN-
• SIMMERING A SAUCE TO EVAPORATE THE
• RESULTS IN THE THICKENING OF THE
• THE FLAVOR BECOMES BOLDER AS THE
• Reduction -
• to concentrate flavors
• adjust texture
• add new, by adding reduced
• reduce by 1/2, 3/4, au sec
• Straining - smoothness is important -
adjusts the texture of sauces -
removes lumps and impurities
• Deglazing -use a liquid in a saute
pan to dissolve the cooked particles
of food on the bottom of the pan
• Seasoning - salt, lemon juice, cayenne,
white pepper, Sherry, Madeira
• Enriching with butter or cream
• Liaison - for richness &smoothness
• Heavy cream - for richness
• Butter - monter au buerre - shine
LIQUID THICKENING LEADING SAUCE
MILK WHITE ROUX BECHAMEL
WHITE STOCK WHITE OR VELOUTE
BROWN STOCK BROWN ROUX BROWN SAUCE
TOMATO PLUS OPTIONAL ROUX TOMATO SAUCE
BUTTER EGG YOLKS HOLLANDAISE
The Bechamel Family
Cream Cheddar - Mornay - Nantua - Soubise -
Sauce - heavy grateddash
parmesan, cream, crayfish butter,
cream and a few drops
tabasco and butter paprika, finish with through a sieve.
The Veloute Family
e (adding cream
Horseradish Mushroom Poulette Hungarian
Ivory Onions, paprika,
Sliced sliced mushrooms, Add glace de
mustard, fresh mushrooms, white shallots, butter, white wine, Tomato
grated volaille (chicken
wine, butter lemon juice, glaze) cream Sauce
Vin Blanc Bercy Cardinal Normandy
White wine White wine, Bechamel, heavy Mushroom trimmings,
shallots, heavy cream, lobster, butter, shellfish liquor, lemon
cream brandy juice, finish w/ liaison
Espagnole - Brown sauce
Glace Espagnol Jus de Jus Lie
de e Roti brown stock
reduced by half
Bordelais Chausseur Chateau Madeira Mushroom Piquant Robert Poivrade Perigueu
e mushroom briand Maderia mushrooms, cornichons Onion, dry crushed x
shallots, , brandy, shallots, wine or Port red or white , capers mustard,win peppercorns truffls to
by leaf tomatoe butter, wine e maderia
thyme, concasse tarragon sauce
Tomato Sauce Family
Creole - Spanish Bolognese Provencale
green pepper, Sliced sweet Ground (Not a Derivative
peppers, beef/veal, fresh of Tomato
okra, olives garlic, herbs Sauce)
tomato concasse, garlic,
The Hollandaise Family
Grimrod Mousseline Maltaise
Infuse a hollandaise Fold in heavy cream Add blood orange
reduction with and glaze under a juice and zest.
• Formally a derivative of Hollandaise
• Now presented as a basic sauce
• Shallots, Tarragon, Chevril, white wine vinegar
reduction added to Hollandaise.
Beurre Blanc & Beurre Rouge
• Emulsified butter sauces made without egg yolks.
• Lecithin and other emulsifiers naturally found in
butter are used to form an oil-in-liquid emulsion.
• They have a class of their own.
• Thinner and lighter than Hollandaise and
• Smooth and slightly thicker than heavy cream.
• Rich and buttery, with a light acidic flavor.
• Incorporating various seasonings into softened
• Butter and flavoring can be combined in a food
processor or mixer.
• The compound butter is then formed into a tube
and rolled in parchment or plastic wrap.
• The butter is chilled and then sliced as needed.
• A sauce made from puree of vegetables or fruit,
thinned down to sauce consistency.
• A liquid such as stock, water, or cream, may be
added to thin the puree.
• A coulis should be as smooth as possible.
• The flavor should be that of the main ingredient.
Salsa, Relish, Chutneys
• Salsa- a chunky mixture of raw tomato,
vegetables, chiles, and cilantro.
• Relish - Cooked or pickled sauces made with
vegetables or fruits and used as a condiment.
• Chutney - a sweet and sour condiment made od
fruits or vegetables cooked in vinegar with sugar