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					                                                                                                                                                                             High risk     main Risk Risk factors                    cases for %age   HCV
     reference       Title                                                              author           Study period age range      province   community?   region          population   factors    discussed        Total patients HBV       HBV    cases   %age HCV   comments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      studied


     BMC Infect
     Dis. 2006
     Jun             Hepatitis B and C: Prevalence and risk factors associated with                                                                                                                    needle, vacc in
1    23;6(1):101     seropositivity among children in Karachi, Pakistan.                Jafri W                      1 to 15yrs      Sindh      1            Karachi         2                         gov. facilities 3533        65        1.8      55      1.6
     BMC                                                                                                                                                                                               dental work,
     Gastroentero                                                                                                                                                                                      multiple
     l. 2005 Aug     Epidemiologic study of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in male                                                                                                                injections,
2    8;5:26.         volunteer blood donors in Karachi, Pakistan                        Akhtar S         1998-2002   adult males     Sindh      2            Karachi         2                         barber          351309      7048      2
     : J Viral
     Hepat. 2004
     Nov;11(6):5     Hepatitis C virus infection in asymptomatic male volunteer blood                                                                                                                  mult.sex.part,in
3    27-35           donors in Karachi, Pakistan                                        Akhtar S         1998-2002   adult male      Sindh      2            karachi         2                         ject             351309                        6349    1.8
     J Pak Med
     Assoc. 2000
     Aug;50(8):2     Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV infections among college
4    69-70           going first time voluntary blood donors                            Abdul Mujeeb S               college going   Sindh      1            Karachi         2                                        612          13        2.21     3       0.5
     Indian J
     Pediatr. 1994
     Sep-
     Oct;61(5):54
5    5-9             Hepatitis A, B and C seroprevalence in Pakistan                    Agboatwalla M                children        Sindh                   Karachi         2                                        236                    2.97             0.44
     Southeast
     Asian J Trop
     Med Public      Epidemiology of blood-borne viruses: a study of healthy blood
6    Health. 1996    donors in Southern Pakistan                                        Kakepoto GN                                  Sindh      2            Sindh           2                                        51257        1173      2.28
     : J Coll
     Physicians
     Surg Pak.
     2003                                                                                                                                                                                 h/o 1
     Dec;13(12):                                                                                                                                                                          transfusio
7    688-90          Frequency of hepatitis C in obstetric cases                        Rizvi TJ         2002        adult women Sindh          2            Karachi         1            n                           38                              5       13.2
                                                                                                                                                                                          h/o 2
                                                                                                                                                                                          transfusio
                                                                                                                                                                             1            n                           39                              6       15.4
                                                                                                                                                                                          No
                                                                                                                                                                                          transfusio
                                                                                                                                                                             1            n                           120                             8       6.6
     Bull World
     Health                                                                                                                                                                                          Non-steril
     Organ.                                                                                                                                                                                          needles,
     2000;78(8): Unsafe injections and the transmission of hepatitis B and C in a                                                                                                         Multiple demand for
8    956-63      periurban community in Pakistan                                        Khan AJ                      adults          Sindh      2            Sindh           1            injections injections       135          26        19       59      44
     J Coll
     Physicians
     Surg Pak Dec
     2000;10(12):4                                                                   Shamsul Arfin
9    67-9          Detection of Hepatitis B Viruses in Normal Individuals of Karachi Qasmi                                           Sindh      2            Karachi         2                                        200          6         3
     J Coll
     Physicians
     Surg Pak.                                                                                                                                                                                         multiple
     2005                                                                                                                                                                                              injections,
     Jan;15(1):11-                                                                                                                                                                                     transfusion,
10   4             Frequency of hepatitis "C" in Buner, NWFP                            Muhammad N       1998-2002   15-70           NWFP       2            NWFP, (Buner)   2                         barbers        16400                           751     4.57
     Pakistan J
     Pathol Mar
     2004;15(1):11- Seroprevalence of hepatitis B, C and HIV in healthy blood donors
11   6              in Northwest of Pakistan                                         Alia Zaidi          1999-03     blood donors    NWFP                    Peshawar        2                                                               1.4              1.34       need article for n
                                                                                                                                                             Peshawar        2                                                               1.75             2.6
     Pakistan J
     Med Res Jun
     2000;39(2):91- Prevalence of hepatitis B carrier and HIV in healthy blood donors
12   2              at Ayub Teaching Hospital                                         Faisal Ahmed       6/99-8/99   blood donors    NWFP       2            Abbotabad       2                                        960          18        1.55
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              High risk pts
     J Postgrad
     Med Inst Sep                                                                                                                                                                                                                             excluded by pre-
     2004;18(3):34 Frequency of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in healthy blood donors                                                                                                                                                           donation
13   3-52          of NWFP: a single center experience                              Jawad Ahmad,     4/02-3/03   blood donors   NWFP          2   Peshawar        2                                 4000                 1.9           2.2    questionnaire
     Rawal Med J
     Dec                                                                              Muhammad
     2004;29(2):57- Seroprevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in     Sheraz Akbar               hospitalized                                                      syringes,
14   60             Mardan, N.W.F.P                                                   Khan                       pts            NWFP          2   Mardan          2                transfusionetc   700                                9
     Int J Infect
     Dis. 2006
     May;10(3):2
     42-7. Epub Prevalence of hepatitis B among Afghan refugees living in                                                                                             Afghan
15   2006 Jan 31. Balochistan, Pakistan                                               Quddus A       2003        Adult male     Balochistan   1   Balochistan     2   refugee                       -903          37     12.3
                                                                                                                 adult female                                                                       (301 families) 21    7
                                                                                                                 children                                                                           301           17     5.6
     Biomedica
     Dec
     1997;13(2):51- Prevalence of Hepatitis B Antigenaemia in General Population of
16   2              Quetta, Balochistan                                             Shah M Marri                                Balochistan   2   Quetta          2                                 2466                 11                   need article
     Pak J Med
     Sci Mar
     2003;19(1):41- Frequency of Hepatitis C virus antibodies in blood donors in                                                                                                                                                              High risk screened
17   4              Combined Military Hospital, Quetta                                Nadir Ali      1/00/1/01   blood donors   Balochistan   2   Quetta          2                                 1500                        28     1.87   out before sampling
     J Coll
     Physicians
     Surg Pak.
     2004
     Sep;14(9):53 General seroprevalence of hepatitis C and hepatitis B virus
18   4-6          infections in population                                            Khokhar N      1998-2004   adults         Punjab        2   punjab          2                                 47538         1221   2.56   2528   5.31
     J Coll
     Physicians
     Surg Pak.
     2003
     Jan;13(1):15- Prevalence of hepatitis C in patients on maintenance                                                                                               Hemodialy
19   8             haemodialysis                                                      Gul A          1999                       Punjab        2   Lahore,Punjab   1   sis                           50                                 68
                                                                                                                                                                      No
                                                                                                                                                                      hemodialys
                                                                                                                                                                  1   is                            50                                 10
     : J Pak Med
     Assoc. 2002
     Sep;52(9):39 Seroprevalence of hepatitis B, C and HIV in blood donors in
20   8-402        northern Pakistan                                                   Khattak MF     1996-2000   adults         Punjab        2   Punjab          2                                 103858               3.3           4
     : J Clin
     Gastroentero
     l. 2001 Nov-
     Dec;33(5):40 Seroprevalence of the antibody to hepatitis C in select groups in
21   7-11         the Punjab region of Pakistan                                       Aslam M                    <20            Punjab        1   Lahore          2                                 165                         2      1.2
                                                                                                                 >20                          1   lahore          2                                 323                         76     23.5
                                                                                                                 <20                          1   Gujranwala      2                                 683                         37     5.4
                                                                                                                 >20                          1   Gujranwala      2                                 1239                        421    34
     J Clin
     Microbiol.
     1999
     Jun;37(6):20 Detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in dried blood spot
22   61-3         samples from mothers and their offspring in Lahore, Pakistan        Parker SP                  Women          Punjab        2   Lahore          2                                                                    6.7
                                                                                                                 Children                     2   Lahore          2                                                                    1.3
     Epidemiol
     Infect. 1997
     Dec;119(3):3 The relationship between therapeutic injections and high                                                                                                                                                                    31% w HBcAb and
23   49-56.       prevalence of hepatitis C infection in Hafizabad, Pakistan          Luby SP        1993-1994                  Punjab        1   hafizabad       2                                 309                  4.3    20     6.5    4.3% w HBsAg
     Pakistan J
     Med Res Sep
     2000;39(3):11 Presence of hepatitis-B virus in healthy donors at blood unit
24   1-2.          Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore                              Abdul Majed                adults         Punjab        2   Lahore          2                                 5840          120    2
     Pakistan Ped
     J Jun
     1998;22(2):75-                                                                   Muhammad Ali
25   7              Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B in children                         Khan,          1996        0.5-15yrs      Punjab        1   Lahore          2                                 392           8      2.04
     Pakistan
     Postgrad Med
     J Mar
     2002;13(1):18- Prevalence of Anti Hepatitis C antibodies in healthy blood
26   20             donors at Services Hospital Lahore                                  Shahbaz Ahmad,                adults       Punjab   2     Lahore           2   5789                   288   4.97
     Pak J Med
     Sci Sep
     2002;18(3):19                                                                      Mahfooz ur
27   3-6            Seroprevalence of Hepatitis-C antibodies in blood donors            Rahman,                       18-60        Punjab   2     Lahore,Punjab    2   166183                       4.1
     Ann King
     Edward Med
     Coll Jun
     2006;12(2):29 Positive viral markers of hepatitis B+C in patients admitted in
28   6-8            medical ward for different diseases                                 Fatima Mehboob, jan-apr'06                 Punjab         Rahim Yar Khan
     Pak Armed
     Forces Med J
     Dec
     1996;46(2):91- Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Blood Donors in Northern       Farhat Abbas
29   2              Pakistan                                                            Bhatti                        adults       Punjab   2     Rawalpindi       2   760             6.5          4.8
     Biomedica
     Dec
     1999;15:88-                                                                                                      adults
30   91             Prevalence of Hepatitis B Antigenaemia in Mayo Hospital Lahore      S M Bukhari                   donors       Punjab   2     Lahore           2   27057     925   3.8
     J Surg Dec
     2000;19-       Prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen and Anti-Hepatitis C
31   20:25-9        Virus in laboratory based data at Islamabad.                        A K Tanwani      1998                      Punjab   2     Islamabad        2   1345            3.6          12.5
     J Surg Jun
     2001;21-       Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C in Pakistanis visiting and admitted
32   22:22-6        at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Islamabad             Haroon Khan,                               Punjab   2     Islamabad        2   372                          14.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                            possibl eoverlap
                                                                                                                                                                                                            data from article
     J Rawal Med
     Coll Dec                                                                                                                                                                                               #12. also risk
     2001;5(2):56- Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Blood Donors in Northern                                                                                                                            factors with
33   9              Pakistan                                                            Muhammad Ryas                 blood donors Punjab   2     Rawalpindi       2   1885            6.4          4.7     control
     Pakistan J
     Med Res Jun
     2002;41(2):51- Frequency of seropositive blood donors for hepatitis B, C and                        Mar'01-
34   3              HIV viruses in railway hospital Rawalpindi                          Shamim Mumtaz, May'02         blood donors Punjab   2     Rawalpindi       2   580/563         5.86         6.21    0 HIV
     Pakistan Ped
     J Dec
     1996;20(4):16 A study of seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C in mothers and        Humayun Iqbal
35   3-6            children in Lahore                                                  Khan                          mothers      Punjab   2     Lahore           2   417       10    2.3    39    9.35
                                                                                                                      Children              2     Lahore           2   538       18    3.35   22    4.09
     Ann King
     Edward Med
     Coll Dec
     2004;10(4):45 Prevalence of Hepatitis B, C and HIV infection in blood donors of    Muhammad Arif
36   9-61           Multan region                                                       Mahmood                       blood donors Punjab   2     Multan           2   6000            3.37         0.27    0 HIV
     Pakistan J
     Pathol Sep                                                                                                                                                                                             excluded those
     2001;12(3):89-                                                                     Syed Najam                                                                                                          with hx of
37   93             Seroprevalence of Anti-HCV in asymptomatic children                 Hyder                         3-5 years    Punjab   1?2   Lahore           2   171                          0.58    jaundice
     Ann King
     Edward Med
     Coll Sep
     2005;11(3):23 Seroprevalence of HbsAg and anti-HCV in Ghurki Teaching                               2 day                                                                                              age distribution in
38   2-4            Hospital, Lahore                                                    Rizwan Waseem camp                         Punjab   2     Lahore           2   1680            2.97         11.96   paper
     Professional
     Med J Dec
     2005;12(4):36                                                                      Nayla Tariq
39   4-7            Hepatitis - C                                                       Chaudry,         11/00-4/01                Punjab   2     Lahore           2   890                          6.06
     Public Health.
     2000
     Sep;114(5):4 Geographical display of health information: study of hepatitis C                                                                                                                          subdivison via
40   13-5           infection in Karachi, Pakistan                                      Mujeeb SA        9/97-2/98    blood donors Sindh    2     Karachi          2   7047                   167   2.4     zones in paper
                                                                                                     Study                                          High risk     main Risk Risk factors                    cases for %age   HCV
    reference      Title                                                             author          period     age range    community?   region    population   factors    discussed        Total patients HBV       HBV    cases   %age HCV   comments
                                                                                                                                                                                             studied


    BMC Infect
    Dis. 2006
    Jun            Hepatitis B and C: Prevalence and risk factors associated with                                                                                             needle, vacc in
1   23;6(1):101    seropositivity among children in Karachi, Pakistan.               Jafri W                    1 to 15yrs   1            Karachi   2                         gov. facilities 3533         65       1.8      55      1.6
    BMC                                                                                                                                                                       dental work,
    Gastroentero                                                                                                                                                              multiple
    l. 2005 Aug    Epidemiologic study of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in male                                                                                         injections,
2   8;5:26.        volunteer blood donors in Karachi, Pakistan                        Akhtar S       1998-2002 adult males   2            Karachi   2                         barber          351309       7048     2
    : J Viral
    Hepat. 2004
    Nov;11(6):5    Hepatitis C virus infection in asymptomatic male volunteer blood                                                                                           mult.sex.part,in
3   27-35          donors in Karachi, Pakistan                                      Akhtar S         1998-2002 adult male    2            karachi   2                         ject             351309                        6349    1.8
    J Pak Med
    Assoc. 2000
    Aug;50(8):2    Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV infections among college
4   69-70          going first time voluntary blood donors                     Abdul Mujeeb S                   college going 1           Karachi   2                                        612           13       2.21     3       0.5
    Indian J
    Pediatr.
    1994 Sep-
    Oct;61(5):54
5   5-9            Hepatitis A, B and C seroprevalence in Pakistan                   Agboatwalla M              children                  Karachi   2                                        236                    2.97             0.44
    Southeast
    Asian J Trop
    Med Public     Epidemiology of blood-borne viruses: a study of healthy blood
6   Health. 1996   donors in Southern Pakistan                                       Kakepoto GN                             2            Sindh     2                                        51257         1173     2.28
    : J Coll
    Physicians
    Surg Pak.
    2003                                                                                                                                                         h/o 1
    Dec;13(12):                                                                                                                                                  transfusio
7   688-90         Frequency of hepatitis C in obstetric cases                       Rizvi TJ        2002       adult women 2             Karachi   1            n                           38                              5       13.2
                                                                                                                                                                 h/o 2
                                                                                                                                                                 transfusio
                                                                                                                                                    1            n                           39                              6       15.4
                                                                                                                                                                 No
                                                                                                                                                                 transfusio
                                                                                                                                                    2            n                           120                             8       6.6
    Bull World
    Health                                                                                                                                                                  Non-steril
    Organ.                                                                                                                                                                  needles,
    2000;78(8): Unsafe injections and the transmission of hepatitis B and C in a                                                                                 Multiple demand for
8   956-63      periurban community in Pakistan                                      Khan AJ                    adults       2            Sindh     1            injections injections       135           26        19      59      44
    J Coll
    Physicians
    Surg Pak Dec
    2000;10(12):4                                                                   Shamsul Arfin
9   67-9          Detection of Hepatitis B Viruses in Normal Individuals of Karachi Qasmi                                    2            Karachi   2                                        200           6        3
                                                                                                    Study                                                   High risk     main Risk Risk factors                    cases for %age   HCV
    reference     Title                                                              author         period      age range      community?   region          population   factors    discussed        Total patients HBV       HBV    cases   %age HCV   comments
    J Coll
    Physicians
    Surg Pak.                                                                                                                                                                       multiple
    2005                                                                                                                                                                            injections,
    Jan;15(1):11-                                                                                                                                                                   transfusion,
1   4             Frequency of hepatitis "C" in Buner, NWFP                          Muhammad N     1998-2002 15-70            2            NWFP, (Buner)   2                       barbers          16400                           751     4.57
    Pakistan J
    Pathol Mar
    2004;15(1):11- Seroprevalence of hepatitis B, C and HIV in healthy blood donors
2   6              in Northwest of Pakistan                                         Alia Zaidi      1999-03     blood donors                Peshawar        2                                                               1.4              1.34       need article for n
                                                                                                                                            Peshawar        2                                                               1.75             2.6
    Pakistan J
    Med Res Jun
    2000;39(2):91- Prevalence of hepatitis B carrier and HIV in healthy blood donors
3   2              at Ayub Teaching Hospital                                         Faisal Ahmed   6/99-8/99   blood donors   2            Abbotabad       2                                        960           18       1.55
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        High risk pts
    J Postgrad
    Med Inst Sep
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        excluded by pre-
    2004;18(3):34 Frequency of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in healthy blood donors                                                                                                                                                                      donation
4   3-52           of NWFP: a single center experience                               Jawad Ahmad,   4/02-3/03   blood donors   2            Peshawar        2                                        4000                   1.9              2.2        questionnaire
    Rawal Med J
    Dec                                                                              Muhammad
    2004;29(2):57- Seroprevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in     Sheraz Akbar               hospitalized                                                        syringes,
5   60             Mardan, N.W.F.P                                                   Khan                       pts            2            Mardan          2                       transfusionetc   700                                     9




    Int J Infect
    Dis. 2006
    May;10(3):2
    42-7. Epub Prevalence of hepatitis B among Afghan refugees living in                                                                                                 Afghan
1   2006 Jan 31. Balochistan, Pakistan                                               Quddus A       2003        Adult male     1            Balochistan     2            refugee                     -903          37       12.3
                                                                                                                adult female                                                                         (301 families) 21      7
                                                                                                                children                                                                             301           17       5.6
    Biomedica
    Dec
    1997;13(2):51- Prevalence of Hepatitis B Antigenaemia in General Population of
2   2              Quetta, Balochistan                                             Shah M Marri                                2            Quetta          2                                        2466                   11                          need article
    Pak J Med
    Sci Mar
    2003;19(1):41- Frequency of Hepatitis C virus antibodies in blood donors in                                                                                                                                                                         High risk screened
3   4              Combined Military Hospital, Quetta                              Nadir Ali        1/00/1/01   blood donors   2            Quetta          2                                        1500                            28      1.87       out before sampling
                                                                                                         Study                                                 High risk     main Risk Risk factors                  cases for %age   HCV
     reference      Title                                                               author           period      age range   community?   region           population   factors    discussed      Total patients HBV       HBV    cases   %age HCV   comments
     J Coll
     Physicians
     Surg Pak.
     2004
     Sep;14(9):53 General seroprevalence of hepatitis C and hepatitis B virus
1    4-6           infections in population                                             Khokhar N        1998-2004 adults        2            punjab           2                                      47538         1221     2.56     2528    5.31
     J Coll
     Physicians
     Surg Pak.
     2003
     Jan;13(1):15- Prevalence of hepatitis C in patients on maintenance                                                                                                     Hemodialy
2    8             haemodialysis                                                        Gul A            1999                    2            Lahore,Punjab    1            sis                       50                                      68
                                                                                                                                                                            No
                                                                                                                                                                            hemodialy
                                                                                                                                                               2            sis                       50                                      10
     : J Pak Med
     Assoc. 2002
     Sep;52(9):39   Seroprevalence of hepatitis B, C and HIV in blood donors in
3    8-402          northern Pakistan                                                   Khattak MF       1996-2000 adults        2            Punjab           2                                      103858                 3.3              4
     : J Clin
     Gastroentero
     l. 2001 Nov-
     Dec;33(5):4    Seroprevalence of the antibody to hepatitis C in select groups in
4    07-11          the Punjab region of Pakistan                                       Aslam M                      <20         1            Lahore,Punjab    2                                      165                             2       1.2
                                                                                                                     >20         1            lahore,Punjab    2                                      323                             76      23.5
                                                                                                                                              Gujranwala,Punja
                                                                                                                     <20         1            b                2                                      683                             37      5.4
                                                                                                                                              Gujranwala,Punja
                                                                                                                     >20         1            b                2                                      1239                            421     34
     J Clin
     Microbiol.
     1999
     Jun;37(6):20 Detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in dried blood spot
5    61-3         samples from mothers and their offspring in Lahore, Pakistan          Parker SP                    Women       2            Lahore,Punjab    2                                                                              6.7
                                                                                                                     Children    2            Lahore,Punjab    2                                                                              1.3
     Epidemiol
     Infect. 1997
     Dec;119(3): The relationship between therapeutic injections and high                                                                                                                                                                                31% w HBcAb and
6    349-56.      prevalence of hepatitis C infection in Hafizabad, Pakistan            Luby SP          1993-1994               1            hafizabad, punjab 2                                     309                    4.3      20      6.5        4.3% w HBsAg
     Pakistan J
     Med Res Sep
     2000;39(3):11 Presence of hepatitis-B virus in healthy donors at blood unit
7    1-2.           Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore                               Abdul Majed                  adults      2            Lahore,Punjab    2                                      5840          120      2
     Pakistan Ped
     J Jun
     1998;22(2):75-                                                                     Muhammad Ali
8    7              Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B in children                           Khan,            1996        0.5-15yrs   1            Lahore,Punjab    2                                      392           8        2.04
     Pakistan
     Postgrad Med
     J Mar
     2002;13(1):18- Prevalence of Anti Hepatitis C antibodies in healthy blood
9    20             donors at Services Hospital Lahore                                  Shahbaz Ahmad,               adults      2            Lahore,Punjab    2                                      5789                            288     4.97
     Pak J Med
     Sci Sep
     2002;18(3):19                                                                      Mahfooz ur
10   3-6            Seroprevalence of Hepatitis-C antibodies in blood donors            Rahman,                      18-60       2            Lahore,Punjab    2                                      166183                                  4.1
     Ann King
     Edward Med
     Coll Jun
     2006;12(2):29 Positive viral markers of hepatitis B+C in patients admitted in
11   6-8            medical ward for different diseases                                 Fatima Mehboob, jan-apr'06                            Rahim Yar Khan
     Pak Armed
     Forces Med J
     Dec
     1996;46(2):91- Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Blood Donors in Northern       Farhat Abbas
12   2              Pakistan                                                            Bhatti                       adults      2            Rawalpindi       2                                      760                     6.5             4.8
                                                                                                       Study                                                 High risk     main Risk Risk factors                  cases for %age   HCV
     reference     Title                                                               author          period       age range   community?   region          population   factors    discussed      Total patients HBV       HBV    cases   %age HCV   comments
     Biomedica
     Dec
     1999;15:88-                                                                                                    adults
14   91            Prevalence of Hepatitis B Antigenaemia in Mayo Hospital Lahore S M Bukhari                       donors      2            Lahore,Punjab   2                                      27057         925       3.8
     J Surg Dec
     2000;19-      Prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen and Anti-Hepatitis C
15   20:25-9       Virus in laboratory based data at Islamabad.                        A K Tanwani     1998                     2            Islamabad       2                                      1345                    3.6             12.5
     J Surg Jun
     2001;21-      Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C in Pakistanis visiting and admitted
16   22:22-6       at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Islamabad           Haroon Khan,                               2            Islamabad       2                                      372                                     14.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       possibl eoverlap
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       data from article
     J Rawal Med
     Coll Dec                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          #12. also risk
     2001;5(2):56- Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Blood Donors in Northern       Muhammad                                                                                                                                                        factors with
17   9              Pakistan                                                           Ryas                         blood donors 2           Rawalpindi      2                                      1885                    6.4             4.7        control
     Pakistan J
     Med Res Jun
     2002;41(2):51- Frequency of seropositive blood donors for hepatitis B, C and      Shamim          Mar'01-
18   3              HIV viruses in railway hospital Rawalpindi                         Mumtaz,         May'02       blood donors 2           Rawalpindi      2                                      580/563                 5.86            6.21       0 HIV
     Pakistan Ped
     J Dec
     1996;20(4):16 A study of seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C in mothers and       Humayun Iqbal
19   3-6            children in Lahore                                                 Khan                         mothers     2            Lahore,Punjab   2                                      417           10        2.3     39      9.35
                                                                                                                    Children    2            Lahore,Punjab   2                                      538           18        3.35    22      4.09
     Ann King
     Edward Med
     Coll Dec
     2004;10(4):45 Prevalence of Hepatitis B, C and HIV infection in blood donors of   Muhammad Arif
20   9-61           Multan region                                                      Mahmood                      blood donors 2           Multan          2                                      6000                    3.37            0.27       0 HIV
     Pakistan J
     Pathol Sep                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        excluded those
     2001;12(3):89-                                                                    Syed Najam                                                                                                                                                      with hx of
21   93             Seroprevalence of Anti-HCV in asymptomatic children                Hyder                        3-5 years   1?2          Lahore,Punjab   2                                      171                                     0.58       jaundice
     Ann King
     Edward Med
     Coll Sep
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                                                                                                                                                                                    High risk     main Risk Risk factors                    cases for %age   HCV
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