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PowerPoint Presentation - FUSE


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									                Senior Review 2004 Proposal Preparation:
FUSE Probes a Broad Range of Exciting Science
                    From planets to quasars (and
                      everything in between!)

                                          Planetary Nebulae &
                                             Central Stars
Hot Stars and      Active Galaxy Nuclei

                                    Supernova              Circumstellar Disks


 Nearby Galaxies
                   THE FUSE Senior Review 2004

Proposal Content – 15 pages (sides NOT sheets)
  Cover - Identify key FUSE result(s) to display – should be “photogenic”
  FUSE Mission Overview and Status (0.5 pages)
  Identify Proposal Objectives (0.5 pages)
  FUSE Scientific Highlights to date – emphasize most recent (4 pages)
  FUSE Scientific Promise (6 pages)
  Technical Information (1 page)
         FUSE status
         Gyroless Operations
         Extended Mission Operations
  Budget (2 pages)
  Education and Public Outreach (1 page)

Proposal Deadlines and Proposed Timeline
  Proposals due:          Wed, Mar 17, 2004
  Senior Review:          Tue Apr 27- Fri Apr 30, 2004
                         (presentations on April 27th and April 28th)
FUSE strengths:
   - many unique spectral diagnostics
   - spectral region is rich
1. Strong lines of atomic Hydrogen (HI) and its isotope deuterium (DI)
  2. Electronic ground-state absorption bands of molecular hydrogen (H2), the basic
building block for star and planet formation, and its deuterated counterpart HD.

 3. Transitions of highly ionized atoms OVI (l1032, l1038) and SVI (l933, l945),
which are formed by collisional ionization at higher temperatures (T~3x105K) than
any resonance lines observed by HST.
FUSE band also contains multiple lower ionization stages of many elements (e.g.,
CI-III, NI-III, PII-V, SIII-IV, FeII-III) essential for studying ionization
Balance and gas-phase abundances of astrophysical plasmas. Discovery of
emission from FeXVIII abd FeXIX in cool stars extends the temperature range to

  4. Resonance lines of HeI, HeII, and high ionizations states of heavier elements
(e.g.,OV, NeVIII, MgX,) in the EUV spectra region that are redshifted into the FUV.
Provide unique information about the distribution and ionization of the IGM

 5. Density sensitive diagnostics such as CIII l977/l1176 which are important for
studies of emission nebulae
                 HOT Science with FUSE
Three Principal (Level 1) Science Objectives to be addressed by
  1. Study the origin and evolution of the light elements (D,He)
  2. Understand the processes controlling the evolution of galaxies
  3. Provide new insights into origin & evolution of the stars & planetary
Scientific achievements: broad range of exciting galactic and
extragalactic science.
   D/H in the HVC, Complex C
   hot corona of the Galaxy and other galaxies
   Re-ionization of He at z ~ 3
   circumstellar disks
   local IGM
   OVI in the MW halo, HVCs, and the Local Group
   Intrinsic absorption in Seyfert Galaxies
   SIRTF and Chandra targets
   H2O on Mars, etc.
               HOT Science with FUSE
Expect major scientific advances from FUSE.

GALEX and provides opportunity to identify candidate targets for key
science such as He II Gunn-Peterson effect.

SIRTF provides opportunity for multi-wavelength complementary
studies (ie circumstellar disks)

Senior Science Review 2002 strongly supported Extended Mission
including Legacy Program to start in Cycle 5

Legacy Program oversubscribed by 3. Provides a new opportunity
for important FUSE science.

Gamma Ray Bursts: observe afterglow in the FUV. ~few GRB/yr
may be bright enough -- Jeff Kruk to present


    PI Team and GI Publication of FUSE Data by Quarter

• 162 papers in refereed literature,
with many more on the way.
       Current Cycles Show Strong Scientific
                 Interest in FUSE
• Cycle 5: largest over-subscription rate (factor of ~3)
  since Cycle 1.
• Many new PIs (~ one third for Cycle 4)
• Broad range of science proposed.

Senior Review 2002 Recommendation
• Implement Key Projects / Legacy Programs during
  FY05 and 06 to permit a number of interesting and
  important astrophysical problems to be tackled.
• Legacy defined as large, coherent project of lasting
  importance to wide astrophysical audience.
• Up to 1/3rd of Cycle 5 time will be for Legacy proposals
  – Legacy Proposals oversubscribed by a factor of ~3.

                 HOT Science with FUSE
Measuring the ionization condition of the universe at z ~ 3
He II Gunn-Peterson Effect:
Absorption features seen against the continua of distant QSOs trace
the structure of the universe from early epochs to today.
Can infer the source of the ionizing radiation if the ionization states of
both H and He are known.
FUSE resolved the He counterparts to the HI Lya forest for the first
Important question: How does the structure vary along different sight
Two sightlines observed:
       HS 1700+64
       GALEX a likely source of new sightlines
                HOT Science with FUSE
Hot gas and hidden baryons in the Local Universe.
Visible galaxies and the hot gas in clusters and rich groups comprise
only a fraction of the baryons inferred from Big Bang
From theory, expect the missing baryons to be in the gas phase at
T~105-107 K => most common species not entirely ionized is oxygen
Detections of red-shifted OVI absorption with STIS were the first to
see these “missing baryons” (Tripp et al.,)
Only FUSE can measure the fraction of baryons redshifted below ~0.2
Initial obs (ie toward PG0953+415) have led to important results. In
combination with other data, Savage et al., determine a baryon
density that is comparable to, or larger than, the baryons in galaxies.
To better determine the mass density in hot baryons: Need to
measure more systems to reduce the uncertainty in dN/dz and
improve oxygen abundance determination
                  HOT Science with FUSE
Deuterium Abundance.
Observations of D/H in different environments provide insight into
the evolution of light elements in the universe.
Measurements of D/H at intermediate metallicities provide a bridge
between the quasi-primordial measurements at high-z and the local ISM.
FUSE and HST observations of QSO PG1259+593 provide detection of DI
absorption in HVC Complex C.
First detection of atomic deuterium in the local universe in a location other
than nearby regions in the Galactic disk.
Cannot rule out a value of D/H for complex C similar to the local ISM but
can exclude values as low as recent measurements of extended sight lines
in the Galactic disk. Results support the hypothesis that complex C is a
manifestation of gas originating outside the Milky Way.

Value of D/H is consistent with primordial abundance of
deuterium inferred from recent MAP observations of CMB.
                   HOT Science with FUSE
Intrinsic Absorption in AGN.
~50% of Seyfert galaxies have intrinsic UV absorption. ~One-to-one correspondence
with warm absorber (WA) seen in the X-ray.

OVI absorption, observed with FUSE, provides a key link between high
ionization OVII and OVIII absorption edges seen in the X-ray and the lower
ionization species (NV, CIV, CIII], etc.,) seen in the UV.
Ubiquity of the WA, its correspondence with the UV intrinsic absorption,
coupled with its large column density relative to the BLR and its associated
high mass outflow illustrate the importance of understanding this
component of the AGN circumnuclear environment.
Metallicity in Narrow Line Sy1 (NLS1)
FUSE bandpass provides access to critical lines of OVI, NIII, and CIII.
Nitrogen and oxygen lines important because they are metallicity sensitive.
Combine with UV and X-ray measurements to probe a wide range of
ionization states.
Key for understanding both the NLS1 phenomenon and for investigating
evolutionary aspects of AGN
                 HOT Science with FUSE
Mass loss from early type stars
Different techniques and environments probed

   - Colliding winds in binary systems
      X-ray observations of binary stars show excess flux relative to single
star systems. ?Due to collisions of winds Use OVI, CIII as diagnostics

   - Time variable optical depths in stellar winds
PCygni profiles indicate structure in the wind. FUSE probes broad range of
ionization states. Counter to the expectation, does NOT find velocity
gradient in the wind but ion-ion differences.

   - Clumping in stellar winds
    Affects the mass loss rate. Probe using PV line

Yields Major contributions to our understanding of stellar
                HOT Science with FUSE
White Dwarf Evolution.
Abundance patterns change as a function of T (t).
Track WD evolution by studying a large sample of WDs
spanning a range of Temperatures (=> range of time).
Presence of OVI in some. Implies stratification of the WD
atmosphere. Don’t see OIV in EUVE spectra. Requires modification
to WD models to explain. Inclusion of radiative levitation in models
yields model consistent with observation.

              HOT Science with FUSE

Sub-dwarf B Stars
Responsible for the UV upturn in Elliptical Galaxies.
B sub-dwarfs very hot => strong UV emitters. Are on the way
to becoming WDs. He burning in core. Exhibit anomalous
abundances. Progenitor stars unknown.
Large, well-defined FUSE sample probes a range of T, g and
thus permits definition of models for a class of objects.
Important for determining how B sub-dwarf abundance
anomalies affect the UV output and hence contributes to
our understanding of both stellar and galactic evolution.

                  HOT Science with FUSE
The Structure of Hot Gas in the ISM
Coronal Temperature Gas in the Milky Way and Beyond
High-resolution FUSE observations of OVI, which cannot be produced by
photoionization in galactic environments, provides unique information on
the distribution and kinematics of collisionally-ionized material in the galaxy
The Galactic Disk
Extending the work of Copernicus, exposing new aspects of the physics
underlying the hot phase of the galactic disk. FUSE observations of
nearby WDs have provided the first observations of OVI within the Local
Hot Galactic Halo
observations of OVI absorption toward distant stars and extragalactic
sources reveals a distribution of highly-ionized gas extending several kpc
from either side of the galactic plane. Evidence for inflows and outflows
over the entire sky. Distribution of OVI in the Galactic halo is very patchy.
                 HOT Science with FUSE
The Structure of Hot Gas in the ISM
Hot Galactic Corona
Discovery of OVI absorption associated with high-velocity clouds (HVCs)
implies the existence of a Galactic corona extending many tens of kpc from
the plane.
The internal motions of these clouds are insufficient to produce the
observed OVI absorption, which must therefore be produced via
interactions with a hot low-density gas. Such material may be associated
with a very extended Galactic corona or an IGM within the Local Group.
OVI Emission in the Magellanic Clouds
Use OVI observations of OB stars to study the effects of metallicity, star
formation rate, mass, etc., influence the hot gas content of galaxies. The
comparison of average OVI column densities in the LMC and SMC with
those in the Galaxy implies that the local energy input from stellar
feedback into the ISM is higher than in the Milky Way.
                   HOT Science with FUSE
Planetary Systems
Circumstellar Disks
Two main classes: primordial and debris disks. The timescale and exact
conditions under which gas disappears during the evolution from one disk
type to another are critical parameters for planetary system formation
FUSE will complement SIRTF observations of CS dust disks
Mars - First detection of H2 => large amount of primordial water
Jovian System and Saturn
Sensitive upper limits on CIII and ClI suggest that carbon-bearing volatiles on Io
have been severely depleted by the satellite’s volcanic activity.
Brightness enhancements of the H2 emission in the Jovian north polar aurorae (-
>20% on timescales of ~few hundred seconds)may be related to the periodic
outbursts recently reported by Chandra (Gladstone, 2002)              17
                        FUSE EPO HIGHLIGHTS
1. Public Outreach
 1a. Museums and Planetaria.
     Permanent exhibits at MD Science Center (How a satellite works, spectroscopy, EM spectrum, stellar evolution)
     Several events (FUSE scientists in teacher workshops or public events)
     Other smaller FUSE displays and events (Kona Space Center, Georgia SU Planetarium…)
 1b. Web site – Press releases and educational material (some also in Spanish)

2. Education. Classroom material
  2a. Two educational kits on line (lesson plans, background material, etc):
 2b Teacher internships, teachers workshops, etc.
 2c. Classroom visits, lectures, SCC tours (e.g. girl scouts, undergraduates, )

 3. Dissemination and multiplication effect
3a. FUSE lesson plans evaluated and entered in NASA online Registry of educational products
3b.Participation in NASA Origins Forum: evaluation, dissemination, coordination in broader context
   e.g. One lesson plan from FUSE kit I featured in “Science Teacher” article with EM spectrum poster
   e.g. dissemination at NSTA national conferences

 4. Summer program with U.P.R.-Mayaguez in planning.
                          SR2004 Timeline
27-28 Apr --> NASA Senior Review Presentations
   17 Mar --> Proposal Deadline (Wed)
   12 Mar --> Submission to NASA of FUSE SR2002 proposal (Fri)
   08 Mar --> Finish proposal and start production process (Mon)
   25 Feb --> Receive inputs from external reviewers (Wed)
   18 Feb --> Submit proposal to external reviewers (Wed)
   11 Feb --> Submit proposal to internal reviewers and incorporate
              changes during the following week (Wed)
20Jan-10Feb --> Synthesize all inputs, create figures if necessary, and
              create draft proposal
              Note: This process will have started in December after the
              first deadline for contributions.
   19 Jan --> Delta inputs due from all contributors (Mon)
              This deadline is to permit the inclusion of important
              or promising results showcased at the AAS.
   22 Dec --> Preferred date for first drafts due from all contributors (Mon)
              This date is similar to 12 Jan (22Dec+Holidays+AAS = 12Jan)
   24 Nov --> Make writing assignments (Mon)
              (24 Dec – 2 Jan Holidays, 4-8 Jan AAS, Atlanta GA)
               SR2004 with SR2002 Timeline
SR2004 timeline which follows the SR2002 timeline:
 27-28 Apr --> NASA Senior Review Presentations
  17 Mar --> Proposal Deadline (Wed)
  10 Mar --> Submission to NASA of FUSE SR2002 proposal (Fri)
  03 Mar --> Finish proposal and start production process (Mon)
  25 Feb --> Receive inputs from external reviewers (Wed)
  18 Feb --> Submit proposal to external reviewers (Wed)
  11 Feb --> Submit proposal to internal reviewers and incorporate
              changes during the following week (Wed)
19Jan-10Feb --> Synthesize all inputs, create figures if necessary, and
              create draft proposal
              (NOTE: This was the time required for two people to do this
               job. For SR2004, **one** person will have this job)
  16 Jan --> First drafts due from all contributors (Wed)
  03 Dec --> Make writing assignments (Mon)
              (24 Dec - 2 Jan New Year Holidays , 4-8 Jan AAS, Atlanta GA)

                       SR2002 Timeline
11-13 Jun --> NASA Senior Review
  01 May --> Proposal Deadline (Wed)
   24 Apr --> Submission to NASA of FUSE SR2002 proposal (Wed)
   17 Apr --> Finish proposal and start production process (Wed)
   10 Apr --> Receive inputs from external reviewers (Wed)
   03 Apr --> Submit proposal to external reviewers (Wed); the
               UV-Optical meeting in Chicago takes place 2-5 April
   27 Mar --> Submit proposal to internal reviewers and incorporate
              changes during the following week (Wed)
04-26 Mar --> Synthesize all inputs, create figures if necessary, and
              create draft proposal; the FUSE FOAC meeting is at
              JHU on March 19th, and the FUSE Science and the Data
              Workshop takes place at JHU during March 20-22
   01 Mar --> First drafts due from all contributors (Fri)
   01 Feb --> Make writing assignments (Fri)

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