broadcast and cable networks run an
average 15 minutes of nonprogram
time per hour in prime time, according
to the annual Clutter Watch study
issued by media agency MindShare.
MTV had the most noncommercial
minutes with 16:09.
a 2006 report from TNS Media
Intelligence reveals that 35%, or 21
minutes, of every prime-time hour
includes some kind of branded
up 8% from 2000 and 36% from 1991
Networks use fewer commercial breaks during primetime than in
previous years, but the average length of each break continues to rise, to
an all-time high of 3.05 minutes, up 41% from 5 years ago.
How many pages of
the 750 are devoted
A:Less than 100
problem then for
What is Sensation?
The immediate response to sensory receptors (eyes,
ears, nose, mouth, fingers) to such basic stimuli as
light colour and sound. The process of receiving,
translating, and transmitting messages from the
outside world to the brain
What is Perception?
The process by which we select, organize, interpret
and give meaning to sensations.
An Overview of the
• Exposure (Can I see it?)
• Attention (Am I looking at it?)
• Interpretation (What do I see?)
Consumers are exposed to information in the environment
including marketing strategies, primarily through their
own behaviours Two Types
What you want is ad exposure to the right people
Will influence where you place your ad
February 2003 Cunning Stunts Exposure
Communications announce the
launch of foreheADS™ - the
medium that alleviates student debt
while bringing a brand's message to
Cunning Stunts have a network of
students to display brand logos on
their foreheads. Ads are placed
using a temporary transfer.
Students must display the ads for a
minimum of 3 hours a day in highly
visible locations such as the student
bar, local pubs and shopping areas.
They receive £90.00 for a week's
work. Capitalism gone too far?
1. Will “advertising on
heads” catch on in
2. Do brands risk being
tarnished by being
promoted this way?
3. Are there certain types
of products better suited
for this type of
Marketers are always
looking for new places to
expose people to ads
Wherever eyes go
Wizmark’s interactive urinal communicator
“Wizmark can talk, sing, or flash a
string of lights around a promotional
message when greeting a "visitor".
The large anti-glare, water-proof
viewing screen is strategically
located just above the drain to
ensure guaranteed viewing without
Using the elements of surprise and
humor in a truly unique location will
allow Wizmark, in combination with
your ad, to make a lasting
impression on every male that sees
Wizmark is the perfect attention-
grabbing medium for advertising any
male oriented product or service.”
New Media offer new places to advertise
In Game Advertising
Procter & Gamble Inc. has hired
actors to pose as shoppers at Wal-
Mart, Loblaws and other stores. On
cue, they ditch their carts and launch
into a "performance ad" for Liquid
Cheer laundry detergent
In 'low-interest' categories, one of the greatest challenges is to create
drama and excitement and awareness around the brand. He ate the
whole billboard! With nothing to help him except Heinz! It got people’s
attention, dramatized the message, and created word-of-mouth
publicity for the brand.
make us pay
In what Areas of Marketing will Vision be
In 80% of cases the decision to buy this or that product is
made by a client at the point of sale (POS) and only 20%
of cases are influenced by advertising in mass media.
Principle of Similarity
Is it satisfying to “close” the image?
Principle of Similarity
the two filled lines gives our eyes the
impression of two horizontal lines, even
though all the circles are equidistant from
We group objects that
the larger circles appear to
belong together because of
the similarity in size
Things which are closer
together will be seen as
belonging together or related.
The system employs the latest
dispensing technology and a
selection of over 50 fragrances
to put the appropriate aroma in
your service or retail
•Baby Talc Mist
•male and female colognes and
What Scents would be appropriate?
sensory evaluation of products
go with which
Two pairs of the same Nike running shoe were placed in separate, but
One room was infused with a mixed floral scent. The other wasn’t.
Test subjects inspected the shoes in each room, and then answered a
84 percent preferred the shoes displayed in the fragrant room.
The consumers estimated the value of the “scented” shoes to be, on
average, $10.33 higher than the pair in the unscented room.
none of the respondents was aware of the smell in the room.
Martin Lindstrom: Brand Sense: Build Powerful Brands through Touch, Taste, Smell, etc
What is the value of using pleasant
scents in a retail environment?
Improve the perception of customers as to the evaluation
of the store
Improve the perception of customers as to the stores
Improve the perception of customers as to the
Improve the perception of customers as to specific
Improve the intentions of customers to visit the store
Improve purchase intentions for specific products
Spangenberg et al 1996 (J of Marketing)
This Caress Ad Uses
Tactile Stimulation as
a Selling Point
This Finnish Ad
Reasons to Visit Helsinki
The original contour of the "Mae West" bottle
was designed in 1915
to be identified by touch even in the dark.
The Coke bottle was not encumbered with a
lot of text, and the color scheme was universal.
The tactile encounter with the bottle conveyed
a sense of pleasure across multiple cultures
Modern perfume bottles come in
all shapes and sizes but most are
made of glass.
Handling an elegant sculpted
glass container provides the
consumer with a sense of luxury
that does not come across in the
same way with more modern
although the latter can actually
assume more shapes and textures.
Fruit of the Loom ad inserts containing an actual pair of 3-inch
men's briefs in the Sept and Oct 1997 issues of Rolling Stone (1.2
"The mini-briefs, made from the same fabric of the full-size version,
caught the attention of consumers in a big way.
What qualities do
we associate with
each of these
This Ad Uses
People to Buy
Do they taste the same?
Role of Music in Marketing
implicitly or explicitly carrying the message,
creating emotional states
acting as a mnemonic cue
Impact of Background Music
Variables Slow Music Fast Music
As an environment becomes more pleasurable so people are
likely to demonstrate 'approach behaviors' towards it, such
as a greater willingness to return.
Congruency of scent and music as
a driver of in-store behavior
Matching high arousal scent and high arousal
music conditions will lead to enhanced
(a) pleasure,(b) store environment, (c)impulse
buying and (d) satisfaction, compared to
mismatched conditions (ie high/low or low/high).
• Lavender = low arousal scent
• Grapefruit = high arousal scent
• Slow tempo classical = low arousal music
• Fast tempo classical = high arousal music
Subliminal Advertising does not work
If you can sense it, it is above the
threshold and therefore not
Subliminal Messages in Ads
Critics of subliminal
persuasion often focus on
ambiguous shapes in
drinks that supposedly
spell out words like S E X
as evidence for the use of
Many ads use hidden messages, most of them
harmless. Can you find the hidden message in this
company logo? If you can see it, it is not subliminal
Applications of Stimulus Generalization
Look-Alike Packaging Family Branding
Product Line Extension Licensing
If all brands are perceived to be alike, why
should consumers buy your brand?
The real thing The Choice Of A New
(1970) Generation (1984)
How do Consumers
Choose What to Pay
Create Contrast so That
Stimuli is More Likely to
the Sensation of
Speed in a Novel
Way to Position
This Ad Relies on
Color Contrast to
research indicates colour selection alone may impact
sales by a margin of 5 to 40 percent
What colours compel customers to spend more?
What colours make people come into a business?
What are the best colours to use on a web site?
What are the best colours to use in print advertising?
What are the best colours to use for stationery;
packaging, products, uniforms
Colour and Demographic Variables
Urge to succeed Unrealistic
Increases blood pressure Irresponsible
Un-committed and un-involved Cheerful
Escape from anxiety Restless
traditional Reduced sense of vitality
complete calm Passive
reduces blood pressure Solid roots
Stimulus for interaction Negation of emotion
Resistance to change Extinction
Personal Selection Factors
The green things
and the blue things
Or the circles and
the bars ?
The meanings that people
assign to sensory stimuli
What things might influence
Consumers assign meaning to stimuli based on
Schema, or set of beliefs, to which the stimuli is
The schema will determine what criteria will be used
to evaluate the
This Singaporean Ad for Toyota Evokes a Car
Schema Even Though Using Household Furniture
Semiotics: study of how meaning is created
How do consumers interpret the meanings of
symbols? What do they mean to people?
How are these
How are these companies positioned
In 1998 Pepsi changed the color of its cans from red
and white (Coke’s colors) to blue and white to help
differentiate it from Coca Cola
Perceptual Map of Brand Images
Classy distinctive proud
Cadillac Lincoln Porsche
Oldsmobile Pontiac Spirited
Conservative young people
Honda fun sporty
older people Ford