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Perception - Download Now PowerPoint


                                                April 2007
                                   broadcast and cable networks run an
                                   average 15 minutes of nonprogram
                                   time per hour in prime time, according
                                   to the annual Clutter Watch study
                                   issued by media agency MindShare.
                                    MTV had the most noncommercial
                                   minutes with 16:09.
                                    a 2006 report from TNS Media
                                   Intelligence reveals that 35%, or 21
                                   minutes, of every prime-time hour
                                   includes some kind of branded
                                    up 8% from 2000 and 36% from 1991
 Networks use fewer commercial breaks during primetime than in
previous years, but the average length of each break continues to rise, to
an all-time high of 3.05 minutes, up 41% from 5 years ago.
 How many pages of
 the 750 are devoted
 to Editorial?
 A:Less than 100

What’s the
problem then for
the advertiser?
        What is Sensation?
 The immediate response to sensory receptors (eyes,
ears, nose, mouth, fingers) to such basic stimuli as
light colour and sound. The process of receiving,
translating, and transmitting messages from the
outside world to the brain

       What is Perception?
The process by which we select, organize, interpret
and give meaning to sensations.
         An Overview of the
         Perceptual Process

Perceptual Process:
  • Exposure (Can I see it?)
  • Attention (Am I looking at it?)
  • Interpretation (What do I see?)
Consumers are exposed to information in the environment
including marketing strategies, primarily through their
own behaviours        Two Types

   Accidental                       Intentional
What you want is ad exposure to the right people
Will influence where you place your ad
February 2003 Cunning Stunts                  Exposure
Communications announce the
launch of foreheADS™ - the
medium that alleviates student debt
while bringing a brand's message to
the fore.
Cunning Stunts have a network of
students to display brand logos on
their foreheads. Ads are placed
using a temporary transfer.
Students must display the ads for a
minimum of 3 hours a day in highly
visible locations such as the student
bar, local pubs and shopping areas.
They receive £90.00 for a week's
work.                                   Capitalism gone too far?
1. Will “advertising on
   heads” catch on in

2. Do brands risk being
   tarnished by being
   promoted this way?

3. Are there certain types
   of products better suited
   for this type of
Marketers are always
looking for new places to
expose people to ads

  Wherever eyes go
Wizmark’s interactive urinal communicator
                        “Wizmark can talk, sing, or flash a
                        string of lights around a promotional
                        message when greeting a "visitor".
                        The large anti-glare, water-proof
                        viewing screen is strategically
                        located just above the drain to
                        ensure guaranteed viewing without
                        Using the elements of surprise and
                        humor in a truly unique location will
                        allow Wizmark, in combination with
                        your ad, to make a lasting
                        impression on every male that sees
                        Wizmark is the perfect attention-
                        grabbing medium for advertising any
                        male oriented product or service.”
New Media offer new places to advertise

           In Game Advertising

 Procter & Gamble Inc. has hired
 actors to pose as shoppers at Wal-
 Mart, Loblaws and other stores. On
 cue, they ditch their carts and launch
 into a "performance ad" for Liquid
 Cheer laundry detergent
In 'low-interest' categories, one of the greatest challenges is to create
drama and excitement and awareness around the brand. He ate the
whole billboard! With nothing to help him except Heinz! It got people’s
attention, dramatized the message, and created word-of-mouth
publicity for the brand.
What will
make us pay
In what Areas of Marketing will Vision be
In 80% of cases the decision to buy this or that product is
made by a client at the point of sale (POS) and only 20%
of cases are influenced by advertising in mass media.
     Stimulus Organization

 Closure Principle
 Figure-Ground Principle
 Principle of Similarity
Is it satisfying to “close” the image?
Figure Ground
Principle of Similarity
       the two filled lines gives our eyes the
       impression of two horizontal lines, even
       though all the circles are equidistant from
       each other
   We group objects that
   are similar
the larger circles appear to
belong together because of
the similarity in size
Things which are closer
together will be seen as
belonging together or related.
Aroma Marketing
The system employs the latest
dispensing technology and a
selection of over 50 fragrances
to put the appropriate aroma in
your service or retail

•Freshly-brewed coffee
•Frangipani mist
•Baby Talc Mist
•cut grass
•new leather
•male and female colognes and
What Scents would be appropriate?
sensory evaluation of products

               Which scents
               go with which
                         sensory branding

Two pairs of the same Nike running shoe were placed in separate, but
identical rooms.
One room was infused with a mixed floral scent. The other wasn’t.
Test subjects inspected the shoes in each room, and then answered a
 84 percent preferred the shoes displayed in the fragrant room.
 The consumers estimated the value of the “scented” shoes to be, on
average, $10.33 higher than the pair in the unscented room.
none of the respondents was aware of the smell in the room.

Martin Lindstrom: Brand Sense: Build Powerful Brands through Touch, Taste, Smell, etc
   What is the value of using pleasant
    scents in a retail environment?
Improve the perception of customers as to the evaluation
of the store
Improve the perception of customers as to the stores
Improve the perception of customers as to the
Improve the perception of customers as to specific
Improve the intentions of customers to visit the store
Improve purchase intentions for specific products
                           Spangenberg et al 1996 (J of Marketing)
This Caress Ad Uses
Tactile Stimulation as
a Selling Point

                         This Finnish Ad
                         Emphasizes Sensual
                         Reasons to Visit Helsinki
The original contour of the "Mae West" bottle
was designed in 1915
to be identified by touch even in the dark.
The Coke bottle was not encumbered with a
lot of text, and the color scheme was universal.
The tactile encounter with the bottle conveyed
a sense of pleasure across multiple cultures

             Modern perfume bottles come in
             all shapes and sizes but most are
             made of glass.
             Handling an elegant sculpted
             glass container provides the
             consumer with a sense of luxury
             that does not come across in the
             same way with more modern
             although the latter can actually
             assume more shapes and textures.
Fruit of the Loom ad inserts containing an actual pair of 3-inch
men's briefs in the Sept and Oct 1997 issues of Rolling Stone (1.2
"The mini-briefs, made from the same fabric of the full-size version,
caught the attention of consumers in a big way.
What qualities do
we associate with
each of these
This Ad Uses
Taste to
People to Buy
Their Product
Do they taste the same?

brand awareness
      Role of Music in Marketing
attracting attention
implicitly or explicitly carrying the message,
creating emotional states
acting as a mnemonic cue
      Impact of Background Music
     Variables              Slow Music         Fast Music

As an environment becomes more pleasurable so people are
likely to demonstrate 'approach behaviors' towards it, such
as a greater willingness to return.
Congruency of scent and music as
  a driver of in-store behavior
  Matching high arousal scent and high arousal
  music conditions will lead to enhanced
  (a) pleasure,(b) store environment, (c)impulse
  buying and (d) satisfaction, compared to
  mismatched conditions (ie high/low or low/high).
   For Scents:
    • Lavender = low arousal scent
    • Grapefruit = high arousal scent
   For Music:
    • Slow tempo classical = low arousal music
    • Fast tempo classical = high arousal music
                Sensory Thresholds

     •Absolute Threshold

Subliminal Advertising does not work
If you can sense it, it is above the
threshold and therefore not
Subliminal Messages in Ads
   Critics of subliminal
    persuasion often focus on
    ambiguous shapes in
    drinks that supposedly
    spell out words like S E X
    as evidence for the use of
    this technique.

McDonalds Subliminal
Many ads use hidden messages, most of them
harmless. Can you find the hidden message in this
company logo? If you can see it, it is not subliminal
Differential Threshold
                Stimulus Generalization
         Applications of Stimulus Generalization
Look-Alike Packaging              Family Branding

Product Line Extension              Licensing
        Stimulus Discrimination
  If all brands are perceived to be alike, why
      should consumers buy your brand?

The real thing            The Choice Of A New
   (1970)                  Generation (1984)
How do Consumers
Choose What to Pay
  Attention To?
  Stimulus Selection


Create Contrast so That
Stimuli is More Likely to
Be Noticed.
Lexus Conveys
the Sensation of
Speed in a Novel
Way to Position
Its Vehicles
This Ad Relies on
Color Contrast to
Get Noticed
 research indicates colour selection alone may impact
 sales by a margin of 5 to 40 percent

 What colours compel customers to spend more?
 What colours make people come into a business?
 What are the best colours to use on a web site?
 What are the best colours to use in print advertising?
 What are the best colours to use for stationery;
packaging, products, uniforms
Colour and Demographic Variables

RED                            VIOLET
Impulse                        Magical
Desire                         Enchanting
Passion                        Unimportant
Urge to succeed                Unrealistic
Increases blood pressure       Irresponsible

GRAY                           YELLOW
Neutrality                     Bright
Un-committed and un-involved   Cheerful
Escape from anxiety            Restless
                               Seeking change
                               Creates anxiety

BLUE                           BROWN
traditional                    Reduced sense of vitality
complete calm                  Passive
reduces blood pressure         Solid roots

GREEN                          BLACK
Stimulus for interaction       Negation of emotion
Analytical                     Powerful
Precise                        Strong
Accurate                       Uncontrollable
Resistance to change           Extinction
 Personal Selection Factors

Which belong
The green things
and the blue things
Or the circles and
the bars ?
The meanings that people
assign to sensory stimuli

What things might influence
Consumers assign meaning to stimuli based on
Schema, or set of beliefs, to which the stimuli is

The schema will determine what criteria will be used
to evaluate the
  This Singaporean Ad for Toyota Evokes a Car
Schema Even Though Using Household Furniture


Semiotics: study of how meaning is created
  How do consumers interpret the meanings of
   symbols? What do they mean to people?
Product Positioning
   How are these
products positioned?
How are these companies positioned
In 1998 Pepsi changed the color of its cans from red
and white (Coke’s colors) to blue and white to help
differentiate it from Coca Cola
     Perceptual Map of Brand Images
                      Classy distinctive proud

       Cadillac      Lincoln                                        Porsche
                                         BMW          Lexus
     Mercedes         Chrysler
     Oldsmobile                                  Pontiac              Spirited
                           Buick                                      performance
Conservative                                                          young people
                                                 Honda                fun sporty
older people          Ford
                                       Chevrolet           Nissan
                  Dodge                   Toyota
                             Practical fuel
                          efficient affordable

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