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CSCW and Leisure


									CSCW and Leisure
                   Mattias Esbjörnsson

    Mobility, Interactive Institute –

Mobile Life Vinn Excellence Centre –

(mobile / online) CSCW and
                       Mattias Esbjörnsson

        Mobility, Interactive Institute –

    Mobile Life Vinn Excellence Centre –

              Todays lecture
• During recent years, the CSCW-research has
  experienced an extension of the scope to also
  include studies on leisure activities. This
  movement from traditional studies in work
  settings has provided the audience with
  research on a number of various activities which
  illustrate the possibilities to apply traditional
  CSCW research methods to these contexts, but
  also the relevance of findings from these
  contexts to core CSCW issues. This lecture will
  highlight two leisure oriented research projects.
           Traditional CSCW
• W in a literal sense:
  Work (air traffic
  control, office, video
  conference systems,
• Mainly stationary
CSCW matrix
            ##Mobile CSCW
• A recent turn towards
  mobile collaboration
• Less place dependent
  (see fig previous
• Cover occupational
  groups such as
  – Journalists, Field
    technicians, Firemen,
    Health care, etc.
          The core of CSCW
• Mobile or not, important issues concerns
  – Communication
  – Coordination
  – Sharing
  .....With the use of technology
• tasks conducted in organisational
      CSCW research methods
•   Observational methods
•   Interactional analysis
•   Ethnography
•   Conversational Analysis
•   ....and many others...
       Large body of research
•   CSCW every second year since 1986
•   ECSCW every second year since 1989
•   GROUP every second year since 1997
•   + several journals.....
• A new domain is slowly appearing
• The focus on W(ork) is shifting slowly
  towards more leisure oriented
• Work in the sense of the effort in
  conducting a task
• W as in World
   ”New” settings / applications
• Web 2.0
• Mobile phones
• Communities
  between online and
• Social networking
    ”New” collaborative practices
•   Everyday life
•   Tourism
•   TV watching
•   Online worlds
•   Sports spectating
•   Motorcycling
•   etc.....
Sport spectating and online worlds
• I will dig deeper into two of these:
   – Sport spectating
   – Online worlds
• I will highlight the importance of studying leisure
  activities, and develop applications for leisure
• These contribute with new implications for
  design, and much could be learnt from these
  settings and transfered back to traditional CSCW
          Sports spectating
• Article 1. Esbjörnsson, M., Brown, B.,
  Juhlin, O., Normark, D., Östergren, M. and
  Laurier, E. (2006). Watching the cars go
  round and round: designing for active
  spectating. In Proceedings of CHI 2006.
  ACM Press, pp. 1221-1224.
• Takes place in a number of settings
  (online as well as offline)
  – Online games (lurkers)
  – Everyday life
  – Performances
  – Sports
      Gained recent interest in
       CHI/CSCW research
• ”..designing for those who observe, but do
  not have direct involvement in an event..”
Sports Spectating
Characteristics of rally
Making the rally more attractive
• Spectators at the rally (250 000) vs, TV
  (broadcasted in 202 countries, with up to
  77 million viewers)
• Info on where the nice spots are (e.g.
  Colins Crest)
  Super special stages
• Radio coverage
   Related research on supporting
           rally spectators
• Radio communication as early as 1910...
• Transmitting sensor based information to the audience
   – at the arena – ice hockey/basket
   – Remote audience – Vasaloppet
• Media Event Platform (WAP, SMS, WWW, Radio and
  digital radio) – rally
• CHI 2004 Student design competition, Olympic games,
  Athens – voting systems for arena based events
• Others on Mobile Group Media.....
• ### But these are not CSCW-technologies###
Studying the spectator experience
• Ethnographic study of spectators
• Six car rally events, UK and Sweden
  – From World Rally Series
• 25-30 hours of video recording
• Participation as ordinary spectators
• Observations behind the scenes (the TV
          What people capture
 Practices of spectating – What do
   the people do in the forests?
• ”A nice spot for viewing” (Colins Crest)
  – Up close view vs. overview
• Ranking cars
  – As-you-see-it ranking
  – Up-to-here ranking
  – Overall ranking
• Capturing a drive-by
      So what is it all about?
• The spectators struggle with seeing and
  understanding the race
• And killing time
• ......
    Factors influencing design
• Not focusing on problems
• Make the fun even more fun
• Not automating certain aspects of
• Enhancing the rich experience
• Spread over geographical distance
• Non formal org
           Design lessons
• The ’viewing paradox’
• Active spectators
• Social aspects of spectating

• Combines taking photos and clocking (up-to-
  here ranking)
•   Downloads starting list
•   Taking a photo
•   Insert number
•   Compare with previous car
•   = up-to-here statistics
•   Possibility to share
        Generalized results
• Transfer to other types of spectating
• Enhance the spectator’s engagement
• Combining appreciated activities
            Online worlds
• Article 2. Brown, B. and M. Bell (2004)
  CSCW at play: ‘There’ as a collaborative
  virtual environment. In: Proceedings of
  CSCW 2004, Chicago, IL, p350-359, New
  York: ACM Press
• Collaborative Virtual Environments
• History in CSCW for almost 15 years
• Simulators, games, conferencing system,
          Games and CSCW
• ”..While CSCW has often discussed playful
  collaborative application of system, collaborative
  games have been a neglected topic. Yet games
  are one of the most popular collaborative
  applications currently in use..” (Brown and Bell,
• However, CSCW has increasingly discussed
  design and study of non-work and leisure (IM,
  tourism,communities, mobile phone use, etc.)
• Brown and Bell (2004)
•, released in Oct. 2003
• Studied immediately after release
• There is no overall goal to, its
  environment support a range of activitities (large
• Other more popular MMORPG (Massively
  Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games) now
  with similar characteristics (World of Warcraft,
  Habbo Hotel, Second Life, etc..)
         Focus of the study
• How the game has been adopted by its
• i.e. how its open design has allowed it to
  become something of a platform for
  gaming, and how the system supports
  enjoyable social action amongst its users,
  specifically between strangers
Related research on online games
            and CVE
• Game research (five years ago)
• MUDs, but much about identity online, and
  distant from the player’s actual behaviour
• CVE, shortcomings when it comes to
  referring to objects and gestures (mainly
  from research labs)
       Challenges for CSCW
• Experience (aesthetics, narrative, etc) –
• Pleasure
• Play
• Nine months, two hours weekly
• Virtual ethnography
• Focusing on the interactions between
• Interaction analysis of video recordings
• Inspiration from Sacks
         Specific interest in:
• What form does play take in this
• How have users appropriated to
  support that play?
• These questions are adressed in terms of:
  – Things and money
  – Chat (and the role of the game as a topic)
  – Identity
  – The actual place
Things and money
        • Shared (3D) objects
        • Orientation towards
          (3D) objects
        • Interaction around
          (3D) objects

        • Buying and selling in
          a 2D web interface
          (single user interface)
  • Speech bubbles which
    rise above users as they
    type each word
  • Overlapping chat
  • Resource for entering
  • Spatial issues of bubbles
  • Much of the chat is about
          Status and identity
• Not as many levels as
  in other games
• However, with money
  you can buy cool
  clothes, and other
  equipment such as
  cars, etc.
• Certain areas for certain activities (roads,
  skateramp, etc) these are not suited for
  talk (chat)
• Presence in the environment indicates
  availability for interaction
• Leaving conversations
• Abscences (placing their avatars)
   Lessons for CVEs, games and
    other collaborative systems
• The interaction around objects
• Presentation of chat (integrated in a more
  natural way)
• Carrying out activities together with others
  – social
• Facilitates interaction with strangers
• Resources for play
              The two studies
•   Leisure
•   Online/offline
•   Stationary/mobile
•   Going in and out
•   Interacting with strangers....
• Online / offline leisure provides ”new”
  perspective on CSCW research

• Providing other types of challenges in
  studies of, and development of new
  services for collaboration

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