FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS

					FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS



                Xue Ji
   Chinese Academy of Engineering
             jix@cae.cn



                                    1
BACKGROUND



          While an open source license may give you
          complete freedom to modify and distribute code, it
          can never give you freedom to distribute modified
          code under the licensor’s trademark, or the rights
          in the trademark will eventually evaporate.



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BACKGROUND
                                                 Trademark Law
  Open Source Software v.s. IPR


                                 Trademark                    Copyright Law
   Patent Law                                                  (document)

                                                   Document
                  Linked with
                                                       &
                   hardware
                                                     Code
                                     OSS

  Antitrust Law
                                                                  Contract
                           OSS
                         Enterpise
                                            License                Law



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BACKGROUND              a dilemma - GPL v.s. Trademark Law



                                dilemma



          OSS license                            Trademark
           e.g. GPL                                 Law




     copy and distribute
   VERBATIM copies of the               can not USE a trademark
    Program’s source code                     without grant


2006.10           FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS                4
In Practice

                                       Reserving
 Integrated develop environment      Trademarks
                                     In source code




KERNEL                      Compiling                     Selling
 From                       Packaging                      As a
 OSS                       Integrating                  New software
society




                                     Wipe off\Replace
                                       Trademarks
                                      in source code

2006.10           FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS                     5
Legal Analysis     wipe off\replace, illegal?




   KERNEL                 Compiling                     Selling
    From                 Packaging                       As a
    OSS                 Integrating                   New software
   society




                                   Wipe off\Replace
                                      Trademarks
                                    in source code



2006.10      FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS                       6
Legal Analysis                    wipe off\replace, illegal?


1. Reverse Counterfeit
         Replacing others’ registered
          trademark without grant, and selling
          which in the market means REVERSE
          COUNTEREIT, which is TRADEMARK
          INFRINGEMENT.
          --Chinese Trademark Law
2006.10          FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS                  7
Legal Analysis                    wipe off\replace, illegal?



        wiping off\replacing the
     trademarks in source code
          =Reverse Counterfeit
          =Trademark Infringement




2006.10          FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS                  8
Legal Analysis                  wipe off\replace, illegal?



   KERNEL
                                                                     Selling
               Compiling              Wipe off\Replace
    From                                Trademarks                    As a
              Packaging                in source code              New software
    OSS
             Integrating
   society



                            Against the OSS      Reverse Counterfeit
                            License e.g. GPL




                           Breach the Contract       Trademark
                                                     Infingement


2006.10      FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS                                  9
Legal Analysis                                 reserving, legal?


                                     Reserving
                                    Trademarks
                                   In source code




KERNEL                Compiling                       Selling
 From                 Packaging                        As a
 OSS                 Integrating                    New software
society




2006.10     FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS                      10
Legal Analysis                                                           reserving, legal?

                Reserving the trademarks in the source code

                                                                       STEP 1
                USING in Trademark Law?

          YES                                         NO
                                                                             STEP 2
                     Trademark Infringement?

                                                    No legal Defense

                                                                     Trademark Infringement

                                                     Legal Defense

                                                                             Legal

2006.10                 FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS                                   11
Legal Analysis                                   reserving, legal?



 STEP 1 Reserving=Using?

         Interpretation to Chinese Trademark
          Law,
         Item 52nd—

         Using a same or similar trademark on
          a same or similar goods, without grant,
          leads to trademark infringement.
2006.10           FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS                  12
Legal Analysis                                     reserving, legal?

Traditional view:
copying a trademark ‘hidden’ in source code≠USING a
      trademark

         USING: copying a trademark on package,
          container or contract, or putting a trademark on
          advertisement.
          --Chinese Trademark Law

         USING: For a software, using means copying a
          trademark on dialog box, title bar or copyright
          page when the software is running.
          --Judicial Interpretation of Beijing Prime Court

2006.10             FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS                  13
COPYING A TRADEMARK IN SOURCE CODE=USING

OSS enlarged the scale of USING a trademark
                                       The Source Code is facing all the users
                                       in OSS, while in traditional area, the
                                       source code is ‘hidden’.
     OSS
                            market
   enterprise
                Source
                 Code


                 OSS
                society



2006.10                   FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS                       14
COPYING A TRADEMARK IN SOURCE CODE=USING

 OSS enlarged the scale of USING a trademark
OSS:
Copying the                                        SOFTWARE:
Trademark                                          Displaying the
Hidden in                                          Trademark on title
Source Code.                                       bar, Dialog box
                                                   Or Copyright
                                                   Page when running.



  Traditional Goods:
  Copying the trademark on the package, container or advertisment.

2006.10            FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS                 15
 COPYING A TRADEMARK IN SOURCE CODE=USING




           Conclusion:
            copying a trademark hidden in
            Source Code=USING




2006.10           FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS   16
Legal Analysis                                           reserving, legal?


          Reserving the trademarks in the source code
                                                              STEP 1
                 USING in Trademark Law?

           YES                                NO
                                                                     STEP 2
                    Trademark Infringement?

                                           No legal Defense

                                                            Trademark Infringement

                                            Legal Defense

                                                                    Legal

2006.10               FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS                             17
Legal Analysis                                     reserving, legal?

         STEP 2
          USING a trademark in source code=FARI USE ?
         Descriptive Use
         Indicated Use




2006.10             FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS                  18
DESCRIPTIVE USE
1. DESCRIPTIVE USE

         A trademark used as general title, figure or showing
          the goods’ quality, function, or other descriptive
          feature means a descriptive trademark.
          --Chinese Trademark Law

         A trademark which is descriptive can be fair use.
          --USA Lanham ACT



2006.10              FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS             19
DESCRIPTIVE USE
Descriptive Use of OSS trademarks as LINUX

         LINUX is on the process to apply as registered
          trademark in
            China.

         LINUX has transited to a frequently used term on the
          Internet and do not clearly demonstrate trademark
          usage.

         We should descriptively use LINUX, which is FAIR USE.


2006.10              FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS          20
INDICATIVE USE

1. INDICATIVE USE

 A trademark to indicate the purpose of goods or
  service, especially to show the origin of the
  components, can be used indicatively.
   --EU
 A auto accessory shop may use the auto’s trademark
  indicatively, in a non conspicuous way.
    --CHINA


2006.10         FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS        21
INDICATIVE USE

2. CASE
         To show the true information about the CMOS
          chip, the computer enterprise often USE the
          trademark of the chip enterprise on the
          computer.
         INTEL:
          encourage other computer enterprise using
          the trademark as INTEL INSIDE.


2006.10            FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS         22
INDICATIVE USE

 3. Providing to be Indicative Use?

 Providing 1:
 The aim is to convey the true information of
     the goods to the consumer.

 Providing 2:
  The consumer will not confuse the owner
     of the trademark with the user of the
     trademark.

2006.10      FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS       23
INDICATIVE USE
4. Indicative Use of the OSS= FAIR USE

1.         Most OS License need ‘reserve all the marks verbatim’ is to convey the true information of
           the OSS, rather than promote their software goods as an advertisement.
     --providing 1


2.
                                                     Providing 1:aim to offer true
           The OPENESS of OSS means that, everyone can get others’ source code from the OS
           society, then modify it and redistribute it. information of the goods to the
                                                         Thus, when faced of a OS trademark,
                                                                   consumer.
           consumer can not regard any relation between the trademark USER and the OWNER, not
           to mention confuse them.
          --providing2




                                             Providing 2: The consumer will not
                                             confuse the owner of the trademark
                                               with the user of the trademark
2006.10                      FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS                                        24
CONCLUSION
              Reserving the trademarks
                 In the source code
                      = USING




      Descriptive Use                     Indicative Use


2006.10         FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS               25
CONCLUSION

 Copy and Distribute VERBATIM copies
  of the Program’s source code
  = FAIR USE




2006.10   FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS   26
FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS




          THANK YOU!
                        Xue Ji
           Chinese Academy of Engineering
                     jix@cae.cn

2006.10      FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS   27
致谢

      本论文在研究过程中得到了北京大学 张平女士的极大

      帮助,也希望各位老师能够提出宝贵意见!多谢!

                  联系人:姬学

                  jix@cae.cn




2006.10     FAIR USE of TRADEMARK in OSS   28

				
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