Made in Spain
(At a restaurant or hotel)
English spoken Made in China
Newspapers sold (A fruit in a window shop)
in here Not to be eaten
The passive voice is used in English when it is more convenient or interesting to
stress the thing done than the doer of it, or when the doer is unknown.
La voz pasiva se usa en Inglés cuando es más conveniente o interesante enfatizar la acción realizada o cuando el que hace la acción
Subject verb object
Active voice The students paint the tables
Passive voice The tables are painted by the students
Subject of verb
By : preposición usada para introducir el complemento agente “por”
Simple Present (be) am /is /are + past participle
The child break the windows s
The windows are broken by the child
Nota: El verbo BE tiene que coordinar en singular o plural con el sujeto
Present continuous (be) am /is /are + being + past participle
Someone is singing a song
A song is being sung
Nota: Cuando el sujeto es desconocido o no es concreto (they/someone/anyone/nobody/people…)no se usa
el complemento agente: by someome
Simple Past (be) was/were + past participle
The children broke the windows
The windows were broken by the children
Shakespeare wrote “Hamlet”
“Hamlet” was written by Shakespeare
Auxiliary TO BE Past
Present The car/cars is are designed.
Present perfect The car/cars has been have been designed.
Past simple The car/cars was were designed.
Past perfect The car/cars had been designed.
Future The car/cars will be designed.
Future perfect The car/cars will have been designed.
The car/cars is being are being designed.
Past progressive The car/cars was being were being designed.
PUT THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO THE PASSIVE USING
THE PART UNDERLINED AS THE SUBJECT
1. Someone reads to the old lady every morning.
2. A car ran over our dog.
3. People will simply laugh at you for your trouble.
4. They asked Maisie why she went about with a silly person like me.
5. The wind blew my hat off.
6. People will laugh at you if you go out dressed like that.
7. Someone has stolen my collection of knives.
8. Nobody had eaten the dinner before they finished the conversation
9. Did the noise frighten you?.
10. A new company has taken the business over.
11. I hate people looking at me.
12. He wishes to see that they have carried out his instructions
If the active voice sentence has two objects (a
direct object and an indirect object), we can
make the passive voice in two different ways
Si la oración en voz activa tiene dos objetos (uno directo y otro indirecto), podremos construir la voz pasiva de dos maneras
diferentes. Tengamos en cuenta que en español no se admite el objeto indirecto como sujeto de la pasiva, siendo en inglés, sin
embargo, la forma más usada)
e.g. My mother gave me a beautiful present for my birthday
1. A beautiful present was given to me for my birthday by my mother
2. I was given a beautiful present for my birthday by my mother
Sentences with doble object
Put the following sentences into the passive
voice. (Write them in the two different ways)
1. She showed the visitors the new baby.
2. They gave me 10 change at the shop
3. She promised him some money for his birthday.
4. They didn't tell me the truth about the situation.
5. The police gave me 5€ reward
1. An announcer is reading the news.
2. Horses pull carts.
3. The Queen is opening that hospital next week.
4. The Prime Minister is making a speech this evening.
5. A policeman is using the phone.
6. A greengrocer sells potatoes.
7. Teenagers buy a lot of pop records.
8. Architects design buildings.
9. Father is cooking the dinner. Mother is cleaning up the kitchen afterwards.
10. A group of small boys are feeding the monkeys.
11. Bees make honey.
12. They have arrested the thief.
13. An unemployed labourer was repairing my roof.
14. Floods swept away the wooden bridge.
15. They were drinking toasts.
16. They close the shop at one o’clock.
17. Prisoners are building the new road.
18. The Mayor is judging the fancy dress parade.
19. A fourteen-year-old boy was driving the car.
20. Mice must have eaten the cheese that the maid left out of the table.(Two verbs. Change the order of
the two parts of the sentence)
Sentences using auxiliary verbs
1. People will simply laugh at you for your trouble.
2. People ought not to speak about such things in public.
3. Teachers should make lessons more interesting for pupils.
4. People will laugh at you if you go out dressed like that.
5. We shall lock the house up for the summer and the old gardener will look after
6. You must not throw away empty bottles.
7. Nobody can answer that question.
8. They should not make the party an excuse for getting drunk.
9. You must account for every penny.
10. I should love someone to take me to dinner.
11. They ought to finish this job by tomorrow. (infinitive)
12. You must not hammer nails into the walls without permission.
13. Will they mend the roof of their old house?
14. We will not admit children under sixteen.
15. Children couldn’t have done this damage.
Much more activities (advanced)
1. Somebody must have taken it while I was out 17. They should made the celebration an excuse for
2. You must iron this dress for tonight bad behaviour
3. Did the noise frighten you? 18. People generally assume that money brings
4. The orchestra played that piece beautifully happiness
5. He’s so good at golf that nobody can beat him 19. Let me know if there is anything we should do
6. The doctor had to operate on him to find out 20. They gave the thief a fair trial and sent him to
what was wrong prison
7. Didn’t anybody ever teach you how to behave? 21. Poverty drove him to desperation
8. They did nothing until he came 22. You must account for every penny
9. I can assure you I will arrange everything in 23. A new company has taken the business over
time (two passives) 24. They tell me somebody has shot your uncle
10. Somebody will meet the visitors at the station 25. Somebody can’t have shut the safe properly
11. A sudden increase in water pressure would 26. They can’t put you in prison if they haven’t tried
break the dam you
12. One cannot eat an orange if nobody has peeled 27. We’ll have to examine you again
it 28. People say that tortoises live longer than
13. They took the collection half-way through the elephants
meeting 29. I should love someone to take me out for
14. The police are sure to ask you that question dinner
15. Her beauty struck me deeply
16. You needn’t think your joke took me in
El “se” pasivo
Se venden coches
(No nos interesa quién los vende, nos interesa qué es
No hay otra forma de traducir este “se” al inglés
salvo en forma pasiva.
Cars are sold
(usaremos el mismo tiempo empleado en la activa)
Se arreglaban bicicletas Bikes were repaired
Se han escrito miles de libros Thousands of books have been
• Para saber hacer bien una pasiva es importante saber diferenciar
correctamente las distintas partes de la oración, sobre todo saber
localizar los complementos directos e indirectos dentro de la
No se debe olvidar que la pasiva se construye para resaltar el
objeto sobre el sujeto, esto es, es más importante qué se hace que
quién lo hace.
• By es la preposición usada para introducir el complemento agente.
Significa por (no se puede confundir con “for”)
• Cuando el sujeto de la activa es negativo Nobody… la oración pasiva
Nobody can see you you can’t be seen
• Cuando pasamos un objeto indirecto a pasiva como tal, no
podemos olvidar que necesitamos incluir to:
My mother gave me a gift---- A gift was given to me
INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS AFTER PASSIVE VERBS
After acknowledge, assume, believe, claim, consider, estimate, feel, find, know, presume,
report, say, think, understand etc.
Sentences of the type People think/ consider/ know etc. that he is... have two possible passive forms:
1. It is thought/considered/known that he is....
2. He is thought/considered/known to be...
People believe that he writes novels
1. It’s believed that he writes novels
2. He’s believed to write novels
When the thought concerns a previous action we used the perfect infinitive (TO HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE) so
People know that he was..... (Nota que el primer verbo está en presente y el segundo en pasado)
= It is known that he was.....
or He is known to have been.......
(PRESENTE) (INFINITIVO PERFECTO)
People believe that he was a spy
= It is believed that he was a spy
or He is believed to have been a spy
This is HENRY. He is very old but nobody knows exactly how old
he is. But:
It is said that he is 108 years old
He is said to be 108 years old
Both sentences mean “People say that he is 108 years old”
People say that Henrry eats ten eggs a day
It is said that Henry eats ten eggs a day Henry is said to eat ten eegs a day
You can also use these structures with:
thought believed reported understood known
expected alleged considered
• It is believed that the wanted • The wanted man is believed to be
man is living in New York living in New York
• It is expected that the strike will • The strike is expected to begin
begin tomorrow tomorrow
• It is alleged that he stole $60 • He is alleged to have stolen $60
• It was alleged that he had stole • He was allegued to have stolen
• It is reported that two people • Two people were reported to
were killed in the explosion have been killed in the explosion
• Write another sentence with the same meaning
1. It is said that many people are homeless after the floods
2. It is known that the Prime Minister is in favor of the new law
The Prime Minister_____________________________________
3. It is expected that the government will lose the election
4. It is thought that the prisioner escaped by climbing over the wall
5. It is believed that the thieves got in through the kitchen window
6. It is alleged that he drove through the town at 90 miles an hour
7. It is reported that two people were seriously injured during the accident
8. It is said that three men were arrested after the explosion
• Three different examples
1. Let’s go and see that film. It’s supposed to be very good
( People say that it is very good=it is said to be very good)
2. I’d better hurry. It’s nearly 8.30. I’m supposed to be
meeting Tom at 8.15 (=I arranged to meet Tom)
3. You are not supposed to park here (you aren’t allowed to park
• There are a lot of stories about Arthur but nobody knows whether they
are true. Make sentences with supposed to
Example: People say that Arthur eats spiders Arthur is supposed to eat spiders
1. People say that Arthur is very rich
2. People say that he has 22 children
3. People say that he sleeps on a bed of nails
4. People say that he won a lot of money gambling
5. People say that he writes poetry
• In each of the following example what happens is not what is supposed to happen.
Use supposed to or not supposed to.
Clean come be smoke phone study take
Example: Tom you are smoking! But you are not supposed to smoke in this room
Why are the windows still dirty? You were supposed to clean them
1. What are the children doing at home? They _________ at school
2. He __________ in the evenings but he always goes out
3. Don’t put sugar in your tea. You know you ___________sugar
4. Oh dear! I _________________ Ann but I completely forgot
5. They arrived very early – at 2.00. They ________________ until 3.00