Nutrition

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					Nutrition
Influences on Your Food
Choices
  Hunger & Appetite
    Hunger is the physical NEED for food
    Appetite is the DESIRE to eat something
  Emotions
    Stressed, depressed, frustration
  Environment
      Family, Friends, Peers
      Ethnicity
      Convenience & Cost
      Advertising
Nutrients

    Carbs
    Proteins
    Fats
    Vitamins
    Minerals
Carbs

  What are they?
    Starches & sugars present in the food you
     eat
  Why are they important?
    They are the preferred energy source for
     your body
    55-60% of your daily calories should come
     from this nutrient
Carbs
 2 different types:
    Simple
       Sugars such as fructose, lactose, (found in fruit & milk) &
        sucrose
    Complex
       Starches found in whole grains, seeds, nut, legumes, &
        tubers (root vegetables)
       Fiber
             Indigestible complex carb
             Found in tough stringy parts of fruits, vegetables, whole grain
             Helps move waste through the body
             20-35 g per day
Carbs

  Role they play:
    Body converts all carbs to glucose, a simple
     sugar, that is the bodies main source of
     energy.
    If not used right away stored in liver &
     muscles as glycogen.
    If take in more carbs than body needs they
     are stored in the form of fat.
Proteins

  What are they?
    Made up of long chains of Amino Acids. Our
     bodies can manufacture all but 9 of the 20
     different amino acids.
      These 9 are referred to as the 9 essential Amino
       Acids. We must get them from food.
  Why are they important?
    Nutrients that help build & maintain body
     cells & tissues.
Proteins

  2 different types:
    Complete
       Contain adequate amounts of all 9 AA.
       Found in animal & soybean products
    Incomplete
       Lack one or more of the 9 AA.
       Beans peas, nuts, whole grains
Proteins

  Role they play:
    Many functions
       Any growth periods during our life (infancy,
        childhood, adolescence, & pregnancy).
    Any time our body has damaged or worn out
     cells or muscle tissue.
    Enzyme, hormone, and anitbody production
Fats

  What are they?
    They are a type of lipid. Lipids are fatty
     substances that do not dissolve in water.
  Why are they important?
    Fats are necessary for good health and
     provide 2x the energy per gram as carbs.
Fats
 4 different types:
    Saturated
       Solid at room temp
       Usually come from animal fats & tropical oils
    Unsaturated
       Mono & Poly
       Liquid at room temp
       Usually come from vegetable oils (olive, canola, soybean,
        corn etc)
Fats
   Trans
      Trans fat is the common name for unsaturated fat with
       trans-isomer fatty acid(s).
      Trans fats may be monounsaturated or polyunsaturated
       but never saturated.

   Cholesterol
      Waxy lipidlike substance; circulates in the blood, body uses
       small amounts to make cell membranes, nerve tissue, &
       hormone production, vitamin D, & bile.
Fats

  Role they play:
    Provide a concentrated form of energy
    Play a vital role in the transport of vitamins
     A, D, E, & K
    Should only consume 20-30% of daily
     caloric intake from fats.
    Serve as sources of linoleic acid.
       An essential fatty acid that is needed for growth
        and healthy skin
Vitamins

  What are they?
    Compounds that are classified as Water or
     Fat soluble. Ex.: C, B, folic acid, niacin, A, D,
     E, K
  Why are they important?
    Regulate many vital body processes.
     (digestion, absorption, & metabolism of other
     nutrients)
Vitamins

  2 different types:
    Water Soluble
       Dissolve in water & pass easily into the blood
        during digestion.
       Body does not store these vitamins; must be
        replenished frequently
    Fat soluble
       Absorbed, stored, & transported in fat
Vitamins

  Role they play:
    Many varied roles.
    See fig. 5.1 pg 119
             5.2 pg 120
Minerals

  What are they?
    Substances the body cannot manufacture
  Why are they important?
    Needed for healthy bones & teeth and
     regulating many body processes.
Minerals

  Many different types:
  4 most common are:
    Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, & Iron
Minerals

  Role they play:
    See fig. 5.3 pg 121
MyPyramid
Grains

  Make half your grains eaten whole grains
  Eat at least 3 oz of whole grains
   everyday
 What foods are in the grain group?

  Any food made from wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley
  or another cereal grain is a grain product. Bread, pasta,
  oatmeal, breakfast cereals, tortillas, and grits are
  examples of grain products.

  Grains are divided into 2 subgroups, whole grains and
  refined grains.
Grains
 Whole                         Refined
 Whole grains contain the      Refined grains have been
  entire grain kernel -- the     milled, a process that
  bran, germ, and                removes the bran and
  endosperm. Examples            germ. This is done to give
  include:                       grains a finer texture and
 whole-wheat flour              improve their shelf life,
                                 but it also removes
 bulgur (cracked wheat)         dietary fiber, iron, and
 oatmeal                        many B vitamins. Some
 whole cornmeal                 examples of refined grain
 brown rice                     products are:
                                     white flour
                                     degermed cornmeal
                                     white bread
                                     white rice
Veggies

    Vary your veggies
    Eat more dark green veggies
    Eat more orange veggies
    Eat more dried beans and peas
 What foods are in the vegetable group?

 Any vegetable or 100% vegetable juice counts
  as a member of the vegetable group.
  Vegetables may be raw or cooked; fresh,
  frozen, canned, or dried/dehydrated; and may
  be whole, cut-up, or mashed.
  Vegetables are organized into 5 subgroups,
  based on their nutrient content.
5 subgroups
  Dark green vegetables       Starchy vegetables
   bok choy                     corn
   broccoli                     green peas
   collard greens               lima beans (green)
   dark green leafy lettuce     potatoes
   kale
   mesclun
   mustard greens
   romaine lettuce
   spinach
   turnip greens
   watercress
5 subgroups

  Orange vegetables    Dry beans and peas
                         black beans
   acorn squash          black-eyed peas
   butternut squash      garbanzo beans
                         (chickpeas)
   carrots               kidney beans
   hubbard squash        lentils
                         lima beans (mature)
   pumpkin               navy beans
   sweetpotatoes         pinto beans
                         soy beans
                         split peas
                         tofu (bean curd made
                         from soybeans)
                         white beans
5 subgroups
  Other vegetables    Other vegetables
   artichokes          green beans
   asparagus            green or red peppers
   bean sprouts         iceberg (head) lettuce
   beets                mushrooms
   Brussels sprouts     okra
                        onions
   cabbage              parsnips
   cauliflower          tomatoes
   celery               tomato juice
   cucumbers            vegetable juice
   eggplant             turnips
                        wax beans
                        zucchini
Fruits

  Eat a variety of fruits
  Choose between fresh, frozen, canned, &
   dried
  Go easy on fruit juices
    LOTS OF ADDED SUGAR!!
 What foods are in the fruit group?

 Any fruit or 100% fruit juice counts as
 part of the fruit group. Fruits may be
 fresh, canned, frozen, or dried, and may
 be whole, cut-up, or pureed.
 Apples          Grapefruit
  Apricots         Grapes
  Avocado          Kiwi fruit
  Bananas          Lemons
 Berries:         Limes
  strawberries     Mangoes
  blueberries     Melons:
  raspberries      cantaloupe
  cherries         honeydew
                   watermelon
Oils

  Make most of your fat source from fish,
   nuts, and vegetable oils
  Limit solid fats such as butter, margarine,
   shortening, and lard
 What are “oils”?

 Oils are fats that are liquid at room
 temperature, like the vegetable oils used
 in cooking. Oils come from many different
 plants and from fish.
Milk

  Go low fat or fat free
  If you don’t or can’t consume milk, look
   for lactose free alternatives for your
   calcium source!
 What foods are included in the milk, yogurt,
  and cheese (milk) group?
  All fluid milk products and many foods made
  from milk are considered part of this food
  group. Foods made from milk that retain their
  calcium content are part of the group, while
  foods made from milk that have little to no
  calcium, such as cream cheese, cream, and
  butter, are not. Most milk group choices should
  be fat-free or low-fat
Meats

  Choose low fat or lean meats and
   poultry.
  Bake it, broil it, or grill it!!
  Vary your choices
    More fish, beans, nuts, and seeds
 What foods are included in the meat, poultry, fish,
  dry beans, eggs, and nuts (meat & beans) group?

  All foods made from meat, poultry, fish, dry beans or
  peas, eggs, nuts, and seeds are considered part of this
  group. Dry beans and peas are part of this group as well
  as the vegetable group
 Most meat and poultry choices should be lean or low-fat.
  Fish, nuts, and seeds contain healthy oils, so choose
  these foods frequently instead of meat or poultry.
Calorie Levels
Food Labels
    Serving Size
    Serving per container
    Calories
    Total Fat
    Cholesterol
    Sodium
    Total Carbs
    Protein
    Vitamins & Minerals
    Ingredient list
Additives & Substitutes
PRODUCT labeling

    Light or Lite
    Less
    Free
    More
    High, Rich in, Excellent source of
    Lean
PRODUCT labeling

  Dating
      Expiration
      Freshness
      Pack
      Sell by
Food Sensitivities

  Allergies
  Intolerance
Food Sensitivities

  Foodborne Illness
  Causes & Symptoms
  Minimizing Risks of foodborne illness
      Clean
      Separate
      Cook
      Chill

				
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posted:8/18/2012
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