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Newborn Development

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					Newborn Development

  Reflexes, Senses, & States of Arousal
                            Reflexes:
   Reflexes: are inborn, automatic
    response to particular forms of
    stimulation.

     Survival   reflexes: EX:
          Rooting reflex
          Sucking reflex
     Basis   for complex motor skills. EX:
          Tonic neck reflex
          Stepping reflex
                  Newborn Reflexes
   Eye Blink: Protects infant from strong stimulation

   Rooting: Helps infant find the nipple

   Sucking: Permits feeding

   Swimming: Helps infant survive if dropped into body of water.

   Moro: In human evolutionary past, may have helped infant cling to mother

   Palmer Grasp: Prepares infant for voluntary grasping

   Tonic Neck: May prepare infant for voluntary reaching

   Stepping: Prepares infant for voluntary walking

   Babinski: Unknown
Reflexes and Social
  Relationships
        Reflexes can help comfort
         the baby, since they permit
         infants to control distress and
         amount of stimulation to
         some degree themselves.

          Ex:
             If a baby becomes fussy-
           What do you do?
               Do you give them a pacifier?
                     Why?
Assessing Reflexes
        Helps assess overall health

        Most disappear the first six
         months.

          Ex:Brain Damage: Reflexes
           may be weak, absent,
           exaggerated, or overly rigid.
            Newborn Senses:

 Touch
 Taste
 Smell
 Hearing
 Vision
               Senses: Touch

   Responsive to all different
    types of touch, temperature
    changes, and pain.

   Responds to touch around
    the mouth, palms of hands,
    and soles of feet.
                 Senses: Taste
   Prefers sweetness. Breast milk is sweet.

     Can  distinguish between sweet, salty, sour, and bitter
      tastes.
                Senses: Smell
   Baby can recognize mother
    just by smell!

   Reacts to certain foods:EX

     Bananas   and chocolate
      causes a relaxed, pleasant
      facial expression.
     Babies turn away from
      unpleasant smell.
     Rotten eggs makes infant
      frown.
             Senses: Hearing
   Prefer complex sounds to pure tones

     Expressive   voices, high pitched, with
      intonation.
     Prefers mothers voice over all others.
                Senses: Vision
   Least well developed

   Faces, even close up, are blurred

   Eye movement is slow and inaccurate

   Attracted to bright objects

   Color vision not well developed.
     Likes colored objects rather than gray stimuli
     Not able to distinguish colors
Senses: Vision (cont’d)
              Looks at a single feature
               not the whole object
                 Corner of a triangle


              Scans visual field and
               attempts to track moving
               objects

              Perceive objects at a
               distance of 20 feet about
               as clearly as adults do at
               600 feet.
      Newborn States of Arousal
   Regular Sleep: 8-9 hours
     REM
   Irregular Sleep: 8-9 hours
     NREM
   Drowsiness: varies

   Quiet alertness: 2-3
    hours

   Waking activity and
    crying: 1-4 hours
                Regular Sleep
 Full rest
 NREM: Non-Rapid
  Eye Movement
     Eyelids    are closed, no
      eye movement occur
     Face is relaxed
     Breathing is slow and
      regular
     little or no body
      movements
           Irregular Sleep
 Gentle limb movements
  (twitching)
 Occasional stirring
 Facial grimacing occur
 Eye movement can be
  seen beneath them
 Breathing is irregular
                   Drowsiness
   Falling asleep or waking up

   Body is less active than
    irregular sleep

   Eyes open and close
     When   open, they have a glaze
      look

   Regular breathing but
    somewhat faster
              Quiet alertness
   Body is relatively inactive

   Eyes open and attentive

   Breathing is even
      Waking Activity and Crying
   Frequent bursts of
    uncoordinated body activity

   Breathing is very irregular

   Face may be relaxed or tense
    and wrinkled

   Crying may occur
                            Crying
   Why do infants cry?
     Firstway of communicating
     Different cries mean different
      things.
          Physical need
          Response to temp change
          Too much stimulus
          Loud noise or startled
          Hear other babies crying
          Sickness
   What do you do when you
    hear a baby cry?
How To Sooth A Crying Baby
 Lift baby to the shoulder and walk or rock
 Swaddling
 Pacifier
 Talk softly
 Play rhythmic music
 Car ride
 Massage

				
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