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					     The Future of
Environmental Diversity
                  AGENDA
• Identify the major demographic changes in the
  United States
• Examine the educational attainment levels of
  these diverse populations
• Predict the workforce of tomorrow
• Implement a plan of action
Demographic Shifts
                  Changing Demographics


•   The United States Population will experience major demographic changes
    over the next six decades


•   Population Increases
     – Hispanic
     – Asian-Pacific Islander
     – African American
     – Native Americans
•   Population Decreases
     – White Non-Hispanic Population
                    2000 Census Highlights


•   Between July 1, 1990 and July 1, 1999:
     –   The Asian and Pacific Islander population grew 43 % to 11.9 million
     – Hispanic Population: grew 57.9 % to 35.3 million.
     – White population: increased 7.3 % to 211 million.
     – Black Population: remained the country’s largest minority group,
         experiencing a 13.8 % rise to 34.8 million.
     – American Indian and Alaska Native population: increased 110 % to
         4.13 million.
                                                  Source: U.S. Census Bureau, January 2001
Current Population
                        Population Estimates
                            1995 - 2000
                                       Number in Thousands
250,000
200,000
150,000
100,000
 50,000
         0     1995           1996            1997           1998            1999      2000
   White      193,328        194,037         194,746       195,414          196,049   196,659
   Black      31,590         31,951          32,339        32,718           33,092    33,476
   Hispanic   27,107         28,099          29,182        30,252           31,337    32,440
   API         8,846          9,186           9,537          9,863          10,186    10,504
   Native      1,932          1,956           1,979          2,002           2,026     2,050




              Source: Population Estimates, US Census Bureau, August 2000
                   Population Projections


By the year 2020, our population will be 326,000,000, an increase of 24%.

    – Hispanics will surpass Blacks as the largest minority by 2015.

         • By 2025 Hispanics will account for 15.7% of the US’s total
           population, compared to 13.9% Black, and 7.0% Asian

    – Native Americans will double in number.

    – The Asian population will grow fastest in all regions of the country.
                         Population Estimates
                             2006 - 2010
                                    Numbers in thousands
300,000

200,000

100,000

         0
                2006              2007               2008              2009      2010

   W hite      199,923           200,430           200,936            201,444   201,956

   Bl
    ack        35,845             36,249            36,657            37,069    37,482

   Hispanic    39,307             40,416            41,515            42,606    43,687

   API         12,879             13,265            13,652            14,043    14,435

   Native       2,169             2,221             2,247              2,273     2,299




              Source: Population Estimates, US Census Bureau, August 2000
                                Key Points

•   No matter how Race and Hispanic Origin is tabulated, it is clear that the next
    century will experience major demographic shifts.

•   Because our nation’s labor force will be increasingly comprised of people of
    color, it is in the best interest of employers that ethnic minorities are achieving
    at every academic and professional level

•   Significant gaps exist in the educational attainment levels of Non-Hispanic
    Whites and People of Color
Educational Attainment
                   High School Completion


•   During the last 20 years, African Americans and Hispanics ages 18-24 have
    improved their high school completion rates. However, these rates continue to
    trail that of Non-Hispanic Whites.

•   The gap between high school completion for whites and African Americans
    was 8 percentage points. Between Whites and Hispanics, high school
    completion rates were more than 20 percentage points.

     – In 1997, high school completion rates for African Americans declined for a 3rd
       consecutive year to 74.7%

     – Hispanics high school completion rates increased to 62%
                            College Enrollment

•   A record 14.9 million students enrolled in colleges and universities last fall, according
    to the U.S. Department of Education. The figure is up from 14.7 million in 1998 and
    represents an increase of 10 % over the last decade.

•   Enrollment in institutions of higher education is expected to rise between 1996 and the
    year 2008.
     – The most important factor in the projected rise of college enrollment is the
        projected increase of 18 % in the traditional college-age population of 18 to 24-
        year-olds. (Baby Boom Echo)
     – The 18 to 24-year-old population is projected to increase 18% by the year 2008.
Projections of College Enrollment
            1998-2009
                     Enrollment in public and private 2-year and 4-year colleges,
                                by attendance status: Fall 1985 to fall 2010
Number of students                                   (In millions)
        12


                                                                          (Projected)
        10

                 Full-time
         8


         6

                 Part-time
         4


         2


         0
         1985                1990             1995               2000              2005              2010

                                                         Fall
     SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Projections of Education
     Statistics to 2010.

      Between 2000 and 2010, full-time enrollment is projected to increase by 19%, and part-
      time enrollment is projected to increase by 11%.


          Source: National Center for Education Statistics, August 1999
                       College Enrollment


•   Undergraduate enrollment is projected to increase at an annual growth rate of
    1.0 % during the 1996-2002 period and 1.2 % during the 2002-2008 period.

     – Full Time Enrollment will increase by 19%

     – Part Time Enrollment will increase by 11%

•   Demographic Shifts

     – 1979: Students of Color comprised only 16% of total college students

     – 2000: Students of Color comprised 31% of total college students
            Diversity In Higher Education


•   According to a report by the Educational Testing Service, over the next 15
    years, enrollment at American colleges will increase 19 %, to 16 million, and
    minority students will account for 80 percent of that growth.

     – The proportion of students who are Black will rise from 12.8 % in 1995 to
       13.2 % by 2015
     – Hispanic student participation will rise from 10 % to about 15 %
     – Asian student participation will rise from 5.4 % to 8.4 %.
     – Non-Hispanic White student participation will decline from 71 % to 63
       % during the same period.
               Students of Color in Environmental
                            Programs
  •      The number of students of color pursuing environmentally related degrees
         relative to their total proportion is increasing, although slowly.
  •      From 1987 to 1997 there was a 10% increase of students of color earning
         environmentally related bachelor’s degrees.
  •      Hispanic, African, Asian and Native American students made up 23% of those
         receiving bachelor’s degrees in environmentally related disciplines, compared

         to their total population representation of 28%




Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, August 1999
        Minority Students Receiving
      Environmental Bachelor’s Degrees

90%
80%               87%
70%                                  77%
60%
50%
                                                 White
40%                                              Non-White
30%
20%                                        23%
10%                     13%
0%
           1987               1997
                    People of Color with Environmental
                            Bachelor’s Degrees
                                           White                  Black                   Latino            API            NA



   Agriculture                                      20,313                  600                      616            548          181


   Architecture                                      5,850                  301                      579            663           40


   Business                                        166,729                19,999                   11,787         13,952        1,122


   Engineering                                      42,642                 3,149                    3,072          7,257         268


   Eng. Tech                                        10,826                 1,383                     488            478           97


   Liberal studies                                  26,126                 3,607                    2,855          1,233         344


   Life Science                                     46,398                 4,209                    2,839          8,729         346

   Multidisciplinary                                19,347                 2,074                    2,441          1,722         175


   Parks/Recreation                                 13,187                  932                      673            280          101


   Physical Science                                 15,368                 1,140                     566           1685          103


   Public Affairs                                   14,623                 3,640                    1,425           566          226


   Social Science                                   93,662                11,298                    7,836          7,379         877

   Totals                                          475,071                52,332                   35,177         44,492        3880




Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, August 1999
           Minority Students Receiving
       Environmental Master’s Degrees 1997
           90%
           80%                                   87%
           70%                                                                                77%
           60%
           50%
                                                                                                          White
           40%                                                                                            Non-White
           30%
           20%                                                                                      23%
           10%                                                 13%
             0%
                                       1987                                         1997




Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, August 1999
              Minority Students Receiving
          Environmental Master’s Degrees 1997
                                       White                  Black                  Latino           API            NA


 Agriculture                                     3,256                  138                     89            127          21


 Architecture                                    2,620                  160                    198            255          17


 Business                                       67,531                 6,359                  3,163          5,681        320


 Engineering                                    13,210                  713                    721           2,453         56

 Eng. Tech                                        786                    67                     15             35           1


 Liberal studies                                2,2378                  140                     76             48          16


 Life Science                                    4,519                  246                    188            582          23


 Multidisciplinary                               2,224                  156                    132             86          22


 Parks/Recreation                                1,657                  114                     41             30          11


 Physical Science                                3,316                  150                    111            321          17


 Public Affairs                                 18,092                 3,234                  1,300           773         195


 Social Science                                  9,928                  954                    549            609          65


 Totals                                        149,517                12,431                  6,583         11,000        764




Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, August 1999
                From Academia To Careers

•   Despite the educational gains that have been made by students of color, as well
    as the closing of the gap between minority students and their White
    counterparts, there remains a critical lack of minority students in
    environmentally-related fields of study.
•   Although it is uncertain what factors influence students of color to pursue and
    environmental degree, the relatively small growth in the diverse environmental
    professionals over the past decade indicates that greater intervention and
    exposure to the field is necessary in order to generate interest.
The Environmental Workforce
  The Environmental Field Will Experience
   Modest Growth over the Next Decade
                                               Employment By Occupation
                                                2000 and Projected 2010

                               Occupation        Employment (in                  Change
                                                  thousands)
                                                2000        2010          Number           %

                            Biological           73          88             15            21.0
                            Scientists
                            Conservation         16          18             2             8.3
                            Scientists
                            Forest               20          22             1             3.9
                            Conservation
                            Other Life           28          33             4             15.9
                            Scientists
                            Chemists             84         100             16            19.1

                            Environmental        64          78             14            22.3
                            Scientists
                            Geoscientists        25          30             5             18.1

                            Hydrologists         8           10             2             25.7

                            Economists           22          26             4             18.5

                            Env. Protection      27          34             7             24.5
                            Techs




Source: The Hudson Institute. Workforce 2000
Significant Sources of Career Preparation
  Most Significant Source of                                   Employment
   Education or Training
                                           Number                                     Percent

                                    2000                2010                   2000                   2010

Total, All Occupations          145,954         167,754                 100.00                  100.00

Bachelor's or higher degree     30,072          36,556                  20.7                    21.8

 First Professional Degree      2,034           2,404                   1.4                     1.4

 Doctorate                      1,492           1,845                   1.0                     1.1

 Master’s                       1,426           1,759                   1.0                     1.0

 Bachelor’s or Higher PLUS      7,319           8,741                   5.0                     5.2
Work Experience
 Bachelor’s Degree              17,801          21,807                  12.2                    13.0

Associate Degree or             11,761          14,600                  8.1                     8.7
Vocational Award
 Associate Degree               5,083           6,710                   3.5                     4.0

 Postsecondary Award            6,678           7,891                   4.6                     4.7

Work-Related Training           103,760         116,597                 71.3                    69.5

 Work Experience in a related   10,456          11,559                  7.2                     6.9
Occupation
 Long Term On the Job           12,435          13,373                  8.5                     8.0
Training
 Moderate Tem On the Job        27,671          30,794                  19.0                    18.4
Training
Short Term On the Job           53,198          60,871                  36.5                    36.3
Training
Composition of American Workforce by Ethnic
   Group, Percent 1995-2020 (Projected)

                            100%          4            5              5              5            6     6
                            90%
                                          9           10             11             12           13     14
   % of Total Labor Force




                                          11          11             11
                            80%                                                     11           11     11
                            70%

                            60%                                                                               Asian
                            50%
                                                                                                              Hispanic
                                                                                                              Black
                            40%           76          74             73             72           70     68    White
                            30%

                            20%

                            10%

                             0%
                                        1995        2000           2005           2010          2015   2020

                                   Sources:    Bureau of Labor Statistics projections to 2005
                                               Hudson Institute projections 2010-2020
                                        Workforce Trends
•     The nation’s workforce will continue to become more ethnically diverse.
       – Non-Hispanics Whites will still account for 68 % of the workforce in
          2020.
       – In Western states, though, diversification will be more significant, as the
          Hispanic and Asian populations and workforce rise rapidly.

•     Because economic growth depends on worker productivity, the educational
      attainments of today’s students raise an important concern for tomorrow’s
      workforce.
       – Educational levels need to be raised for all, but the continuing disparities
           between white and minority students presents major challenges.
       – The dismantling of affirmative action in California, Texas, Washington
           and Florida could contribute to lower enrollments of minority populations
           and public colleges and universities.




Source: The Hudson Institute. Workforce 2000
                        Workforce Trends

•   Limited Growth in Environmental Field creates competition for relatively
    small number of jobs

•   Without prior work experience, as well as exposure to the profession, it will be
    extremely difficult for students of color to find meaningful employment in the
    environmental field

•   Thousands of Professionals of Color are likely to migrate to faster growing
    industries unless opportunities are created which can attract them to the
    environmental field
Opportunities
    WHAT KIND OF ISSUE IS DIVERSITY
      FOR YOUR ORGANIZATION?
•   Access
•   Equity
•   Mission/Values
•   Rewards
•   Incentives
•   Response to a Mandate
•   Non-Issue
     – By Choice
     – Lack of Awareness
            WHAT KIND OF ISSUE CAN
            DIVERSITY BE FOR YOUR
               ORGANIZATION?
•   Mentoring

•   Broadening of core competencies

•   Greater outreach to communities of color

•   Stimulus for learning in a cross-cultural environment

•   Mission Re-vitalization
                     Impacting the Field

•   Empowering a diverse workforce expands the capacity of the environmental
    field.

•   Creating opportunities makes an organization both accessible and marketable
    to employees and communities of color.

•   Communities, in turn, will expand the scope and the capacity of the
    organization.
                                Next Steps

•   Define what Diversity is for you and your organization

•   Create an assessment plan to determine what role diversity currently plays in
    your organization.

•   Develop a sense of social ethics and social responsibility.

•   Commit resources

•   Mentor multiple interns.
      For More Information
Michael Ho
Diversity Associate
The Environmental Careers Organization
Michaelh@eco.org

				
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