Management of health_ safety and security in the salon by wuyunyi

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									UV40462
Management of health, safety
and security in the salon
Through this unit you will develop your management skills
around the implementation and management of health,
safety and security practices in your salon.

You will evaluate the reliability and effectiveness of risk
assessments, justify and monitor newly implemented and
existing health, safety and security practices, comply with
health and safety legislation and regulations, and manage
the improvements through monitoring staff.

This unit is suitable for hairdressing, barbering, beauty
salon, nail salon and spa managers.




UV40462_v14
Level




        4
Credit value




        8
GLH




        44
Observation(s)




        2
External paper(s)




        0
Management of health, safety
and security in the salon

     Learning outcomes                               Evidence requirements

On completion of this unit you will:            1.    Environment
                                                      Evidence for this unit must be gathered in a
1.    Be able to implement health, safety and
                                                      real or realistic working environment.
      security practices in the salon
                                                2.    Simulation
2.    Be able to manage health, safety and
                                                      Simulation is not allowed in this unit.
      security practices in the salon
                                                3.    Observation outcomes
                                                      Competent performance of ‘Observation’
                                                      outcomes must be demonstrated to your
                                                      assessor on at least two occasions.

                                                4.    Knowledge outcomes
                                                      There must be evidence that you possess
                                                      all the knowledge and understanding
                                                      listed in the ‘Knowledge’ section of this
                                                      unit. This evidence may include projects,
                                                      assignments, case studies, reflective
                                                      accounts, oral/written questioning and/or
                                                      other forms of evidence.

                                                5.    Tutor/Assessor guidance
                                                      You will be guided by your tutor/assessor
                                                      on how to achieve learning outcomes in this
                                                      unit. All outcomes must be achieved.

                                                6.    External paper
                                                      There is no external paper requirement for
                                                      this unit.




                                                                                 UV40462             3
      Achieving observations
      and range

      Achieving observation outcomes                     Maximum service times

    Your assessor will observe your performance        There are no maximum service times that apply
    of practical tasks. The minimum number             to this unit.
    of observations required is indicated in the
    evidence requirements section of this unit.

    Criteria may not always naturally occur during
    a practical observation. In such instances you
    will be asked questions to demonstrate your
    competence in this area. Your assessor will
    document the criteria that have been achieved
    through oral questioning.

    Your assessor will sign off an outcome when all
    criteria have been competently achieved in a
    single client service.




      Achieving range
    There are no range statements that apply to this
    unit.




4           UV40462
                                                    Observations

  Outcome 1

Be able to implement health, safety and security practices in
the salon
You can:
a.   Conduct a risk assessment of health, safety
     and security practices
b.   Conduct an assessment of the
     effectiveness of health, safety and security
     practices
c.   Recommend modifications to existing
     health, safety and security practices
d.   Implement new health, safety and security
     practices based on outcomes of the
     assessments




*May be assessed through oral questioning.

 Observation                                 1          2    Optional
 Date achieved
 Criteria questioned orally
 Portfolio reference
 Assessor initials
 Learner signature

                                                            UV40462     5
         Outcome 2

    Be able to manage health, safety and security practices in the
    salon
    You can:
    a.    Evaluate compliance with newly
          implemented and existing health, safety and
          security practices
    b.    Manage improvements to increase
          compliance with health, safety and security
          practices




    *May be assessed through oral questioning.
     Observation                                1       2   Optional
     Date achieved
     Criteria questioned orally
     Portfolio reference
     Assessor initials
     Learner signature

6             UV40462
                                    Developing knowledge


  Achieving knowledge outcomes

You will be guided by your tutor and assessor     Where possible your assessor will integrate
on the evidence that needs to be produced.        knowledge outcomes into practical observations
Your knowledge and understanding will be          through oral questioning.
assessed using the assessment methods listed
below:

   •   Observed work
   •   Witness statements
   •   Audio-visual media
   •   Evidence of prior learning or attainment
   •   Written questions
   •   Oral questions
   •   Assignments
   •   Case studies




                                                                              UV40462              7
    Knowledge

      Outcome 1

    Be able to implement health, safety and security practices in
    the salon
                                                                            Portfolio reference /
     You can:
                                                                            Assessor initials*

     e.   Evaluate the reliability and effectiveness of a risk assessment

     f.   Analyse the importance of health, safety and security practices

     g.   Justify proposals and recommendations for health, safety and
          security practices


    *Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

    Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.




8            UV40462
  Outcome 2

Be able to manage health, safety and security practices in the
salon
                                                                          Portfolio reference /
 You can:
                                                                          Assessor initials*

 c.   Explain the importance of compliance with legislation and
      regulations relating to heath, safety and security practices

 d.   Describe how to manage improvements to increase compliance
      with health, safety and security practices

 e.   Explain the importance of regularly evaluating health, safety and
      security practices in the salon


*Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.




                                                                                UV40462           9
         Unit content

     This section provides guidance on the recommended knowledge and skills required to enable you
     to achieve each of the learning outcomes in this unit. Your tutor/assessor will ensure you have the
     opportunity to cover all of the unit content.


       Outcome 1: Be able to implement health, safety and security practices in
       the salon


       Reasons for risk assessment: Legal                  and consider the legislation and regulations
       requirement, provide a safe environment             when performing risk assessment.
       for staff/visitor/clients, identification of
                                                           Risk assessment:
       hazards, minimise hazards and risks,
                                                           Assessment – types, procedures,
       emergency procedures, staff training,
                                                           processes, why risk assessments must be
       implication of more than five members
                                                           completed, conduct and interpret results,
       of staff, new staff in the workplace, new
                                                           amendments and modifications to be made
       equipment and products, review systems,
                                                           where appropriate to existing assessments,
       amendments and modifications to existing
                                                           updating records, legal reasons.
       assessments, update records.
                                                           Space – utilisation, working area, heating,
       Recomend and manage the procedure
                                                           lighting, ventilation, layout and design of
       for risk assessments of health, safety
                                                           the salon.
       and security practices: Review policy,
       documentation, actual practice by all staff,        Chemicals – procedures, storage,
       planned and spot checks, judgement of               handling, safe usage, safe disposal,
       findings, determine the level of risk, justify      records.
       and suggest preventative measures, record           Equipment – selection, safe usage,
       findings, nominate staff to implement               handling, lifting, repairs, maintenance.
       changes, notify remaining staff, regular
       reviews.                                            Security (stock) – control systems,
                                                           procedures, ordering, handling, storage.
       Salon Health and Safety Legislation
       and Regulations: Health and safety at               Security (cash) – staff training, point of
       work, control of substances hazardous               sale, in transit.
       to health, reporting of injuries diseases           Security (people) – staff clients, visitors,
       and dangerous occurrences, personal                 personal belongings, systems, security,
       protective equipment, electricity at work,          emergency evacuation, storage/use of
       manual handling, supply of goods and                confidential staff/client records, business
       services, trade description, fire precautions,      information, data protection.
       first aid at work, data protection, employers
                                                           Buildings – maintenance of internal and
       liability (compulsory insurance), occupiers
                                                           external security, commercially available
       liability, local by-laws (set by council), local
                                                           systems.
       government miscellaneous provisions,
       salon rules, code of conduct, observance            Emergency procedures – accidents, first
       by all staff, salon manager should evaluate         aid, fire evacuation, incidents, personnel,



10           UV40462
Outcome 1: Be able to implement health, safety and security practices in
the salon (continued)


records, belongings, systems, security,
emergency evacuation, storage and use
of confidential staff and client records,
business information, data protection.
Management – recording, implementing,
updating processes and procedures, staff
training.
Security breaches – stock levels control
and monitoring, inventory of equipment,
manual and computerised records.




Outcome 2: Be able to manage health, safety and security practices in the
salon

Evaluate compliance with new and               healthy business, happy workforce, regular
existing health, safety and security           reviews avoid complacency, avoidable
practices:                                     problems, legal action, closure of business.
Collate information from existing and          Manage, monitor and support others
new practices – reason why health,             to ensure compliance of Health and
safety and security must be reviewed, time     Safety: Revision of health and safety
controlled review period, seek feedback        statement and policy, accurate records,
from staff/clients/visitors, review records,   update processes and procedures,
use the same format, problem solving,          evaluation of effectiveness of procedures,
causes of action, synthesis, summarise,        staff training and appraisal, planned
judge, compare and contrast results,           and spot checks, responsibilities in
modify, justify, what worked/what did not,     the salon for health and safety, safety
draw conclusions, record findings.             meetings, monitoring changes in law, take
                                               external advice, continual professional
The importance of compliance with
                                               development.
legislation and regulations: National
legislation, establishment rules, industry     Providing support for staff: Up-to-date
code of practice, safe working environment,    leaflets and posters, ongoing training, open
professional reputation, full fill licence     door policy, suggestion box, current roles
to practice requirements (insurance and        and responsibilities for staff.
policies), avoid accidents – legal claims,



                                                                           UV40462            11
                            Notes
               Use this area for notes and diagrams




12   UV40462
UV40412
Advanced epilation techniques


This unit is about the skills involves in carrying out
providing advanced electrical epilation techniques to treat
skin tags, telangiectasia, spider naevi and blood spots. You
will also need to carry out a thorough consultation with the
client, formulate an individual treatment plan and provide
the relevant treatment advice.
To carry out this unit you will need to maintain effective
health, safety and hygiene procedures throughout your
treatment.




UV40412_v14
Level




        4
Credit value




        7
GLH




        47
Observations




        3
External paper(s)




        0
Advanced epilation techniques


     Learning outcomes                                Evidence requirements

On completion of this unit you will:             1.    Environment
                                                       Evidence for this unit must be gathered in a
1.   Be able to prepare for advanced epilation
                                                       real or realistic working environment.
2.   Be able to provide advanced epilation
                                                 2.    Simulation
                                                       Simulation is not allowed in this unit.

                                                 3.    Observation outcomes
                                                       Competent performance of ‘Observation’
                                                       outcomes must be demonstrated to your
                                                       assessor on at least three occasions.

                                                 4.    Range
                                                       All ranges must be practically demonstrated
                                                       or other forms of evidence produced to
                                                       show they have been covered.

                                                 5.    Knowledge outcomes
                                                       There must be evidence that you possess
                                                       all the knowledge and understanding
                                                       listed in the ‘Knowledge’ section of this
                                                       unit. This evidence may include projects,
                                                       assignments, case studies, reflective
                                                       accounts, oral/written questioning and/or
                                                       other forms of evidence.

                                                 6.    Tutor/Assessor guidance
                                                       You will be guided by your tutor/assessor
                                                       on how to achieve learning outcomes and
                                                       ranges in this unit. All outcomes and ranges
                                                       must be achieved.

                                                 7.    External paper
                                                       There is no external paper requirement for
                                                       this unit.




                                                                                  UV40412             3
      Achieving observations
      and range

      Achieving observation outcomes                     Maximum service times
    Your assessor will observe your performance        There are no maximum service times that apply
    of practical tasks. The minimum number             to this unit.
    of observations required is indicated in the
    evidence requirements section of this unit.

    Criteria may not always naturally occur during
    a practical observation. In such instances you
    will be asked questions to demonstrate your
    competence in this area. Your assessor will
    document the criteria that have been achieved
    through oral questioning.

    Your assessor will sign off an outcome when all
    criteria have been competently achieved in a
    single client service.




      Achieving range
    The range section indicates what must
    be covered. Ranges should be practically
    demonstrated as part of an observation. Where
    this is not possible other forms of evidence may
    be produced. All ranges must be be covered.

    Your assessor will document the portfolio
    reference once a range has been competently
    achieved.




4           UV40412
                                                   Observations

  Outcome 1

Be able to prepare for advanced epilation

You can:
a.   Prepare yourself, client and work area for
     advanced epilation treatment
b.   Use suitable consultation techniques to
     identify treatment objectives
c.   Carry out skin analysis and any relevant
     tests to identify any influencing factors
d.   Provide clear recommendations to the client
     based on outcomes of skin analysis
e.   Select products, tools and equipment to
     suit client treatment needs, skin types and
     conditions




*May be assessed through oral questioning.

 Observation                               1           2       3
 Date achieved
 Criteria questioned orally
 Portfolio reference
 Assessor initials
 Learner signature

                                                           UV40412   5
         Outcome 2

    Be able to provide advanced epilation

    You can:
    a.    Communicate and behave in a professional
          manner
    b.    Follow health and safety working practices
    c.    Position yourself and the client correctly
          throughout the treatment
    d.    Use products, tools and equipment to suit
          client treatment needs
    e.    Adapt the advanced epilation techniques to
          suit client needs and skin conditions
    f.    Complete the treatment to the satisfaction
          of the client
    g.    Record and evaluate the results of the
          treatment
    h.    Provide suitable aftercare advice




    *May be assessed through oral questioning.
    Observation                                  1     2   3
    Date achieved
    Criteria questioned orally
    Portfolio reference
    Assessor initials
    Learner signature

6             UV40412
                                                                    Range

  *You must practically demonstrate that you have:

Used all the consultation techniques                                     Portfolio reference
Questioning
Visual
Manual
Reference to client records

Treated all skin imperfections                                           Portfolio reference
Milia
Skin tag
Telangiectasia
Spider naevi
Blood spots




*It is strongly recommended that all range items are practically demonstrated. Where this is not
possible, other forms of evidence may be produced to demonstrate competence.




                                                                                 UV40412           7
      *You must practically demonstrate that you have:

    Used all treatment techniques                                            Portfolio reference
    Needle depth and pressure
    Current intensity
    Duration of current flow
    Needle selection
    Treatment area spacing

    Provided all types of advice                                             Portfolio reference
    Avoidance of activities which may cause contra-actions
    Future treatment needs
    Home care
    Modification of lifestyle patterns




    *It is strongly recommended that all range items are practically demonstrated. Where this is not
    possible, other forms of evidence may be produced to demonstrate competence.




8           UV40412
                                    Developing knowledge


  Achieving knowledge outcomes

You will be guided by your tutor and assessor     Where possible your assessor will integrate
on the evidence that needs to be produced.        knowledge outcomes into practical observations
Your knowledge and understanding will be          through oral questioning.
assessed using the assessment methods listed
below:

   •   Observed work
   •   Witness statements
   •   Audio-visual media
   •   Evidence of prior learning or attainment
   •   Written questions
   •   Oral questions
   •   Assignments
   •   Case studies




                                                                              UV40412              9
     Knowledge

       Outcome 1

     Be able to prepare for advanced epilation
                                                                                 Portfolio reference/
      You can:
                                                                                 Assessor initials*

      f.   Explain salon requirements for preparing yourself, the client and
           work area

      g.   Explain the environmental conditions suitable for advanced
           epilation techniques

      h.   Explain the different consultation techniques used to identify
           treatment objectives

      i.   Explain the importance of carrying out a detailed skin analysis and
           relevant tests

      j.   Explain how to select advanced epilation techniques to suit client
           skin types and conditions

      k.   Evaluate the different techniques used for advanced epilation
           treatments

      l.   Explain the contra-indications that prevent or restrict advanced
           epilation treatments

      m. Explain the required legislation for skin piercing

     * Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

     Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.




10            UV40412
  Outcome 2

Be able to provide advanced epilation
                                                                             Portfolio reference/
 You can:
                                                                             Assessor initials*

 i.   Explain how to communicate and behave in a professional manner

 j.   Explain health and safety working practices

 k.   Explain the importance of positioning yourself and the client
      correctly throughout the treatment

 l.   Explain the importance of using products, tools, equipment and
      techniques to suit client treatment needs, skin types and conditions

 m. Explain how to work on different treatment areas
 n.   Explain the consequences of inaccurate probing

 o.   Explain the principles, uses and benefits of short wave diathermy

 p.   Describe how treatments can be adapted to suit client treatment
      needs and skin conditions

 q.   Explain the contra-actions that may occur during and following
      treatments

 r.   Explain the methods of evaluating the effectiveness of the
      treatment

 s.   Summarise the aftercare advice that should be provided to prevent
      post-treatment damage


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.




                                                                                   UV40412          11
       Outcome 2 (continued)

     Be able to provide advanced epilation
                                                                                Portfolio reference/
      You can:
                                                                                Assessor initials*

      t.   Explain the suitable methods of dealing with re-appearance of skin
           conditions between treatments

      u.   Explain different skin types, conditions, diseases and disorders

      v.   Explain the structure and functions of the skin

      w.   Explain the principles of skin healing

      x.   Explain the structure and function of the endocrine system and its
           effect on skin conditions

      y.   Explain the structure and function of circulatory and lymphatic
           systems


     * Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

     Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.




12            UV40412
    Unit content

This section provides guidance on the recommended knowledge and skills required to enable you
to achieve each of the learning outcomes in this unit. Your tutor/assessor will ensure you have the
opportunity to cover all of the unit content.


  Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for advanced epilation


  Management of health & safety at work:             Health and safety legislation: Data
  Cleaning up spillages, report slippery             protection legislation; electricity at work
  surfaces, remove report obstacles, good            legislation; employers liability (compulsory
  all round access to trolleys and equipment,        insurance) legislation; fire precautions
  sterilise or disinfect – tools, equipment,         legislation; first aid at work legislation;
  work surfaces, personal protective                 health and safety at work legislation; local
  equipment.                                         government miscellaneous provisions
                                                     legislation; occupiers liability legislation;
  Electricity at work - checking / visual
                                                     local bylaws.
  check of equipment, no trailing wires
  Portable Appliance Testing (PAT).                  Regulations: Control of substances
                                                     hazardous to health regulations;
  Manual handling - moving stock, lifting,
                                                     management of health and safety at work
  working heights, unpacking, posture,
                                                     regulations; manual handling; personal
  deportment, balance weight, preserve
                                                     protective equipment; reporting of injuries,
  back, prevent slouching.
                                                     diseases and dangerous occurrences
  Towels - clean for every client, dirty towels      regulations; workplace (health and welfare)
  in covered bin.                                    regulations.
  Liability insurance - employers, public,           Hazards and risks: A hazard is something
  professional indemnity.                            that has the potential to cause harm; a risk
  Reporting of injuries, diseases and                is the likelihood of a hazard happening.
  dangerous occurrences - accident book,             Employer responsibility: Current and
  reporting diseases, local bye laws, code of        valid liability insurance; display health and
  conduct, risk assessment.                          safety rules covering – staff, employees,
  Control of substances hazardous                    clients, fire evacuation, provide regular
  to health - replace lids, ventilation for          training, accurate record keeping,
  vapour and dust, avoid over exposure               monitoring.
  to chemicals, correct use of chemicals,            Hazards: Something with potential
  follow storage handling use and disposal,          to cause harm; requiring immediate
  correct disposal of contaminated waste,            legislation; level of responsibility; report;
  products, check end date, packaging,               nominated personnel; duty to recognize /
  store away from heat, damp and direct              deal with hazards.
  sunlight, dispose of contaminated waste in
                                                     Equipment - only used for intended
  a closed top bin, relevant manufacturer’s
                                                     purpose, safe usage, handling, storage,
  instructions, no smoking, eating, drinking.
                                                     cleaning, lifting, visual checks, worn, faulty,


                                                                                   UV40412             13
     Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for advanced epilation (continued)


     repairs, maintenance, Portable Appliance       waste, environmental protection.
     Testing, correct disposal of contaminated
                                                    Therapist posture and deportment:
     waste, records.
                                                    Correct posture when sitting, correct
     Security (cash): Staff training, point of      posture with lifting, correct posture when
     sale, regular banking, in transit.             carrying, working methods to avoid
                                                    Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI), hand
     Security (people): Staff, clients, visitors,
                                                    exercises, standing posture, even weight
     children, personal belongings, systems –
                                                    distribution, client comfort, maintain
     security, emergency evacuation, storage,
                                                    modesty, client correctly positioned to get
     client records, business information.
                                                    maximum benefit from treatment, ensure
     Risk: Likelihood of a hazard happening,        therapist positioning delivers appropriate
     risk assessment, determine the level of        techniques, appropriate space between
     risk, preventative measures, reduce a          client and therapist, prevent injury, optimum
     potentially harmful situation, judgement       results, allow for visual checks.
     of salon hazards who, what, level of risk,
                                                    Work area: Clean and hygienic, height
     interpret results, conclusions, record
                                                    adjustable chair, correct posture, correct
     findings, regular reviews.
                                                    couch height, lighting, ventilation, noise,
     Reasons for risk assessment: Staff,            music, temperature, ambience, no trailing
     visitor, client health and safety, safe        wires, no obstructions, tools and equipment
     environment, minimising hazards and risks,     in a safe working position for therapist.
     requirement of legislation.
                                                    Client preparation: Protect client clothing,
     Hygiene:                                       client comfort, privacy, modesty, client
     General - sterilise and sanitise tools,        positioned correctly.
     disinfect work surfaces, cover cuts and        Communication:
     abrasions, sanitise therapist hands before
                                                    Verbal - speaking manner and tone,
     and after treatments, sanitise with sprays
                                                    professional, supportive, respectful,
     and gels, clean towels between client, dirty
                                                    sensitive to client, open questioning related
     towels in covered bin, disposable towels,
                                                    to treatment.
     dispense products with a spatula, pump or
     spray, disposables used wherever possible,     Non-verbal - eye contact, body language,
     no smoking, personal hygiene, replace          listening.
     loose lids, uncapped bottle and pots.
                                                    Record keeping: Accurate appointment
     Disinfection - heat or chemical methods,       systems, stationary, loyalty, rewards,
     bactericides, fungicides, viricides, UV        acknowledgement of occasions,
     cabinet for storage only                       consultation record keeping, contra-
                                                    indications, signatures, refer to existing
     Disposal of waste: Single use items,
                                                    records, information clear and accurate,
     pedal bin with a liner, spillages and unused
                                                    logical order, name, address, contact
     chemicals, contaminated waste, hazardous


14        UV40412
Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for advanced epilation (continued)


numbers, age range, reason for treatment,       Examples of contra-indications that
occupation, sport/hobbies, medical              may restrict treatment: Psoriasis,
history, allergies/hypersensitivity, contact    eczema, acne, epilepsy, diabetes.
lenses, contra-actions, contra-indications,
                                                Areas contra-indicated to advanced
skin sensitivity tests, adaptations and
                                                electrolysis: Nostrils, ears, eyelashes.
modifications, recommendations,
requirement, treatment plan, update record      Skin sensitivity test: Thermal sensitivity
at the end of the end of the treatment,         test, patch test recommended 24hrs
update at each visit, records maintained        before treatment.
electronically, paper records.                  Skin sensitivity test - interpret results:
Professional appearance: Clean                  Positive - red, itchy, irritated, swelling.
professional uniform, no jewellery, hair
neatly tied back fringe secured, closed         Negative - no change to skin.
in footwear, make-up - light day make-          Examples of possible contra-actions:
up, personal hygiene and cleanliness –          Erythema, oedema, excess blanching,
shower bath, cover cuts and abrasions,          minor blood spots, rash, bruising, burns,
deodorant or antiperspirant, oral hygiene,      broken/in-growing hairs, histamine/allergic
clean teeth, fresh breath, nails – good         reaction.
condition and maintained, no piercings.
                                                Response to contra-actions: Discontinue
Professional ethical conduct: Polite,           treatment, take remedial action.
cheerful and friendly manner, friendly facial
expressions, positive attitude, eye contact,    Examples of possible post treatment
open body language, client relations,           reactions: hyper-pigmentation, hypo-
confidentiality, respect for colleagues and     pigmentation.
competitors, avoid gossip, pride in work,
punctuality, employer and client loyalty.
Cosmetic skin piercing: Local
authorities, local government
legislations,miscellaneous provisions
legislations.
Examples of contra-indications that
may prevent treatment: Heart disorders,
pacemakers, hepatitis B, HIV, steroid
drugs, endocrine disorders, metal plates
and pins, loss of tactile sensation,
contagious skin disorders and diseases,
hairy moles, nickel allergy.




                                                                              UV40412         15
     Outcome 2: Be able to provide advanced epilation


     Products, tools and equipment:                  capillaries).
     Tools – forceps, probe holder, needles          Mature skin – loose soft skin, network of
     (one piece/two piece/stainless steel/           superficial lines, lack of supporting adipose
     insulated/gold/various sizes, sharps box.       tissue, poor muscle tone (neck and eye
                                                     areas), loss of elasticity.
     Camera – reasons for photographing the
     area to be treated (pre/post).                  Blemished skin – glandular imbalance,
                                                     allergies, bacterial infection (proceed with
     Needles types/sizes – stainless steel,
                                                     caution).
     insulated steel, gold, platinum, probex
     and uni-probes, pre-packed and sterilized       Recognising/treating treatable
     (gamma irradiation/ethylene oxide gas) in       imperfections: Telangiectasia (thread
     disposable packets. Sizes, two piece and        veins), spider neavi, Campbell D’Morgan
     one piece needles, 002, 003, 004, 005,          (blood spot), milia (white heads),
     006, 007, 008, 009, 010.                        pendunculated paillomas (skin tag),
                                                     papillomas (moles).
     Diathermy: Alternating current, short-
     wave high frequency current, production         Pigmentation abnormalities – chloasma,
     of heat in the skin, blend, cauterisation,      vitiligo, ephelides (freckles) lentigo.
     coagulation, magnifying lamp, disposable
                                                     Causes of imperfections – hereditary,
     gloves, pre-treatment skin cleanser,
                                                     weather elements, poor/incorrect
     aftercare product.
                                                     skin care/products, injury, allergies,
     Skin types and recognition factors: Dry,        smoking, diet/alcohol intake, high blood
     oily, sensitive, dehydrated, mature, skin       pressure, hormonal changes (pregnancy,
     colour.                                         menopause), endocrine disorders, weight,
                                                     liver congestion, sinus problems, hay fever,
     Normal skin – smooth texture, thick
                                                     fluid retention, surgery, steroids, acne, acne
     epidermis, refined skin, tight pores, even
                                                     rosacea, eczema, psoriasis, birthmarks,
     moisture supply.
                                                     constipation (straining), prolonged
     Dry skin – flaky rough texture, thin            exposure to heat/cold, medication.
     epidermis, sensitivity, dull complexion, fine
                                                     Probing faults: Indentations (pitting),
     lines, tight skin.
                                                     tissue damage, black or blue marks
     Oily skin – coarse texture, open pores,         (bruising) blanching, hyper pigmentation,
     thick epidermis, shiny appearance,              hypo pigmentation, raised lumps, using
     blemishes may be present.                       bent or blunt probes, insufficient current
     Combination skin – coarse textured, open        strength, inaccurate needle insertion,
     pores, shiny appearance, tendency to            operating too quickly, using faulty
     blemish.                                        equipment.

     Sensitive skin – fine texture, thin             Preparation of the client: Preparing the
     epidermis, reacts to heat and abrasion,         area to be treated, using suitable pre-
     possible capillary damage (broken               cleansing agent, positioning for the client,




16        UV40412
Outcome 2: Be able to provide advanced epilation (continued)


prepare self.                                     layer, collagen, elastin, macrophages,
                                                  adipocytes, mast cells, fibroblasts, hair,
Factors that influence current intensity:
                                                  dermal papilla, sebaceous glands and
Client’s pain threshold, skin type/sensitivity,
                                                  sebum, arrector pili muscle, sweat glands
imperfection to be treated, length of
                                                  (eccrine and apocrine), sensory nerve
application time, needle size, previous
                                                  endings.
treatments given.
                                                  Skin – hypodermis (structure) –
Aftercare/home care advice: Avoidance
                                                  subcutaneous layer, adipose tissue,
of activities which may cause contra-
                                                  adipocytes.
actions, suitable home care products and
their use, recommending intervals between         Skin functions – secretion, heat
advanced electrical epilation treatments.         regulation, absorption, protection,
                                                  elimination, sensation, vitamin D
General aftercare – avoid touching the
                                                  production, melanin production.
area, picking any scabs that may form,
wearing face powder, using any form               Principles of skin healing:
of perfumed products, make-up on the
                                                  Hemostasis phase – clotting of platelets
area treated for 24 hours (mineral based
                                                  and other secretions to plug the wound.
products are permitted), sunbathing/
sun beds, deodorant (under arm only)              Inflammation phase – erythema, swelling,
for 24 hours, general avoidance of heat           heat.
treatments of any type for 24 hours,              Proliferation/granulation phase –
swimming in chlorinated/salt water,               fibroblasts secrete collagen framework
avoidance of fake tanning products prior to       to promote cell regeneration, pericytes
epilation.                                        and endothelial cells produce
Home care – cut/shave only between                lining (angiogenisis), keratinocytes,
treatments, recommended home care                 epilthelialisation.
products and skin care regime, use of             Maturation phase – healing process,
SPF product (min SPF 25), the benefits of         fibrocytes, can take up to 2 years
drinking recommended water intake, avoid          depending on the wound.
causes of thread veins, tight fitting glasses,
squeezing spots, blowing nose hard, hot/          General – diet, sun protection, cell
spicy foods, alcohol.                             reproduction, moisture.
Anatomy and physiology:                           Hair structure: Arrector pili muscle, hair
                                                  follicle, inner root sheath (henle’s layer,
Skin – epidermis (structure) – stratum            huxley’s layer, cuticle layer), outer root
germinativum, stratum spinosum, stratum           sheath, vitreous membrane, connective
granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum              tissue sheath, root (bulb/matrix, dermal
corneum, process of keratinisation.               papilla), sebaceous gland, shaft (medulla,
Skin – dermis (structure) – blood/                cortex, cuticle).
lymph supply, papillary layer, reticular




                                                                                UV40412         17
     Outcome 2: Be able to provide advanced epilation (continued)


     Hair growth cycle: Anagen, catagen,           Structure and function of the endocrine
     telogen.                                      system: Responsible for the secretion
                                                   of hormones, pituitary gland, pineal
     Hair functions: insulation and protection.
                                                   gland, gonads (the sex glands), adrenal
     Examples of diseases and disorders of         glands, thyroid gland, para-thyroid glands,
     the skin:                                     pancreas gland, thymus gland.
     Allergy – dermatitis, urticaria.              Other glands: Sweat or sudodiferous
     Bacterial – impetigo, furuncle, carbuncle.    glands, cerouminous or wax producing
                                                   glands, pancreas.
     Fungal – tinea (capitis, corporis, sycosis,
     favosa, unguium, pedis).                      Hormones secreted by the anterior
                                                   pituitary: Somatotrophin (growth
     Hypertrophies – keratoma, mole, polyps,       hormone), thyroid stimulating hormone
     seborrhoeic warts, skin tags, verruca,        (TSH), adreno-cortico tropic hormone
     xanthoma.                                     (ACTH), gonado tropic hormone (GTH),
     Infestations – pediculosis, scabies.          (FSH) follicle stimulating hormone, (LH)
                                                   luteinising hormone, prolactin.
     Inflammations – eczema, psoriasis.
                                                   Hormones secreted by the posterior
     Pigmentations – albinism, broken              lobe: Vasopressin (anti-diuretic hormone
     capillaries, chloasma, erythema, lentigo,     ADH), oxytocin.
     leucoderma, liver spots, naevus (portwine/
     strawberry), vitiligo.                        Hormones secreted by the thyroid
                                                   gland: Thyroxine and triidothyronine,
     Sebaceous glands – acne vulgaris, acne        calcitonin.
     rosacea, comedones, cysts, furuncle, milia,
     seborrhoea, steatoma, steatosis.              Hormones secreted by the parathyroid
                                                   Glands: Parathormone.
     Skin cancers – basal cell carcinoma,
     squamous cell carcinoma, malignant            Hormones secreted by the pancreas:
     melanoma, tumor.                              Insulin, glucagons.

     Sudoriferous glands – anhidrosis,             Hormones produced by the adrenal
     bromidrosis/osmidrosis, hyperhidrosis,        medulla: Adrenalin, noradrenalin.
     miliaria rubra.                               Hormones produced by the
     Viral – herpes simplex/herpes zoster,         adrenal cortex: Andrenocortical,
     warts, verrucas.                              adrenocorticotrophic (steroid hormones),
                                                   mineral corticoids, glucocorticoids,
     Lesions – bulla, crust, fissure, macule,      gonadotrophic.
     papule, pustule, scale, tubercle, tumour,
     ulcer, vesicle, wheal.                        The gonads (sex glands): Ovaries
                                                   (oestrogen, progesterone), testes
     Examples of diseases and disorders            (testosterone).
     of the hair: Hirsuitism, hypertrichosis,
     pediculosis.                                  Heart structure: Heart wall (endocardium,




18        UV40412
Outcome 2: Be able to provide advanced epilation (continued)


myocardium, pericardium), aorta, atria,          Functions of the lymphatic system:
bicuspid (mitral) valve, chordae tendineae,      Subsidiary circulation (lymph formation),
inferior and superior vena cava, papillary       immunity, return of lost plasma proteins to
muscles, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein,       the blood, transport dietary lipids.
semilunar valves (aortic and pulmonary),
                                                 Lymphatic components: Structure
septum, tricuspid valve, ventricles.
                                                 and function – lymph, lymph capillaries,
Functions of cardiovascular system:              lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, lymphatic
Transport, defence, clotting, regulation and     trunks, lymphatic ducts (thoracic and right
homeostasis.                                     lymphatic duct), subclavian veins.
Blood vessels: Structure and function,           Lymphatic nodes: Location of axillary,
arteries, arterioles, veins, venules,            cervical (superficial and deep), inguinal,
capillaries.                                     intestinal, occipital, popliteal, post-auricular,
                                                 pre-auricular (parotid), supratrochlear.
Circuits: Structure and function,
pulmonary circulation, portal circulation,       Other lymphoid tissue: Structure, location
coronary circulation, systemic circulation.      and function, appendix, peyers patches,
                                                 spleen, tonsils, thymus.
Major arteries of the head and neck:
Carotid, facial, occipital, temporal.
Major veins of the head and neck:
Jugular, occipital, temporal, maxillary,
facial.
Major arteries of the body: Aorta,
descending aorta, subclavian, carotid,
pulmonary, hepatic, splenic, renal,
mesenteric, iliac, vertebral, axillary,
brachial, ulnar, radial, palmar arch, femoral,
popliteal, anterior tibial, plantar arch.
Major veins of the body: Vena cava
(inferior and superior), pulmonary, hepatic,
splenic, renal, iliac, axillary, brachial,
basilic, cephalic, subclavian, saphenous
(long and short), venous arch, femoral,
popliteal, posterior tibial, anterior tibial.
Composition of blood: Plasma,
leucocytes (granulocytes and
agranulocytes), erythrocytes,
thrombocytes.




                                                                                UV40412              19
                                     Notes
         Use this area for making notes and drawing diagrams




20   UV40412
UV30430
Apply micro dermabrasion


This unit is about providing micro dermabrasion treatments
to improve the appearance and condition of the skin on
the face and body. To carry out this unit you will need to
maintain effective health, safety and hygiene procedures
throughout your work.




UV30430_v10
Level




        3
Credit value




        4
GLH




        39
Observation(s)




        3
External paper(s)




        1
Apply micro dermabrasion


     Learning outcomes                                  Evidence requirements

On completion of this unit you will:               1.    Environment
                                                         Evidence for this unit must be gathered in a
1.   Be able to prepare for skin treatment using
                                                         real or realistic working environment.
     micro dermabrasion
2.   Be able to provide skin treatment using       2.    Simulation
     micro dermabrasion                                  Simulation is not allowed in this unit.
                                                   3.    Observation outcomes
                                                         Competent performance of ‘Observation’
                                                         outcomes must be demonstrated to your
                                                         assessor on at least three occasions.

                                                   4.    Range
                                                         All ranges must be practically demonstrated
                                                         or other forms of evidence produced to
                                                         show they have been covered.

                                                   5.    Knowledge outcomes
                                                         There must be evidence that you possess
                                                         all the knowledge and understanding
                                                         listed in the ‘Knowledge’ section of this
                                                         unit. This evidence may include projects,
                                                         assignments, case studies, reflective
                                                         accounts, oral/written questioning and/or
                                                         other forms of evidence.

                                                   6.    Tutor/Assessor guidance
                                                         You will be guided by your tutor/assessor
                                                         on how to achieve learning outcomes and
                                                         ranges in this unit. All outcomes and ranges
                                                         must be achieved.

                                                   7.    External paper
                                                         Knowledge and understanding in this unit
                                                         will be assessed by an external paper.
                                                         The criteria that make up this paper are
                                                         highlighted in white throughout this unit.
                                                         There is one external paper that must be
                                                         achieved.




                                                                                    UV30430             73
       Achieving observations
       and range

       Achieving observation outcomes                     Maximum service times
     Your assessor will observe your performance        There are no maximum service times that apply
     of practical tasks. The minimum number             to this unit.
     of observations required is indicated in the
     evidence requirements section of this unit.

     Criteria may not always naturally occur during
     a practical observation. In such instances you
     will be asked questions to demonstrate your
     competence in this area. Your assessor will
     document the criteria that have been achieved
     through oral questioning.

     Your assessor will sign off an outcome when all
     criteria have been competently achieved in a
     single client service.




       Achieving range
     The range section indicates what must
     be covered. Ranges should be practically
     demonstrated as part of an observation. Where
     this is not possible other forms of evidence may
     be produced. All ranges must be be covered.

     Your assessor will document the portfolio
     reference once a range has been competently
     achieved.




74           UV30430
                                                   Observations

  Outcome 1

Be able to prepare for skin treatment using micro
dermabrasion
You can:
a.   Prepare yourself, client and work area for
     micro dermabrasion skin treatment
b.   Use suitable consultation techniques to
     identify treatment objectives
c.   Advise the client on how to prepare for the
     treatment
d.   Carry out a skin analysis
e.   Provide clear recommendations to the client
f.   Select products and tools to suit client
     treatment needs, skin types and conditions




*May be assessed through oral questioning.

 Observation                               1           2       3
 Date achieved
 Criteria questioned orally
 Portfolio reference
 Assessor initials
 Learner signature

                                                           UV30430   75
          Outcome 2

     Be able to provide skin treatment using micro dermabrasion

     You can:
     a.   Communicate and behave in a professional
          manner
     b.   Follow health and safety working practices
     c.   Position yourself and the client correctly
          throughout the treatment
     d.   Use products, tools and techniques to suit
          client treatment needs, skin types and
          conditions
     e.   Complete the treatment to the satisfaction of
          the client
     f.   Record and evaluate the results of the
          treatment
     g.   Provide suitable aftercare advice




     *May be assessed through oral questioning.
     Observation                                 1        2   3
     Date achieved
     Criteria questioned orally
     Portfolio reference
     Assessor initials
     Learner signature

76            UV30430
                                                                    Range

  *You must practically demonstrate that you have:

Used all consultation techniques                                         Portfolio reference

Questioning

Visual

Manual

Reference to client records

Met all the treatment objectives                                         Portfolio reference

Improved skin condition

Improved contour appearance

Improved skin texture

Dealt with at least one necessary action                                 Portfolio reference

Encourage the client to seek medical advice

Explain why the treatment cannot be carried out

Modification of treatment

Treated all skin types                                                   Portfolio reference

Oily

Dry

Combination

Treated all skin conditions                                              Portfolio reference

Sensitive

Mature

Dehydrated

*It is strongly recommended that all range items are practically demonstrated. Where this is not
possible, other forms of evidence may be produced to demonstrate competence.


                                                                                 UV30430           77
       *You must practically demonstrate that you have:

     Treated all areas                                                        Portfolio reference

     Face

     Body

     Treated all body conditions                                              Portfolio reference

     Appearance of cellulite

     Uneven skin texture

     Provided all types of advice                                             Portfolio reference

     Avoidance of activities which may cause contra-actions

     Future treatment needs

     Modifications to lifestyle patterns

     Recommended use of home care products




     *It is strongly recommended that all range items are practically demonstrated. Where this is not
     possible, other forms of evidence may be produced to demonstrate competence.




78           UV30430
                                       Developing knowledge


  Achieving knowledge outcomes

You will be guided by your tutor and assessor        Where possible your assessor will integrate
on the evidence that needs to be produced.           knowledge outcomes into practical observations
Your knowledge and understanding will be             through oral questioning.
assessed using the assessment methods listed
below:

    •     Observed work
    •     Witness statements
    •     Audio-visual media
    •     Evidence of prior learning or attainment
    •     Written questions
    •     Oral questions
    •     Assignments
    •     Case studies




  Achieving the external paper

The external paper will test your knowledge of the criteria highlighted in white. A pass mark of
70% must be achieved. Criteria not achieved will be identified to your tutor/assessor. You will then
be orally questioned or asked to produce other forms of evidence as all unit criteria must
be achieved.

Your assessor will complete the table below when the 70% pass mark has been achieved.

 Paper           Date achieved                             Assessor initials

 1 of 1




                                                                                 UV30430               79
     Knowledge

       Outcome 1

     Be able to prepare for skin treatment using micro
     dermabrasion
                                                                                Portfolio reference /
      You can:
                                                                                Assessor initials*

      g.   Describe salon requirements for preparing yourself, the client and
           the work area

      h.   Describe the environmental conditions suitable for micro
           dermabrasion skin treatment

      i.   Describe the different consultation techniques used to identify
           treatment objectives

      j.   Describe how to select products and tools to suit client treatment
           needs, skin types and conditions

      k.   Describe known contra-indications that may restrict or prevent
           micro dermabrasion treatment

      l.   Describe the importance of carrying out a skin analysis

      m. Describe the effects and benefits of a micro dermabrasion
           treatment


     * Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

     Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.




80            UV30430
  Outcome 2

Be able to provide skin treatment using micro dermabrasion
                                                                          Portfolio reference /
 You can:
                                                                          Assessor initials*

 h.   Explain how to communicate and behave in a professional manner

 i.   Describe health and safety working practices

 j.   Explain the importance of positioning yourself and the client
      correctly throughout the treatment

 k.   Explain the importance of using products, tools and techniques to
      suit client treatment needs, skin types and conditions

 l.   Describe how treatment can be adapted to suit client treatment
      needs

 m. State the contra-actions that may occur during and following
      treatments and how to respond

 n.   Explain the importance of completing the treatment to the
      satisfaction of the client

 o.   Explain the importance of completing treatment records

 p.   Describe the methods of evaluating the effectiveness of the
      treatment

 q.   Describe the aftercare advice that should be provided

 r.   Describe the structure and function of the skin

 s.   Describe the main diseases and disorders of the skin


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.




                                                                                UV30430           81
       Outcome 2 (continued)

     Be able to provide skin treatment using micro dermabrasion
                                                                             Portfolio reference /
      You can:
                                                                             Assessor initials*

      t.   Describe skin types, conditions and characteristics

      u.   Describe the growth cycle and repair of the skin

      v.   Explain how natural ageing, lifestyle and environmental factors
           affect the condition of the skin


     * Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

     Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.




82            UV30430
    Unit content

This section provides guidance on the recommended knowledge and skills required to enable you
to achieve each of the learning outcomes in this unit. Your tutor/assessor will ensure you have the
opportunity to cover all of the unit content.


  Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for skin treatment using micro dermabrasion


  Management of health & safety at work:             insurance) legislation; fire precautions
  Cleaning up spillages, report slippery             legislation; first aid at work legislation;
  surfaces, remove report obstacles, good            health and safety at work legislation; local
  all round access to trolleys and equipment,        government miscellaneous provisions
  sterilise or disinfect – tools, equipment, work    legislation; occupiers liability legislation;
  surfaces, personal protective equipment.           local bylaws.
  Electricity at work - checking / visual check      Regulations: Control of substances
  of equipment, no trailing wires Portable           hazardous to health regulations;
  Appliance Testing (PAT).                           management of health and safety at work
                                                     regulations; manual handling; personal
  Manual handling - moving stock, lifting,
                                                     protective equipment; reporting of injuries,
  working heights, unpacking, posture,
                                                     diseases and dangerous occurrences
  deportment, balance weight, preserve back,
                                                     regulations; workplace (health and welfare)
  prevent slouching.
                                                     regulations.
  Towels - clean for every client, dirty towels
                                                     Hazards and risks: Has the potential to
  in covered bin.
                                                     cause harm; a risk is the likelihood of a
  Liability insurance - employers, public,           hazard happening.
  professional indemnity.
                                                     Employer responsibility: current and valid
  Reporting of injuries, diseases and                liability insurance; display health and safety
  dangerous occurrences - accident book,             rules covering – staff, employees, clients,
  reporting diseases, local bye laws, code of        fire evacuation, provide regular training,
  conduct, risk assessment.                          accurate record keeping, monitoring.
  Control of substances hazardous to                 Hazards: Something with potential to cause
  health - replace lids, ventilation for vapour      harm; requiring immediate legislation;
  and dust, avoid over exposure to chemicals,        level of responsibility; report; nominated
  correct use of chemicals, follow storage           personnel; duty to recognize / deal with
  handling use and disposal, correct disposal        hazards.
  of contaminated waste, products, check
                                                     Equipment - only used for intended
  end date, packaging, store away from
                                                     purpose, safe usage, handling, storage,
  heat, damp and direct sunlight, dispose of
                                                     cleaning, lifting, visual checks, worn, faulty,
  contaminated waste in a closed top bin,
                                                     repairs, maintenance, Portable Appliance
  relevant manufacturer’s instructions, no
                                                     Testing, correct disposal of contaminated
  smoking, eating, drinking.
                                                     waste, records.
  Health and safety legislation: Data
                                                     Security (cash): Staff training, point of sale,
  protection legislation; electricity at work
                                                     regular banking, in transit.
  legislation; employers liability (compulsory


                                                                                   UV30430             83
     Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for skin treatment using micro dermabrasion
     (continued)


     Security (people): Staff, clients, visitors,   distribution, client comfort, maintain
     children, personal belongings, systems –       modesty, client correctly positioned to get
     security, emergency evacuation, storage,       maximum benefit from treatment, ensure
     client records, business information.          therapist positioning delivers appropriate
                                                    techniques, appropriate space between
     Risk: Likelihood of a hazard happening,
                                                    client and therapist, prevent injury, optimum
     risk assessment, determine the level of
                                                    results, allow for visual checks.
     risk, preventative measures, reduce a
     potentially harmful situation, judgement       Work area: Clean and hygienic, height
     of salon hazards who, what, level of risk,     adjustable chair, correct posture, correct
     interpret results, conclusions, record         couch height, lighting, ventilation, noise,
     findings, regular reviews.                     music, temperature, ambience, no trailing
                                                    wires, no obstructions, tools and equipment
     Reasons for risk assessment: staff,
                                                    in a safe working position for therapist.
     visitor, client health and safety, safe
     environment, minimising hazards and risks,     Client preparation: Protect client clothing,
     requirement of legislation.                    client comfort, privacy, modesty, client
                                                    positioned correctly.
     Hygiene:
                                                    Communication:
     General - sterilise and sanitise tools,
     disinfect work surfaces, cover cuts and        Verbal - speaking manner and tone,
     abrasions, sanitise therapist hands before     professional, supportive, respectful,
     and after treatments, sanitise with sprays     sensitive to client, open questioning related
     and gels, clean towels between client, dirty   to treatment.
     towels in covered bin, disposable towels,
                                                    Non-verbal - eye contact, body language,
     dispense products with a spatula, pump or
                                                    listening.
     spray, disposables used wherever possible,
     no smoking, personal hygiene, replace          Record keeping: Accurate appointment
     loose lids, uncapped bottle and pots.          systems, stationery, loyalty, rewards,
                                                    acknowledgement of occasions,
     Disinfection - heat or chemical methods,
                                                    consultation record keeping, contra-
     bactericides, fungicides, viricides, UV
                                                    indications, signatures, refer to existing
     cabinet for storage only.
                                                    records, information clear and accurate,
     Disposal of waste: Single use items,           logical order, name, address, contact
     pedal bin with a liner, spillages and unused   numbers, age range, reason for treatment,
     chemicals, contaminated waste, hazardous       occupation, sport/hobbies, medical
     waste, environmental protection.               history, allergies/hypersensitivity, contact
                                                    lenses, contra-actions, contra-indications,
     Therapist posture and deportment:
                                                    skin sensitivity tests, adaptations and
     Correct posture when sitting, correct
                                                    modifications, recommendations,
     posture with lifting, correct posture when
                                                    requirement, treatment plan, update record
     carrying, working methods to avoid
                                                    at the end of the end of the treatment,
     Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI), hand
                                                    update at each visit, records maintained
     exercises, standing posture, even weight
                                                    electronically, paper records.


84        UV30430
Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for skin treatment using micro dermabrasion
(continued)


Professional appearance: Clean                     acne, client undergoing any medical
professional uniform, no jewellery, hair           treatment without GP’s consent.
neatly tied back fringe secured, closed in
                                                   Examples of contra-indications that
footwear, make-up - light day make-up,
                                                   may restrict treatment: Tattoo in
personal hygiene and cleanliness – shower
                                                   treatment area, pigmented naevi, moles,
bath, cover cuts and abrasions, deodorant
                                                   recent dermabrasion or chemical peel
or antiperspirant, oral hygiene, clean teeth,
                                                   treatment, recent scar tissue (within six
fresh breath, nails – good condition and
                                                   months), varicose veins, cuts, abrasions,
maintained, no piercings.
                                                   bruises, collagen, restylane or similar filler
Professional ethical conduct: Polite,              injections, recent botox treated areas (lack
cheerful and friendly manner, friendly facial      of nerve response), couperose conditions,
expressions, positive attitude, eye contact,       telangiectasia/telangiectasia angioma
open body language, client relations,              (spider naevi).
confidentiality, respect for colleagues and
                                                   Examples of possible contra-actions:
competitors, avoid gossip, pride in work,
                                                   Erythema, oedema, bruising, allergic
punctuality, employer and client loyalty.
                                                   reaction, discontinue treatment, take
Over exposure to chemicals/products                remedial action
(prevention): Routes of entry to the
                                                   Possible causes of contra-actions:
body (preventing inhalation, ingestion),
absorption (correct application techniques,        Poor hygiene - Home care/aftercare,
manufacturer’s instructions), personal             bacterial infection caused by contamination
protective equipment, correct ventilation,         of treated area.
decanting products, eye protection, contact        Over treatment - Excess erythema,
lenses, good housekeeping techniques,              blistering, excessive discomfort, swelling,
salon hygiene.                                     bruising, blood spots.
Over exposure to product (symptoms):
Irritation in eyes/nose/throat, skin irritation,
excessive erythema, blistering, grazing,
blood spots.
Examples of contra-indications that
may prevent treatment: Inflamed or
infected skin conditions, herpes simplex,
contagious skin disease, malignant
melanomas, client on medication that
causes skin thinning or inflammation (e.g.
steroids, acutane, retin-A), keloid scarring,
diagnosed scleroderma, haemophilia,
insulin controlled diabetes, epilepsy,
circulatory disorders, dysfunction of the
nervous system, HIV, UV exposure, vitiligo,
psoriasis, neurodermatitis, infected/pustular


                                                                                 UV30430            85
     Outcome 2: Be able to provide skin treatment using micro dermabrasion


     Skin analysis: Carried out using               cold.
     magnifying lamp, protect eyes with damp
                                                    Tactile - Use a sharp (orange stick) and
     cotton wool pads, check all areas of the
                                                    smooth (cotton pad) object, stroke over the
     face and neck for skin type, skin conditions
                                                    skin in area to be treated, client should be
     and characteristics, record results on
                                                    able to differentiate between the different
     record card, client skin type, conditions
                                                    sensations.
     and characteristics, treatment plan, most
     suitable treatment, suitable products,         Thermal - Fill test tube with cold water and
     prevent worsening of conditions, accurate      one with hot water, place on skin in area
     aftercare advice, future treatment needs.      to be treated, ask client to differentiate
                                                    between the sensations.
     Skin types: Normal, oily, dry.
                                                    Skin sensitivity test - record results.
     Skin conditions: Mature, sensitive,
     dehydrated, congested.                         Skin sensitivity test- interpret results:
                                                    Client should be able to identify the
     Examples of skin imperfections: Broken
                                                    difference between sharp / blunt and hot/
     capillaries, pustules, papules, milia,
                                                    cold, if the client can; treatment can go
     comedones, open pores, fine lines and
                                                    ahead, if client is unresponsive to tactile
     wrinkles.
                                                    and thermal tests, treatment should not be
     Skin characteristics:                          carried out, client would not be able to feel
                                                    if electrical current was too high, risks of
     Sensitive - often pale skins, dry, colour
                                                    skin damage.
     easily, redness, react to products.
                                                    Explain the treatment to the client:
     Dehydrated - normal sebaceous
                                                    Treatment process, expected sensations,
     secretions but still flaky, tight.
                                                    skin reaction, outcomes, further treatments.
     Mature - loss of elasticity, loose muscle
                                                    Products and equipment: Anti-allergenic
     tone, wrinkles.
                                                    cleanser, toner, moisturiser and soothing
     Normal - fine texture, no visible pores,       face mask, correct sized probe disposable
     smooth, supple, flexible.                      head according to manufacturer’s
     Oily - shiny, slight thickening, sallow,       instructions to suit treatment needs,
     coarse texture, enlarged pores, congestion,    vacuum intensity between 3psi and
     comedones.                                     5psi according to treatment needs and
                                                    manufacturer’s instructions.
     Combination - combination of two or more
     skin types, usually oily T zone, normal or     Possible effects and benefits: Reduces
     dry on cheeks.                                 fine lines and wrinkles, smoothes and
                                                    softens skin surface, stimulates production
     Dry - lacks moisture, dry to touch,            of natural collagen, reduces flaccidity,
     flakiness, fine texture, thin, tight, small    enhances penetration of active products,
     pores, broken capillaries, ageing.             improves appearance of stretch marks
     Skin sensitivity tests: Tactile test for       and scars, lightens hyper-pigmentation,
     sharp and blunt, thermal test for hot and      increases blood and lymph flow, eliminates
                                                    milia and blackheads, clears spots. Mild


86         UV30430
Outcome 2: Be able to provide skin treatment using micro dermabrasion
(continued)


erythema, skin may be taut and itchy for       rate movements from outside edge to
first 48 hours, temporary dryness, slight      centre of scar, 3psi to 5psi/according to
skin shedding, temporary hypersensitivity,     manufacturer’s instructions, regularity of
mild sunburn sensation for first few hours.    treatments, aftercare.
Working position of client and therapist:      Treatment technique (stretch marks):
Client supine, area to be treated supported,   Low pressure – max 3psi, according to
positioned for ease of access and client       manufacturer’s instructions and client
comfort, avoiding awkward angles and           comfort, light quick strokes, from centre
allowing for effective treatment.              to outside edge, regularity of treatments.
                                               aftercare.
Products for skin: Anti-allergenic
cleanser, toner, mask, moisturiser with SPF    Treatment technique (hyper
25 or over, large facial sponges/towelling     pigmentation): Chloasma, lentigo,
mitts, paper tissues, eye protection.          sunspots, medium rate, max 5psi/
                                               manufacturer’s instructions, client comfort,
Equipment: Couch, client chair,
                                               regularity of treatments, aftercare.
therapy chair, magnifying lamp, micro
dermabrasion machine, disposable               Treatment technique (cellulite):
heads for probe, aluminium oxide crystals      Largest disposable probe head, circular
(corundum), spatulas, bowls, mask brush,       movements, medium rate movements,
couch roll, towels, covers.                    3psi to 5psi according to client comfort and
                                               manufacturer’s instructions, regularity of
Treatment technique (machine and
                                               treatments, aftercare.
probe techniques): Probe with opening
flat to the surface of the skin, firm grip,    Response to contra-actions: Excessive
no pressure, rate, depth, direction,           erythema, blistering, swelling, excessive
vacuum pressure between 3psi and 5psi          discomfort, bruising, blood spots (over-
according to sensitivity, condition, depth     treatment, allergic reaction), remove
of peel and manufacturer’s instructions        product, cool compress, refer to GP,
(sensitive, mature, thin epidermal clients,    exposure to UV, pigmentation, soreness
quick, light strokes, vacuum pressure low      excessive erythema, swelling, home care,
3psi/manufacturer’s instructions to aid        cool compress, medical referral, avoid
regeneration and elasticity of skin), skin     facial treatments, make-up, cosmetic
type (sun damaged, acne, oily, seborrhoea,     products, use anti-allergenic products,
sluggish, combination, normal – medium         avoid sunlight, sun beds, use protection
rate movements, horizontally and vertically,   SPF 25 plus in normal daylight, SPF 30 in
problem areas, wrinkles, character lines)      sunlight.
spots (vacuum pressure between 3psi
                                               Client satisfaction: Objectives,
and 5psi/according to manufacturer’s
                                               client expectations, no contra-actions,
instructions), client comfort, regularity of
                                               questioning, listening, visual observation,
treatments, aftercare.
                                               non-verbal communication, eye contact,
Treatment technique (scar tissue,              body language, future treatment needs.
post-injury and post-acne): Medium



                                                                            UV30430           87
     Outcome 2: Be able to provide skin treatment using micro dermabrasion
     (continued)


     Aftercare and home care advice: No             Fungal - tinea (pedis, corporis, ungium).
     make-up or perfumed products for 24hrs,
                                                    Infestations - scabies, pediculosis
     apply healing products (such as aloe
                                                    (capitas, pubis).
     vera gel at night), use moisturiser (with
     sun block factor 15-30 during day), avoid      Pigmentation - vitiligo, albinism,
     sunlight/sun beds (for at least two weeks      chloasma, ephelides, lentigo, papilloma,
     after course of treatment), avoid touching     naevae, port wine stains.
     the area (always wash hands before             Others: Basal cell carcinoma, squamous
     applying products), avoid over-stimulating     cell carcinoma, malignant melanomas.
     the area (no heat treatments/exercise/hot
     showers for 24hrs, no swimming or other        Growth cycle and repair of skin: From
     facial treatments for 24hrs).                  germinativum to corneum, the process of
                                                    keratinisation.
     Skin (epidermis): Stratum germinativum,
     stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum,          Ageing process: Loss of elasticity,
     stratum lucidum, stratum corneum), the         dryness of skin, cell regeneration slows,
     process of keratinisation.                     thinning of skin, broken capillaries, slack
                                                    muscle tone, poor circulation, waste
     Skin (dermis): Structure, blood/               product removal slows, less fatty tissue,
     lymph supply, papillary layer, reticular       irregular pigmentation.
     layer, collagen, elastin, macrophages,
     adipocytes, mast cells, fibroblasts, hair,     Lifestyle factors that affect skin:
     dermal papilla, sebaceous glands and           Occupation, diet and fluid intake, sleep
     sebum, arrector pili muscle, sweat glands      patterns, smoking, exercise, hobbies, home
     (eccrine and apocrine), sensory nerve          situation, stress levels, medication, illness,
     endings.                                       premature ageing, poor skin condition,
                                                    loss of muscle tone, dehydration, poor
     Skin (hypodermis): Structure                   circulation, excess fatty tissue, increased
     (subcutaneous layer, adipose tissue,           cellulite, slow metabolism, cell regeneration
     adipocytes).                                   and growth.
     Functions of the skin: Secretion,              Environmental factors that affect skin:
     heat regulation, absorption, protection,       UV light, weather, central heating, drugs,
     elimination, sensation, vitamin D formation,   alcohol, serious illness, medication,
     melanin production.                            occupation, dry, dehydrated, premature
     Examples of skin diseases and                  ageing, wrinkles and loss of elasticity,
     disorders:                                     slower metabolism.
     Congenital - eczema, psoriasis.
     Bacterial - acne vulgaris, acne rosacea,
     folliculitis, boils (furuncles), impetigo.
     Viral - warts, verruca, herpes simplex
     (HSV), herpes zoster.



88        UV30430
UV40413
Laser and light treatments for
hair removal
This unit is about reducing hair growth using intense light
and laser systems. You will need to have knowledge of safe
working practice and controlling hazards in the salon. You
will be able to identify hair and skin conditions and those
clients suitable for laser and light system treatments.

To carry out this unit you will need to maintain effective
health, safety and hygiene procedures throughout your
work.




UV40413_v14
Level




        4
Credit value




        10
GLH




        74
Observations




        3
External paper(s)




        0
Laser and light treatments for
hair removal

     Learning outcomes                                    Evidence requirements

On completion of this unit you will:                 1.    Environment
                                                           Evidence for this unit must be gathered in a
1.   Be able to prepare for laser and light
                                                           real or realistic working environment.
     treatments
2.   Be able to provide laser and light treatments   2.    Simulation
                                                           Simulation is not allowed in this unit.

                                                     3.    Observation outcomes
                                                           Competent performance of ‘Observation’
                                                           outcomes must be demonstrated to your
                                                           assessor on at least three occasions.

                                                     4.    Range
                                                           All ranges must be practically demonstrated
                                                           or other forms of evidence produced to
                                                           show they have been covered.

                                                     5.    Knowledge outcomes
                                                           There must be evidence that you possess
                                                           all the knowledge and understanding
                                                           listed in the ‘Knowledge’ section of this
                                                           unit. This evidence may include projects,
                                                           assignments, case studies, reflective
                                                           accounts, oral/written questioning and/or
                                                           other forms of evidence.

                                                     6.    Tutor/Assessor guidance
                                                           You will be guided by your tutor/assessor
                                                           on how to achieve learning outcomes and
                                                           ranges in this unit. All outcomes and ranges
                                                           must be achieved.

                                                     7.    External paper
                                                           There is no external paper requirement for
                                                           this unit.




                                                                                      UV40413             3
      Achieving observations
      and range

      Achieving observation outcomes                     Maximum service times
    Your assessor will observe your performance        The following maximum service times apply to
    of practical tasks. The minimum number             this unit:
    of observations required is indicated in the
    evidence requirements section of this unit.        Hair reduction approximate treatment times:

    Criteria may not always naturally occur during     Lip                                 10 minutes
    a practical observation. In such instances you     Chin                                10 minutes
    will be asked questions to demonstrate your
                                                       Cheeks                              15 minutes
    competence in this area. Your assessor will
    document the criteria that have been achieved      Underarm                            20 minutes
    through oral questioning.                          Bikini                              30 minutes
                                                       Half leg                            45 minutes
    Your assessor will sign off an outcome when all
    criteria have been competently achieved in a       Full leg                            75 minutes
    single client service.                             Consultation                        20 minutes

                                                       The above times may vary depending on
                                                       equipment used.


      Achieving range
    The range section indicates what must
    be covered. Ranges should be practically
    demonstrated as part of an observation. Where
    this is not possible other forms of evidence may
    be produced. All ranges must be covered.

    Your assessor will document the portfolio
    reference once a range has been competently
    achieved.




4           UV40413
                                                     Observations

     Outcome 1

Be able to prepare for laser and light treatments

You can:
a.   Prepare yourself, the client and work area
     for laser and light treatment for hair removal
b.   Use suitable consultation techniques to
     identify treatment objectives
c.   Carry out skin and hair analysis and any
     relevant tests to identify any influencing
     factors
d.   Provide clear recommendations to the client
     based on outcomes of skin and hair analysis
e.   Select products, tools and equipment to
     suit client treatment needs, hair types, skin
     types and conditions
f.   Select personal protective equipment that
     should be worn by the client and therapist
     during laser and light treatment for hair
     removal




*May be assessed through oral questioning.

 Observation                                 1           2       3
 Date achieved
 Criteria questioned orally
 Portfolio reference
 Assessor initials
 Learner signature

                                                             UV40413   5
         Outcome 2

    Be able to provide laser and light treatments

    You can:
    a.    Communicate and behave in a professional
          manner
    b.    Follow health and safety working practices
    c.    Position yourself and the client correctly
          throughout the treatment
    d.    Use products, tools, equipment and
          techniques to suit client treatment needs
    e.    Adapt treatment to suit client needs and
          skin and hair conditions
    f.    Complete the treatment to the satisfaction
          of the client
    g.    Record and evaluate the results of the
          treatment
    h.    Provide suitable aftercare advice




    *May be assessed through oral questioning.
    Observation                                  1     2   3
    Date achieved
    Criteria questioned orally
    Portfolio reference
    Assessor initials
    Learner signature

6             UV40413
                                                                    Range

  *You must practically demonstrate that you have:

Used all the types of equipment                                          Portfolio reference

Laser

Intense light

Considered all the specifications and variables                          Portfolio reference

Wavelength(s)

Optical energy

Optical power

Fluence

Pulse duration/width

Pulse delay

Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF)

Spot size

Cooling devices

Hand pieces/beam delivery systems/scanners

Electrical requirements




*It is strongly recommended that all range items are practically demonstrated. Where this is not
possible, other forms of evidence may be produced to demonstrate competence.




                                                                                 UV40413           7
      *You must practically demonstrate that you have:

    Accounted for all factors in laser controlled areas                      Portfolio reference

    Minimum reflective surfaces

    Enclosed area

    Suitable window coverage

    Lockable entry and exit points

    Adequate fire precautions and suitable services

    Adequate ventilation

    Signage

    Used all consultation techniques                                         Portfolio reference

    Questioning

    Visual

    Manual

    Referencing to client records

    Covered all types of hair colour                                         Portfolio reference

    Dark pigment

    Medium pigment




    *It is strongly recommended that all range items are practically demonstrated. Where this is not
    possible, other forms of evidence may be produced to demonstrate competence.




8            UV40413
 *You must practically demonstrate that you have:

Covered all types of hair density                                        Portfolio reference

Coarse

Fine

Treated all areas                                                        Portfolio reference

Underarms

Chin

Upper lip

Bikini line

Back

Legs

Chest or breast

Abdomen




*It is strongly recommended that all range items are practically demonstrated. Where this is not
possible, other forms of evidence may be produced to demonstrate competence.




                                                                                 UV40413           9
      *You must practically demonstrate that you have:

     Provided all types of advice                                             Portfolio reference

     Avoidance of activities which may cause contra-actions

     Future treatment needs

     Home care

     Modification to lifestyle patterns

     Hair management




     *It is strongly recommended that all range items are practically demonstrated. Where this is not
     possible, other forms of evidence may be produced to demonstrate competence.




10           UV40413
                                    Developing knowledge


  Achieving knowledge outcomes

You will be guided by your tutor and assessor     Where possible your assessor will integrate
on the evidence that needs to be produced.        knowledge outcomes into practical observations
Your knowledge and understanding will be          through oral questioning.
assessed using the assessment methods listed
below:

   •   Observed work
   •   Witness statements
   •   Audio-visual media
   •   Evidence of prior learning or attainment
   •   Written questions
   •   Oral questions
   •   Assignments
   •   Case studies




                                                                              UV40413              11
     Knowledge

       Outcome 1

     Be able to prepare for laser and light treatments
                                                                                   Portfolio reference /
      You can:
                                                                                   Assessor initials*

      g.   Explain salon requirements for preparing yourself, the client and
           work area

      h.   Explain the environmental conditions suitable for laser and light
           treatment for hair removal

      i.   Explain the different consultation techniques used to identify
           treatment objectives

      j.   Explain the importance of carrying out a detailed skin and hair
           analysis and relevant tests

      k.   Explain how to select laser and light treatment equipment to suit
           client skin and hair types and conditions

      l.   Identify the range of equipment used for laser and light treatment
           for hair removal

      m. Explain the contra-indications that prevent or restrict laser and light
           treatment for hair removal

      n.   Explain the required legislation for laser and light treatment and
           the importance of compliance with regulations


     * Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

     Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.




12            UV40413
  Outcome 2

Be able to provide laser and light treatments
                                                                             Portfolio reference /
 You can:
                                                                             Assessor initials*

 i.   Explain how to communicate and behave in a professional manner

 j.   Explain health and safety working practices

 k.   Explain the importance of positioning yourself and the client
      correctly throughout treatment

 l.   Explain the importance of using products, tools, equipment and
      techniques to suit client treatment needs, skin types and conditions

 m. Explain the principles of electrical currents and basic electricity
 n.   Explain the consequences of inaccurate identification of client skin
      type/colouring according to the Fitzpatrick scale

 o.   Describe how treatments can be adapted to suit client treatment
      needs and skin and hair conditions

 p.   Explain the contra-actions that may occur during and following
      treatments

 q.   Explain the methods of evaluating the effectiveness of the
      treatment

 r.   Summarise the aftercare advice that should be provided to prevent
      post-treatment damage

 s.   Explain the suitable methods of dealing with the reappearance of a
      skin condition between treatments

 t.   Explain different skin and hair types, conditions, diseases and
      disorders


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.



                                                                                   UV40413           13
       Outcome 2 (continued)

     Be able to provide laser and light treatments
                                                                                Portfolio reference /
      You can:
                                                                                Assessor initials*

      u.   Explain the structure and functions of the skin

      v.   Explain the principles of skin healing

      w.   Explain the structure and function of the endocrine system and its
           effect on hair growth

      x.   Explain growth patterns and causes of hair growth

      y.   Explain the structure and function of circulatory and lymphatic
           systems


     * Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

     Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.




14            UV40413
    Unit content

This section provides guidance on the recommended knowledge and skills required to enable you
to achieve each of the learning outcomes in this unit. Your tutor/assessor will ensure you have the
opportunity to cover all of the unit content.


  Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for laser and light treatments


  Prepare the therapist: Ensure personal              questions and clarify any points of which
  appearance meets accepted industry                  they are unsure, tactfully advise achievable
  and organisational requirements: clean              outcomes of the treatment (where clients
  professional uniform, no jewellery, hair            have unrealistic expectations or hair colour
  tied back from face, sensible footwear,             and types that are unsuitable for treatment),
  personal hygiene and cleanliness (shower/           use assessment techniques (which identify
  bath, oral hygiene) and make-up applied             the condition and skin classification of
                                                      the client), explain the physical sensation
  correctly. Always maintain the hygiene
                                                      created by the equipment being used, refer
  and safety procedure throughout the
                                                      clients with contra-indications (suspected
  treatment. Wear personal protective
                                                      of requiring medical treatment) to their
  equipment to avoid cross-infection and              General Practitioner (prior to any treatment
  prevent accidental exposure to light/laser          and without reference to a specific
  to yourself, the client and others within           condition), clearly and tactfully explain to
  the controlled area, wear recommended               the client contra-indications recognised
  eyewear and disposable gloves.                      as preventing treatment, recommend
  Prepare the client: Consultation                    alternative treatments (which are suitable
                                                      for the client’s condition and needs – if
  procedure should take a minimum of
                                                      contra-indicated for light/laser treatments),
  20 minutes and include: an informed
                                                      clearly explain and agree with the client, the
  consent form (signed by the client and
                                                      projected cost, likely duration and frequency
  therapist), medical history (physical and           of treatment and recovery time.
  emotional conditions), doctor’s referral
  letter (if required), treatment details             Preparation of work area: Prepare the
  (skin classification, sun tanning history,          IPL/laser controlled area to meet safety,
  pigmentation, skin condition on area being          legal, hygiene and treatment requirements,
  treated), treatment record card (date, area         ensure equipment is switched on and in
  treated, treatment method, patch test               standby/safety mode. Make sure that the
  methods, equipment settings, time and               environmental conditions are suitable for the
  duration, treatment outcome).                       treatment, client and practitioner (lighting,
                                                      heating, ventilation and general comfort),
  Ensure that the consultation procedure is
                                                      and ensure the positioning of the client
  conducted in a sensitive and supportive
                                                      and equipment permits effective access
  manner (i.e. privacy, modesty, trust and
                                                      and minimises risk to the practitioner and
  confidentiality, thought for client’s wellbeing
  and ongoing reassurance), ensure                    discomfort to the client.
  position and posture minimises fatigue              Ensure security of light/laser controlled
  and the risk of injury to yourself and the          areas: Non-reflective surfaces, protective
  client, actively encourage the client to ask


                                                                                  UV40413              15
     Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for laser and light treatments (continued)


     eyewear (according to manufacturer’s           client’s requirements and expectations
     instructions), enclosed area, suitable entry   of treatment. Impart to the client a brief
     and exit points, adequate fire precautions     explanation of treatment to include
     and suitable services (e.g. provision for      how the treatments works (ensure
     hand sanitation), waste management             client understands results are achieved
     (e.g. sharps bin), extraction (if required),   according to individual’s hair growth, for
     hazardous warning signs displayed on the       realistic goals) and how many sessions
     equipment and entry/exit points or area.       are required, appointments and frequency,
     There should be a maximum of one IPL/          re-growth, skin reaction, sensation, contra-
                                                    indications, aftercare advice, consent,
     laser system in operation in the controlled
                                                    special precautions prior to treatment,
     area at any one time, all windows should
                                                    when to refer to a dermatologist or medical
     be covered with blinds/shutters (blackout
                                                    practitioner (to include consultation
     curtains if necessary), no flammable           records, patch test, before and after
     materials should be stored in the controlled   pictures (visual)).
     area.
                                                    Skin and hair analysis and any relevant
     Local rules should be displayed in             tests to identify any influencing
     the controlled area. These are written         factors: You should not carry out a
     rules and procedures that must be              patch test until you have carried out a
     followed when working with light               thorough consultation (making accurate
     systems, detailing: how to turn on/off,        recommendations for treatment, skin
     how to operate and maintain the equipment      typing, Fitzpatrick’s photo scale, relevant
     safely, what the hazards are, checks, who      questions regarding history of skin tanning)
     is responsible, how to prevent use by          and the client has signed an informed
     unauthorised persons and adverse incident      consent form. Carry out patch tests
     procedures, controlled area procedures         according to skin types, understand and
     and access, personal protective equipment      explain the reasons and procedure for
     required.                                      patch testing (to include the procedure for
     Consultation techniques to identify            the test), sensation, to record settings, skin
     treatment objectives:                          response (i.e. depending on skin type, 24
                                                    hours for skin type (1,2,3) and 6 weeks
     Communication – private comfortable
                                                    for skin types (4,5,6), recognise adverse
     area to carry out consultation,
     position client so no barriers between         reactions.
     therapist and the client, positive body        The patch test should preferably be
     language, enthusiasm, professionalism,         carried out in the area to be treated, as
     confidentiality, eye contact, open             this will give the truest indication of the
     questions, listening.                          reactions; if this is not possible a discrete
     Develop client profile – client lifestyle,     area with similar hair and skin type may
     commitment to treatment, history of            be selected. The ideal outcome of the
     hair removal methods used by client,           patch test is that the skin and hair will



16         UV40413
Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for laser and light treatments (continued)


respond “normally” (there will be no              tactfully explain to the client recognised
excessive erythema, blistering, swelling          contra-indications that prevent treatment,
or pigmentation changes). If you intend to        refer client with contra-indications
carry out treatment on more than one area,        (suspected of requiring medical treatment
it may be necessary to patch test on each         to their GP, prior to any treatment and
of the proposed treatment sites (a bikini         without reference to a specific condition),
line may react differently to the face, due to    recommend alternative treatments suitable
the difference in hair density, skin type and     for the client’s condition and needs (if
amount of UV exposure).                           contra-indicated for IPL/laser treatments),
                                                  explain in a clear manner to the agreement
Carry out patch tests for tactile and thermal
                                                  of the client the projected treatment plan
safety tests – Client’s skin sensation
                                                  (to include: number of treatments required,
too hot/cold, sharp/soft (understand and
                                                  treatment intervals, treatment cost and
explain reasons and procedure for each).
                                                  percentage reduction goals), ensure client
Thermal test to ascertain whether the
                                                  wellbeing by giving ongoing support, give
client feels the burning sensation of heat.
                                                  reassurance where necessary, explain the
Tactile test is used to ascertain if the client
                                                  importance of client commitment to the
can tell the difference between sharp and
                                                  treatment, and the importance of aftercare/
soft sensation. Visual check for contra-
                                                  home care advice (to ensure maximum
indications, skin conditions, any identifying
                                                  efficiency of treatment).
skin lesions, moles.
                                                  Recommended treatment intervals:
NB. Patch test procedure should follow
                                                  Hair growth patterns differ on all areas of
treatment protocol with emphasis on
                                                  the body and so will determine treatment
the importance of applying a minimum
                                                  interval times for the success of the hair
factor 30 sun block post-treatment. Know
                                                  reduction. Hair on the face is the most
the importance of test shots and how to
                                                  difficult to treat.
recognise skin reactions, determining the
correct treatment parameters.                     Face – growth patterns are at quicker
                                                  intervals (i.e. anywhere between 2-4
Recommendations to the client based               weeks, there is a much higher percentage
on outcomes of skin and hair analysis:            of hair follicles present at any one
Based on the outcomes of skin and hair            time). Hair colour may vary on the face
analyses, the therapist can accurately            depending on skin type (i.e. from blonde,
identify the condition and skin classification    grey, red, light brown, dark brown and
of the client, determine the suitability for      black). Lighter hair is much more difficult to
treatment from the outcome of the patch,          treat.
design a treatment plan for the client            Body – hair growth on the body tends
(tactfully advising the achievable outcome        to lean towards a 6-8 week cycle and
of the treatment where clients have               should be treated accordingly. The only
unrealistic expectations of hair colour and       exception to this rule is the leg area where
types unsuitable for treatment), clearly and      the growth cycle tends to be a lot slower.


                                                                               UV40413             17
     Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for laser and light treatments (continued)


     After the initial two treatments on the legs   consultation forms, aftercare forms, IPL/
     of 6 weeks apart it is advisable to push       laser warning signs in controlled area,
     your client to a treatment plan of between     non-reflective surfaces in controlled area,
     9-12 weeks to achieve optimal satisfactory     trolley, couch, sharps bin (for disposal
     results for hair reduction.                    of razors) and bin for general waste,
                                                    appropriate warning signs attached to IPL/
     NB. It is important to advise your client
                                                    laser equipment.
     that at any one stage of treatment there is
     approximately between 10-70% of hair in        Personal protective equipment that
     the anagen phase at any given time. This       should be worn by client and therapist
     is why you should advise your client to give   during laser and light treatment for
     up to 1 year and between 6-8 treatments to     hair removal: Intense Pulsed Light and
     achieve the level of reduction required. The   Laser emits light which has the potential
     therapist has a responsibility to achieve      to damage unprotected eyes. Both
     maximum hair reduction result for her client   the operator and client must wear the
     by constantly monitoring ongoing reduction     manufacturer’s recommended eyewear
     and adjusting her treatment times as           (before recommencement of treatment).
     required.                                      Overall recommended grade 5 laser
                                                    protection goggles. Type of eyewear
     Suggested treatment plan for hair
                                                    (blackout). Wavelength range (compete
     reduction – lip/chin/face (2-4 weeks),
                                                    optical protection). IPL (Grade 5 +). Laser
     underarm/bikini (6-8 weeks), back/
                                                    OD (Optical Density 4 +).
     chest/arms (6-8 weeks), legs (initial two
     treatments, 6 weeks apart, extending from      Insurance: Appropriate level of cover
     9-12 weeks for subsequent treatments).         for treatment risk/medical malpractice/
     Products, tools and equipment to suit          professional indemnity is strongly
     client treatment needs, hair types, skin       recommended.
     types and condition:                           Salon requirements for preparing
     Products – anti-bacterial wipes, hand          yourself, the client and work area:
     sanitisers, cotton wool, tissues, spatulas,    Salon requirements – registration with a
     disposable razors, facial cleanser, soothing   voluntary regulator may be required.
     aftercare, SPF 30 (minimum), disposable
     underwear, aprons, gloves, ultrasound-         Fitness of premises – salon will need to
     cooling gel, couch roll, towels, gowns.        appoint a laser protection advisor (who
                                                    will guide the salon/clinic on layout of the
     Tools and equipment – recommended              controlled area i.e. room layout, window
     protective eyewear, IPL/laser equipment        protection, safety measures, warning signs
     of hair reduction treatment, appropriate       etc.), appoint a fire protection advisor
     applicator/hand piece required for             (safety, use of fire extinguishers, must be
     treatment, red marker to mark out              CO2 (black label) extinguishers, must be
     treatment area (if required), white stickers   inspected and certified by the fire office on
     to cover skin conditions (i.e. moles),         an annual basis, placed near the controlled
     camera (for before and after pictures),        area).



18         UV40413
Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for laser and light treatments (continued)


Fitness of equipment – salon/clinic must           dealings with clients, work colleagues, and
ensure that the selection of equipment             respectful of working environment.
meets treatment requirements and
                                                   Preparation of treatment area – the
outcomes. The salon will need to appoint
                                                   preparation of light/laser ‘controlled area’
a GP to write up treatment protocols
                                                   must meet safety, legal, hygiene and
for correct use of equipment and these
                                                   treatment requirements in addition to
protocols need to be updated on a yearly
                                                   normal health and safety standards.
basis. All equipment must be regularly
maintained and serviced, and correct               The area must meet the following
methods must be used to sterilise                  criteria – the room should be dedicated
equipment (according to manufacturer’s             to light treatments only, only authorised
instructions) to keep equipment in proper          personnel should have access, there
working order and safe to use on clients.          should be no more than one IPL/laser
The salon must ensure that systems are             operating in a room at the same time, all
in place to prevent accidental exposure to         equipment should have identifying labels
the client or therapist within the controlled      on them (indicating their wavelengths
area, there should be a quality system in          and maximum output power radiation
place (i.e. all paperwork should be correct),      emitted), warning signs must be displayed
the salon/clinic should have written policies      on equipment and on/over the outside of
in place (i.e. health and safety policy,           doors to the controlled area. On or over
fire protection policy, complaints policy,         these doors there must be a red light that
policy for creating and storing confidential       is switched on when the IPL/laser is in
information according to data protection           use, protective eyewear must be worn by
legislation).                                      everyone in the controlled area. These
                                                   must be to the required standard of the
Fitness of persons – the salon/clinic is
                                                   manufacturer’s of equipment selected.
responsible for providing suitable staff to
carry out services offered. It is the salon’s/     Recommended eyewear for IPL – Grade
clinic’s responsibility to ensure that all staff   5 + for operator and client.
have relevant training and qualifications          Recommended eyewear for laser –
in order to carry out the services provided        OD (Optical Density) superior to 4+ for
and that all staff are insured to carry out        operator and total block for client. Light
services provided.                                 speed shutters may be used providing they
Therapist’s responsibilities – work in             are of the standard required for equipment
accordance with the salon/clinic policies          being used, windows must be covered
and procedures, carry out proper client            by blinds/shutters during treatment,
care pre-/post-treatment, ensure all               if foot pedal is used for application of
paper work completed/signed by client              treatment this must be covered, doors to
and therapist at each treatment, follow            the controlled area should be lockable or
health, hygiene and safety procedures              interlocked, no flammable materials in the
at all times, respect and uphold client’s          controlled area, proper fire protection in
privacy, confidentiality according to the          place near the controlled area, local rules
data protection act, be honest in all              should be displayed near the light source,


                                                                                UV40413           19
     Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for laser and light treatments (continued)


     read and signed by all operators (local          to allow employees to work in a safe and
     rules are the written rules and procedures       healthy manner. Workstations should allow
     that must be followed when working with          ease of movement so that all tasks may
     light systems in the salon/clinic), equipment    be carried out safely and comfortably. The
     procedures (how to turn on/off operate           workplace should be kept clean and waste
     safely and maintain the equipment), safety       materials should be kept in enclosed bins
     (the hazards, checks, who is responsible,        and disposed of according to health and
     how to prevent use by unauthorised               safety protocols.
     persons and adverse incident procedures),
                                                      Different consultation techniques used
     controlled area procedures and access, the
                                                      to identify treatment objectives: Building
     personal protective equipment required.
                                                      a client profile (expectations of treatment
     Environmental conditions suitable                and treatment plan). Consultation should
     for laser and light treatment for hair           be a minimum of 20 minutes to include
     removal:                                         correct procedure and protocol (i.e.
     Lighting – must be suitable and sufficient       medical history form, patch test consent
     to enable treatments to be carried out.          form – to include test shots on the
     Windows should have blinds/shutters in the       treatment area, pre- and post-care advice
     controlled area.                                 form, doctors note if necessary). Test
                                                      shots determine the treatment parameters,
     Heating – the temperature in the work
     place should provide reasonable comfort          client comfort level, adverse/normal skin
     at least 16oC. To maintain a comfortable         reaction.
     temperature, heating or cooling may be           Photographs before and after – visual
     used. In extremely hot weather, fans or          (record of treatment, record of condition of
     increased ventilation would be an option.        skin/skin conditions present).
     Ventilation – ventilation must be effective      Carrying out a detailed skin and hair
     with sufficient quantities of purified air       analysis and relevant tests: Enables
     particularly in an enclosed workspace.           the therapist to: identify the condition and
     Windows may provide sufficient ventilation       skin classification of the client, assess the
     but mechanical methods may be used
                                                      outcome of the patch test as necessary,
     when appropriate and regularly cleaned
                                                      determine the suitability for treatment,
     tested and maintained. In the case of laser
                                                      assess the skin and client response to
     equipment being used, proper extraction
     must be. When using IPL equipment                determine suitable reactions and avoid
     (Pulsar Recommend ions), requirements            adverse reactions, adjust variables as
     recommended 30cm gap at rear of the              necessary (whilst monitoring skin/client
     system this allows air to circulate freely and   response and discontinuing treatment,
     protects the mains lead from excessive           where adverse reactions occur), and
     bending.                                         explain the physical sensation created by
                                                      the IPL/laser equipment being used.
     General comfort – the size of the
     workplace must provide sufficient room           Patch test procedure – apply a small



20         UV40413
Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for laser and light treatments (continued)


number of shots to the treatment area or        days before treatment), pace maker/
area with similar hair and skin type, record    defibrillators, metal pins/plates, fever,
settings, wait for skin response (i.e. 24       contagious or infectious diseases, herpes/
hours for skin types 1, 2, and 3, and 4         skin diseases, loss of skin sensitivity (test
weeks for skin types 4, 5, and 6), recognise    with tactile and thermal methods), cuts/
normal/adverse reactions.                       bruises/abrasions, undiagnosed lumps and
Range of equipment used for laser               bumps, allergies to products or materials
and light treatment for hair removal:           used, under the influence of drugs or
Laser (i.e. laser diode, alexandrite, ruby),    alcohol, gold injections, fillers, botox.
broadband spectrum systems (i.e. Intense        Contra-indications requiring medical
Pulsed Light and Light Heat Energy).            referral or the client to indemnify their
Contra-indications that prevent or              condition in writing prior to treatment:
restrict laser and light treatment for          Medical oedema, osteoporosis, diabetes,
hair removal: Epilepsy (flashing of light       asthma, arthritis, acute rheumatism, bells
could bring on a fit), hepatitis, long term     palsy, inflamed/trapped pinched nerve,
diabetes (client skin more sensitive to         any condition already being treated by GP/
IPL/laser treatment and could result in         Dermatologist.
severe bruising), haemophilia (bleeding
disorder), clients taking anti-coagulant
medication (aspirin, warfarin, phenediene,
hapazin), clients sensitive to light within
the range of 500nm–900nm, clients with
keloid scarring, skin cancers, pregnancy
(this alters the hormones and therefore
could affect hair growth/pigmentation –
client could be treated 3-4 months after
childbirth), pigmentation problems (vitiligo,
molasma moles, pigmented naevi moles),
clients taking photosensitising medication
(including drugs or medication that cause
skin thinning effects), cardiovascular
conditions (thrombosis, phlebitis, hyper
tension, hypo tension, heart conditions),
connective tissue disorders (scleroderma),
tattoos, permanent and semi-permanent
make-up, herbal supplements that cause
photo sensitisation (i.e. St John’s Wort),
beta carotene, sunburn, suntanned skin
at time of treatment, artificial tan until
the product has worn off (approx’ 7-10


                                                                            UV40413             21
     Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatments


     Communicate and behave in a                   flammable materials are allowed in the
     professional manner: Positive                 controlled area; do not attempt to operate
     body language, eye contact, good              the equipment if the applicator is not
     communication skills, open questions,         connected; the applicator has a dedicated
     enthusiastic, friendly, confident and         holder to avoid damage to the applicator;
     knowledgeable, punctual, client loyalty and   always ensure the crystal of the applicator
     confidentiality, respectful of colleagues,    is cleaned regularly, the system should not
                                                   be used if there are excessive amounts of
     clients and work environment, adhere
                                                   gel on the surface; the fluids used to clean
     to salon etiquette regarding health and
                                                   the applicator should be non-corrosive/non-
     hygiene practices.
                                                   alcohol products.
     Health and safety: Ensure that the light/     Fire precautions – only the recommended
     laser controlled area is set up to meet       gels are to be placed between the
     legal and safety requirements; ensure that    applicator and the target skin; always use
     the equipment selected meets treatment        the equipment on the target skin area
     requirements and outcomes; check that         only; never use the equipment on anything
     the treatment settings are correct to carry   other than the target skin area; do not use
     out the treatment and ensure systems are      the equipment in presence of flammable
     in place to prevent accidental damage         anaesthetics; do not use flammable
     to client, therapist and other people         chemicals to clean the equipment or its
     in the controlled areas; check that the       applicators; use a covered foot pedal.
     equipment is safe and working correctly;      Operator related precautions – never
     follow manufacturer’s and organisational      treat bare skin; always ensure eye
     instructions for the start up and shut down   protective goggles are worn by the
     of equipment.                                 client and therapist when carrying out a
                                                   treatment; always sanitise equipment and
     General safety protocols
                                                   applicators before and after treatment;
     Equipment use – there should be no            maintain hygiene and safety throughout
     more than one IPL system or laser source      hair removal treatments; sanitise hands
     operating in a room at the same time;         and use disposable gloves pre-/during
     the room should be dedicated to light         treatment; ensure the applicator is in
     treatments only, and only trained personnel   full contact with the treatment area and
     authorised to use equipment should have       pressure is applied; dispose of sharps/
     access; do not operate the equipment if a     waste to meet legal and organisational
     safety problem is known to exist; warning     requirements; do not use the system
     signs must be displayed on equipment          if there is any obvious damage to the
     and on the outside of doors to controlled     applicator or the main unit, instead
     areas; protective eyewear is to be worn by    disconnect the system and call for an
     everyone in the controlled area; windows      engineer; wear recommended eyewear
     must be covered by blinds or shutters;        (therapist and client must wear protective
     surfaces should be non-reflective; doors      eyewear to ensure eyes are protected from
     should be lockable or interlocked; no         exposure to IPL/laser light to avoid damage


22        UV40413
Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatments (continued)


to eyes (health and safety requirement));       (minimum), products for equipment (anti-
wear disposable gloves, masks, use              bacterial wipes (non alcoholic)) for cleaning
spatulas (to maintain hygiene standards         the machine and applicators before and
during treatment and prevent cross              after treatment), de-ionised water (if using
infection occurring).                           water cooling systems).
Use the red/white pen (if required) to          Tools – recommended protective eye
help mark out the treatment area as             wear, disposable gloves, underwear,
these colours will reflect light and will       aprons, masks, spatulas.
not cause any surface reaction or burns
                                                Equipment – ensure the selection
– using a darker pen to mark out areas
                                                of appropriate IPL/laser equipment
will always result in burning the skin and
                                                meets the treatment requirements and
should never be used. Use a white sticker
                                                outcomes, ensure the equipment settings,
or cotton to cover any skin conditions
                                                specifications and variables are correct to
present at the time of treatment (e.g.
                                                carry out the treatment, ensure that the
moles) – white will always reflect the light
                                                correct applicator is chosen for the hair
away from the area.
                                                reduction treatment. Use a magnifying
Position client and therapist correctly         lamp (for accessing the area to be treated,
throughout the treatment: Ensure the            and ensuring all surface hair has being
positioning of the client and equipment         removed), sharps bin (for disposal of
permits effective access and minimises the      used razors after treatment – the disposal
risk to the practitioner and discomfort to      of sharps and waste to meet legal and
the client; ensure your position and posture    organisational requirements), couch/trolley
                                                for positioning client and storage of tools/
whilst working minimises fatigue and risk of
                                                products for use in treatment, camera
injury to yourself and the client; ensure the
                                                (before and after pictures – to provide a
hand piece/applicator is used at the correct
                                                record of growth prior to treatment and to
angle and pressure according to treatment       allow the therapist and client to monitor
protocols and client comfort (stretching and    the treatment progress, accurately record
manipulating the skin where necessary           the condition of the skin, avoid any
– according to treatment); maintain client      misunderstandings after the treatment, and
modesty and privacy throughout the              record and monitor any adverse reactions).
treatment.
                                                Treatment safety – use pre-cooling gel
Products, tools, equipment and                  prior to treatment; apply pressure on the
techniques to suit client treatment             skin during treatment; possible to use two
needs:                                          passes during treatment depending on
                                                skin type (1, 2 and 3 with caution, never on
Products – products for carrying out
                                                higher skin types 4, 5 and 6); overlapping
hair reduction treatment (pre-cooling gel,
                                                technique should apply during treatment
disposable razors), products used on the
                                                (approx 10%); if skin is sensitive (when
skin during hair reduction treatment (hand
                                                treating facial area for hair reduction) apply
sanitisers, facial cleanser (if required)),
                                                a layer of gel to area and shave, than
soothing aftercare, SPF factor 30


                                                                             UV40413             23
     Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatments (continued)


     remove excess gel, cleanse area, apply            ensure the area is hair free and shave
     fresh gel to area and treat; don’t direct light   if necessary (if blood spotting occurs,
     into any open orifices e.g. eyes, nostrils,       remove gloves, wash hands, re-apply
     ears, mouth) plug with damp cotton as a           sanitiser and apply fresh gloves).
     precaution if necessary; in case of braces/
                                                       During treatment – apply ultrasound gel
     fillings place damp cotton wool over area
                                                       with spatula (dispose of spatula), give
     (i.e. in the mouth) to reduce sensitivity
                                                       client goggles and apply your own (it is
     when treating.
                                                       essential that if a chaperone is in the room,
     NB. It is recommended to shave large              they also wear goggles), check settings
     areas like legs and backs 24 hours prior          and carry out one shot, assess client
     to treatment in case of contra-action. It         reaction and decide whether energy levels
     is advisable to fire a safety shot in the         need increasing. If there is little sensation
     direction of the ground from your applicator      or erythema it is possible to put the
     prior to treatment to ensure that all air         machine up 1 joule and re-test, this may
     bubbles are cleared from the applicator. It       be performed again to access the client
     is advisable not to apply any pre-epilation       tolerance. NB. At no time should the client
     cleanser or alcohol based product prior to        feel unduly uncomfortable.
     treatment, as this will cause an adverse
                                                       Post-treatment – on completion of
     reaction and heighten the risk of burning
                                                       treatment, clean the applicator head and
     to the skin. If you need to use cleanser for
                                                       place the applicator back in the holder,
     any area to remove surface oils, make-
                                                       switch off machine, remove the ultrasound
     up or deodorant residue it is important to
                                                       gel, apply the aftercare lotion to soothe
     cleanse the area with damp cotton directly
                                                       the areas just treated (aloe vera, antiseptic
     before and after treatment.
                                                       cream), apply SPF factor 60 to exposed
     Recommended treatment procedure                   areas (e.g. facial areas), remove and
     (first treatment):                                dispose of gloves, give aftercare advice,
                                                       get client to sign form and keep this with
     Pre-treatment – greet client, ask them to         the records, give client their part of the
     slip off shoes and lie on a semi-reclining        home care advice form, if happy with patch
     couch, cover client’s feet with couch roll        test, book treatment for 24 hours (skin type
     and place a towel across client’s chest,          1, 2, 3) or 4 weeks (skin types 4, 5, 6), fill in
     complete client’s consultation and consent        treatment record card.
     forms (Doctor’s note if required), excuse
     yourself and wash your hands, choose              Adapt treatments to suit client needs
     appropriate application head required for         and skin and hair conditions: Correct
     treatment, clean application head and             skin/hair typing according to Fitzpatrick’s
     goggles, wipe hands with sanitiser, apply         ‘photo’ scale, set equipment according to
     disposable gloves, prepare client’s skin          skin/hair types, work to individual growth
     for treatment (cleanse and tone if wearing        patterns (face is treated at different
     make-up for a facial area, wipe over with         intervals to body areas), monitor each
     damp cotton wool, cleanse all other areas         treatment and change treatment timings as
     with damp cotton wool, blot with tissue),         hair growth diminishes, change treatment


24         UV40413
Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatments (continued)


times if results are not being achieved,        and complete, protect client privacy by
stop treatment if desired result is not         safely and securely storing information in
forthcoming (i.e. doesn’t work on 1 in          accordance with data protection legislation.
20 people, client has to have a realistic
                                                Record and evaluate the results of the
expectation of success of treatment –
                                                treatment: Treatment can only begin
never can say 100% hair removal due
                                                following consultation, completion of record
to dormant follicles in the body which
                                                card, informed consent and a normal patch
can be activated at any time due to
                                                test response. Details of the treatment
hormonal changes or if taking medication).
                                                should be accurately recorded on the
After course of treatments is complete
                                                client record card to include: date, time of
it is recommended to have 1 follow up
                                                treatment, area treated, skin type, energy
treatment per year as dormant follicles may
                                                settings noted, skin response immediately
appear at any time (this will always depend
                                                after treatment, therapist’s signature, and
on the individual).
                                                client’s signature.
Complete the treatment to the                   Any medical changes should be noted
satisfaction of the client: Ensure              and signed, information should be clearly
the treatment is carried out within an          and accurately written up, updated at
acceptable time frame (be punctual at all       the end of each treatment and signed,
times and aim to carry out appointments to      treatment should be monitored to
the specified time the client has booked),      determine percentage of hair reduction
check the clients wellbeing and give            achieved at each treatment to determine
ongoing reassurance where necessary,            future treatment interval timings (if a
ensure your client wears protective             good/significant reduction is seen then
eyewear at all times, ensure all jewellery is   treatment intervals may need to be
removed from client and therapist before        revised, e.g. instead of treating an area
treatment, continuously assess the skin         every 6 weeks the therapist can extend
and client response to determine suitable       to 8 weeks for maximum result, for higher
reactions and avoid an adverse reaction,        client satisfaction in both treatment and
                                                economic outcomes). Any changes to the
where necessary stretch or manipulate
                                                skin or hair condition or poor results should
the skin according to treatment protocols,
                                                be noted and recorded so the therapist can
ensure the applicator is used at the correct
                                                adapt the treatment to get better results or
angle and pressure to suit the client’s         discontinue treatment if necessary. Record
comfort and used according to treatment         and monitor any adverse reactions, take
protocols, maintain health and hygiene          before and after pictures (photo evidence
when carrying out the treatment, give           of condition of skin and hair at time of
accurate follow up, home care/aftercare         treatment).
advice at completion of treatment, ensure
                                                Should you have a client with hormonal
the treated area is cooled and soothed
                                                problems (i.e. polycystic ovarian
during and after treatment, ensure              syndrome), you will have to advise her
client records are up-to-date, legible          that the treatment will be successful after


                                                                             UV40413            25
     Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatments (continued)


     approximately 8 treatments to achieve a           Verbally – after each treatment is carried
     manageable reduction but she will require         out.
     ongoing maintenance. This maintenance
                                                       Written – an aftercare leaflet to be given
     interval is individual depending on the level
                                                       to client to take away with them (signed by
     of hormone activity and can be anywhere
                                                       client and therapist).
     between 8-12 weeks depending on the
     severity of the problem.                          Cooling gel – water-based gels are
                                                       applied to the skin pre-treatment, and if
     Once you have achieved a satisfactory
                                                       necessary after treatment. The gel cools
     level of hair reduction for your client, you
                                                       the skin by evaporation.
     should advise them that they may require
     maintenance of approximately 1-2 sessions         Cold air or cryogen spray – cold air is
     a year due to the growth of dormant               generated and directed onto the treatment,
     follicles. It is possible for dormant follicles   either by the laser operator or occasionally
     to become present at any time, however            the client is asked to direct the air if
     this is usually due to a hormonal issue (i.e.     they feel discomfort both pre- and post-
     menopause or increased/new medication             treatment. This method means that the
     taken by the client). You can recognise           cool air can be precisely directed to the
     dormant follicles as they are usually             required area. Cryogen cooling is built into
     present as finer hair.                            some laser systems which use a cryogen
                                                       spray, timed to be delivered just prior to a
     Aftercare advice: Ensuring the treated
                                                       laser pulse.
     area is cooled and soothed using
     suitable cooling methods, taking pre-/            Simultaneous contact cooling – this
     post-treatment photographs according              system is available on lasers which operate
     to organisational requirements, ensure            through a scanner (a device which speeds
     aftercare and recommendations are                 up treatment time by allowing a series
     accurate, constructive and based upon             of laser pulses to be emitted in quick
     up-to-date knowledge of the treatment             succession and in a controlled area of
     and products available, ensure client             approximately 3x3 cm2). The laser beam is
     and equipment records are accurate,               emitted through a sapphire (glass) window,
     legible and complete, ensure the IPL/             which provides a vehicle for cooled
     laser controlled area is left in a clean, safe    water. This facilitates easy pre- and post-
     and tidy condition, give the client accurate      treatment cooling as well as simultaneous
     information on complementary services,            cooling with the lasing.
     home care products and the recovery               Ice packs – cooling with ice packs is
     process and likely duration. Because the          an economical method. Ice packs can
     treatment puts light energy into the skin         be applied to the treatment area, pre-
     it is important to advise your client not to      and post-treatment, but cannot be used
     do anything that will add to the sensation        simultaneously with the lasing. Great care
     of heat or irritate the area. You must            should be taken not to apply ice packs
     stress to your client the importance of           directly to the skin as this could cause an
     post-treatment care.                              ‘ice burn’, they should instead be wrapped



26         UV40413
Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatments (continued)


in a disposable thin covering such as a          1000 watts, 13 amp fuses – appliances
couch roll.                                      between 1000-1300 watts), resistor, switch,
Aftercare advice post IPL/laser                  capacitor or condenser, potentiometer,
treatment: Use soothing gels, damp cotton        rectifier, circuit bracer, types of currents
pads or aloe vera to cool the area if the        used in beauty therapy, direct, alternating,
hot sensation or feeling of warmth remains       function of a transformer, protons,
after treatment; avoid sun exposure in           neutrons, electrons, nucleolus, functions,
the treatment area and always wear a             correct wiring of a plug.
high factor sun protection cream (SPF 30         Consequences of inaccurate
minimum) after and between treatments;           identification of client skin type/
stop using sun beds and fake tanning             colouring according to Fitzpatrick scale:
products in the treatment area (fake tan         Inaccurate identification of correct skin
can be applied 48 hours after treatment.         type will result with the client being treated
However, before the next treatment is            with the wrong treatment settings. The
carried out fake tan should not be applied       consequences of which are the following:
a minimum of 10 days prior to treatment);        burns, blistering, hyper pigmentation,
stop waxing, plucking or using any other         hypo pigmentation, scarring, ineffective
form of epilation in the treatment area (IPL     treatment, physiological damage.
and laser require hair to be in the follicle
                                                 Describe how treatments can be
during treatment); keep the area free from
                                                 adapted to suit client treatment needs
deodorants, make-up, aromatherapy oils
                                                 and skin and hair conditions: When
or perfumed products for 24 hours; avoid
                                                 working with IPL/laser systems for hair
hot baths, showers or heat treatments
                                                 reduction it is important for the therapist to
(sauna, steam rooms, heavily chlorinated
                                                 impart to the client that the success of the
swimming pools and hot tubs) for 24 hours;
                                                 treatment depends not on the operation
avoid vigorous exercise for 12-24 hours; do
                                                 of the machine itself but of each person’s
not put ice directly onto the skin’s surface
                                                 individual hair growth cycle. Therefore the
or a freezer burn may occur; wear loose
                                                 treatment plan needs to be adaptable in
clothing to avoid friction on treated areas
                                                 order to maximise the results and client
such as bikini-line, legs, arms, chest,
                                                 satisfaction.The therapist must identify
abdomen etc; contact the clinic or salon if
                                                 skin/hair type according to Fitzpatrick’s
excessive blistering, crusting or swelling in
                                                 ‘photo’ scale in order to set equipment to
the treatment area is experienced.
                                                 the correct level required for treatment
Principles of electrical currents and            (incorrect skin/hair typing will result in goals
basic electricity: Measurement of                not being achieved for client). The therapist
electricity (volts, watts, amperes, ohms and     must work closely with the client and
ohms law and the relevance), fuses (how          monitor the reduction of growth achieved at
to identify correct fuses used with electrical   each treatment. As hair growth diminishes
appliances, 3 amp – appliances up to 700         it is important to extend the time intervals
watts, 5 amp – appliances between 750-


                                                                               UV40413              27
     Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatments (continued)


     between treatments in order to try and          between the heat in the treated hair follicle
     catch the hair in the active stage of growth    and in the absorbing skin layers TRT
     (i.e. anagen).                                  (Thermal Relaxation Time). Understanding
                                                     the type of hair/skin combination that is
     N.B. At any one time there is between
                                                     ideally suited to these treatments (i.e. dark/
     10-70% of activity. When carrying out
                                                     light skin). The hair will strongly absorb the
     a treatment ensure that the treatment
                                                     light compared to the skin, making the skin
     pressure is uniform over each area. If a
                                                     less susceptible to heat damage.
     client is getting a poor result on one side
     of the body compared to the other, the          Possible contra-actions – excessive
     therapist may have to treat each area at        redness of the skin (erythema), excessive
     different intervals. If getting a poor result   localised swelling (perifollicular oedema),
     even after changing and adapting the            excessive urticarial reactions (e.g.
     treatment, stop the treatment (1/20 people      cold sores/herpes), blistering (may be
     do not get a result). The therapist and         only temporary but indicates treatment
     client must be aware that 100% reduction        settings are not appropriate), long-term
     is impossible due to dormant follicles in       complications (e.g. hyper-pigmentation
     the body which can be activated at any          or hypo-pigmentation (tan skin being at
     time due to hormonal changes or taking          greater risk of pigment changes), scarring
     medication. Medical changes must be             (rare but clients must be warned of the
     checked at each treatment as this will          risks).
     impact on how the treatment is going            Methods of evaluating the effectiveness
     to be carried out. If the client is taking
                                                     of the treatment:
     medication, the treatment may need to
     be deferred until medication is finished        Visual – visible reduction of hair in the
     (medication can cause hormonal or               treatment area.
     pigmentation changes in the hair/skin).         Practical – ensuring that treatment
     Due to the presence of dormant follicles a      settings are set accordingly to ensure
     top-up treatment 1-2 times annually will be     maximum effectiveness of treatment
     required to monitor results after a course of   (lowering an energy level will get a slower
     treatment is completed.                         result), client satisfaction.
     Contra-actions that may occur during            Suitable methods of dealing with
     and following treatments:                       reappearance of skin condition
     Understanding the principles and                between treatments: If a skin condition
     practice of hair removal – (i.e. target for     continuously reappears between hair
     treatment, melanin in the follicle and on       reduction treatments, then there is some
     the epidermis making the skin sensitive         underlying cause for this. The client may
     to exposure from IPL/laser systems).            have become contra-indicated, stop
     Successful treatment relies on raising          treatment and refer client to a doctor/
     the temperature of the hair follicle high       dermatologist for further examination.
     enough and long enough to disturb the hair
     cycle. This means that we need a balance



28        UV40413
Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatments (continued)


Skin:                                           Hypodermis skin – structure
                                                (subcutaneous layer, adipose tissue,
Skin types and recognition factors – dry,
                                                adipocytes).
oily, sensitive, dehydrated, mature.
                                                Skin functions – secretion, heat
Normal skin – smooth texture, thick
                                                regulation, absorption, protection,
epidermis, refined skin, tight pores, even
                                                elimination, sensation, vitamin D formation,
moisture supply.
                                                melanin production, acid mantle formation.
Dry skin – flaky rough texture, thin
epidermis, sensitivity, dull complexion, fine   Diseases and disorders of the skin:
lines, tight skin.                              Allergy – dermatitis, urticaria.
Oily skin – coarse texture, open pores,         Bacterial – impetigo, furuncle, carbuncle.
thick epidermis, shiny appearance, sallow
                                                Fungal – tinea (capitis, corporis, sycosis,
colouring, blemishes may be present.
                                                favosa, unguium, pedis).
Combination skin – coarse texture, open
                                                Hypertrophies – keratoma, mole, polyps,
pores, shiny appearance, tendency to
                                                seborrhoeic warts, skin tags, verruca,
blemish.
                                                xanthoma.
Sensitive skin – fine texture, thin
                                                Infestations – pediculosis, scabies.
epidermis, red appearance, reacts to heat
and abrasion, possible capillary damage         Inflammations – eczema, psoriasis.
(split capillaries).
                                                Pigmentations – albinism, broken
Mature skin – loose soft skin, network of       capillaries, chloasma, erythema, lentigo,
superficial lines, lack of supporting adipose   leucoderma, liver spots, naevus (portwine/
tissue, poor muscle tone (neck and eye          strawberry), vitiligo.
areas), loss of elasticity.
                                                Sebaceous glands – acne vulgaris, acne
Blemished skin – glandular imbalance,           rosacea, comedones, cysts, furuncle, milia,
allergies, bacterial infection (proceed with    seborrhoea, steatoma, steatosis.
caution).
                                                Skin cancers – basal cell carcinoma,
Epidermis skin – structure (stratum             squamous cell carcinoma, malignant
germinativum, stratum spinosum, stratum         melanoma, tumour. Sudoriferous glands
granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum            (anhidrosis, bromidrosis/osmidrosis,
corneum, process of keratinisation).            hyperhidrosis, miliaria rubra).
Dermis skin – structure, blood/                 Viral – herpes simplex/herpes zoster,
lymph supply, papillary layer, reticular        warts, verrucas.
layer, collagen, elastin, macrophages,
                                                Lesions – bulla, crust, fissure, macule,
adipocytes, mast cells, fibroblasts, hair,
                                                papule, pustule, scale, tubercle, tumour,
dermal papilla, sebaceous glands and
                                                ulcer, vesicle, wheal.
sebum, arrector pili muscle, sweat glands
(eccrine and apocrine), sensory nerve           Hair:
endings.                                        Hair structure – arrector pili muscle, hair


                                                                             UV40413           29
     Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatments (continued)


     follicle, inner root sheath (Henle’s layer,       Other glands – sweat or sudodiferous
     Huxley’s layer, cuticle layer), outer root        glands, cerouminous or wax producing
     sheath, vitreous membrane, connective             glands, pancreas.
     tissue sheath, root (bulb/matrix, dermal
                                                       Hormones secreted by the anterior
     papilla), sebaceous gland, shaft (medulla,
                                                       pituitary – somatotrophin (growth
     cortex, cuticle).
                                                       hormone), thyroid stimulating hormone
     Hair growth cycle – anagen, catagen,              (tsh), adreno-cortico tropic hormone
     telogen.                                          (acth), gonado tropic hormone (gth), (fsh)
                                                       follicle stimulating hormone, (lh) luteinising
     Hair functions – insulation and protection.
                                                       hormone, prolactin.
     Diseases and disorders of the hair –
                                                       Hormones secreted by the posterior
     signs and causes of asteatosis, canities,
                                                       lobe – vasopressin (anti-diuretic hormone
     discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE),
                                                       ADH), oxytocin.
     fragilitis crinium, hypertrichosis, keloids,
     monilithrix, ringed hair, trichoptilosis,         Hormones secreted by the thyroid gland
     trichorrehexis nodosa, scalp (pityriasis          – thyroxine and triidothyronine, calcitonin.
     capitis simplex, pityriasis capitis, steatoids,
                                                       Hormones secreted by the parathyroid
     seborrhea oleosa), fungal (tinea favosa,
                                                       glands – parathormone.
     tinea capitis, tinea sycosis), parasite
     (scabies, pediculosis capitis), bacterial         Hormones secreted by the pancreas –
     (furuncle, carbuncle, stye), alopecia             insulin, glucagon.
     (androgenetic, adnata, areata, follicularis,      Hormones produced by the adrenal
     premature, senilis, totalis, universalis,         medulla – adrenalin, noradrenalin.
     traction/traumatic, postpartum, telogen
     effluven).                                        Hormones produced by the
                                                       adrenal cortex – andrenocortical,
     Growth patterns and causes of hair                adrenocorticotrophic (steroid hormones),
     growth – factors which effect hair growth         mineral corticoids, glucocorticoids,
     (congenital, topical, drugs/medication,           gonadotrophic.
     systemic, stress, anorexia, polycystic
     ovaries, hirsutism). Previous hair removal        The gonads (sex glands) – ovaries
     methods and their effects on hair growth          (oestrogen, progesterone), testes
     to include: shaving, plucking, waxing,            (testosterone).
     depilatory creams, electrolysis (short-wave       Circulatory system:
     and blend).
                                                       Heart structure – heart wall (endocardium,
     Endocrine system:                                 myocardium, pericardium), aorta, atria,
     Structure and function of the endocrine           bicuspid (mitral) valve, chordae tendineae,
     system – responsible for the secretion            inferior and superior vena cava, papillary
     of hormones, pituitary gland, pineal              muscles, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein,
     gland, gonads (the sex glands), adrenal           semilunar valves (aortic and pulmonary),
     glands, thyroid gland, para-thyroid glands,       septum, tricuspid valve, ventricles.
     pancreas gland, thymus gland.                     Functions of cardiovascular system –


30         UV40413
Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatments (continued)


transport, defence, clotting, regulation and       Lymphatic nodes – location of auxiliary,
homeostasis.                                       cervical (superficial and deep), inguinal,
                                                   intestinal, occipital, popliteal, post-auricular,
Blood vessels – structure and function
                                                   pre-auricular (parotid), supratrochlear.
(arteries, arterioles, veins, venules,
capillaries).                                      Other lymphoid tissue – structure,
                                                   location and function (appendix, peyers
Circuits – structure and function
                                                   patches, spleen, tonsils, thymus).
(pulmonary circulation, portal circulation,
coronary circulation, systemic circulation).       Principles of skin healing: Wound
Major arteries of the head and neck –              healing is a complex and dynamic process
carotid, facial, occipital, temporal.              of restoration of skin cell structures and
                                                   tissue layers.
Major veins of the head and neck –
jugular, occipital, temporal, maxillary, facial.   Wound healing – bleeding generally
                                                   follows a tissue injury via an incision.
Major arteries of the body – aorta,                The cascade of vasoconstriction and
descending aorta, subclavian, carotid,             coagulation begins with clotted blood
pulmonary, hepatic, splenic, renal,                immediately impregnating the wound,
mesenteric, iliac, vertebral, auxiliary,           leading to hemostasis, and after
brachial, ulnar, radial, palmar arch, femoral,     dehydration a scab forms. An influx of
popliteal, anterior tibial, plantar arch.          inflammatory cells follows, with the release
Major veins of the body – vena cava                of cellular substances and mediators.
(inferior and superior), pulmonary, hepatic,       Angiogenesis (growth of blood vessels)
splenic, renal, iliac, axiliary, brachial,         and re-epithelization occurs and the
basilic, cephalic, subclavian, saphenous           deposition of new cellular and extra cellular
(long and short), venous arch, femoral,            components ensues.
popliteal, posterior tibial, anterior tibial.      Phases of skin healing – inflammatory
Composition of blood – plasma,                     phase (occurs immediately following
leucocytes (granulocytes and                       the injury and lasts approximately 6
agranulocytes), erythrocytes,                      days), fibroblastic phase (occurs at the
thrombocytes.                                      termination of the inflammatory phase and
                                                   can last up to 4 weeks), scar maturation
Lymphatic system:                                  phase (begins at the 4th week and can last
Functions of the lymphatic system –                for years).
subsidiary circulation (lymph formation),          Factors which interfere with wound
immunity, return of lost plasma proteins to        healing/trauma – initial or repetitive,
the blood, transport dietary lipids.               scalds and burns (both physical and
Lymphatic components – structure                   chemical), animal bites or insect stings,
and function, lymph, lymph capillaries,            pressure, vascular compromise, arterial,
lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, lymphatic          venous or mixed, immunodeficiency,
trunks, lymphatic ducts (thoracic and right        malignancy, connective tissue disorders,
lymphatic duct), subclavian veins.                 nutritional deficiencies, psychosocial



                                                                                  UV40413              31
     Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatments (continued)


     disorders, adverse effects of medications.
     In relation to IPL/laser treatments
     for hair reduction an underpinning
     knowledge of light tissue interaction
     and light according to the
     electromagnetic radiation is necessary.
     Light Tissue Interaction and its effects
     on skin and eyes – reflection, transmit
     ion, scattering, absorption, elective
     photothermolysis, thermal relaxation time,
     haemoglobin, oxyhaemoglobin.
     Light according to the electromagnetic
     radiation (EMR) – the spectrum of
     electromagnetic radiation, the types of light
     used by lasers and Intense Pulsed Light,
     the wavelengths and depth of penetration,
     photons, joules, pulse repetition rate, pulse
     duration, fluence, the size of the treatment
     beam (spot size).




32        UV40413
UV40414
Laser and light treatments for skin
rejuvenation
This unit is about using intense light and laser systems for
photo-rejuvenation of the skin.The knowledge and skills
gained in this unit include preparing for and providing
laser and intense pulsed light treatment to treat skin
imperfections including telangiectasia, spider naevi blood
spots, fine lines, photo ageing, uneven pigmentation, colour
and texture on the face, neck, chest, hands and other body
areas with lesions suitable for treatment.

You will need to have knowledge of safe working practice
and controlling hazards in the salon. You will be able
to identify skin conditions and those clients suitable for
intense light and laser system treatments.




UV40414_v15
Level




        4
Credit value




        10
GLH




        74
Observations




        3
External paper(s)




        0
Laser and light treatments for skin
rejuvenation

     Learning outcomes                                    Evidence requirements

On completion of this unit you will:                 1.    Environment
                                                           Evidence for this unit must be gathered in a
1.    Be able to prepare for skin rejuvenation
                                                           real or realistic working environment.
      treatment
                                                     2.    Simulation
2.    Be able to provide laser and light treatment
                                                           Simulation is not allowed in this unit.
      for skin rejuvenation
                                                     3.    Observation outcomes
                                                           Competent performance of ‘Observation’
                                                           outcomes must be demonstrated to your
                                                           assessor on at least three occasions.

                                                     4.    Range
                                                           All ranges must be practically demonstrated
                                                           or other forms of evidence produced to
                                                           show they have been covered.

                                                     5.    Knowledge outcomes
                                                           There must be evidence that you possess
                                                           all the knowledge and understanding
                                                           listed in the ‘Knowledge’ section of this
                                                           unit. This evidence may include projects,
                                                           assignments, case studies, reflective
                                                           accounts, oral/written questioning and/or
                                                           other forms of evidence.

                                                     6.    Tutor/Assessor guidance
                                                           You will be guided by your tutor/assessor
                                                           on how to achieve learning outcomes and
                                                           ranges in this unit. All outcomes and ranges
                                                           must be achieved.

                                                     7.    External paper
                                                           There is no external paper requirement for
                                                           this unit.




                                                                                      UV40414             3
      Achieving observations
      and range

      Achieving observation outcomes                     Maximum service times
    Your assessor will observe your performance        There are no maximum service times that apply
    of practical tasks. The minimum number             to this unit.
    of observations required is indicated in the
    evidence requirements section of this unit.

    Criteria may not always naturally occur during
    a practical observation. In such instances you
    will be asked questions to demonstrate your
    competence in this area. Your assessor will
    document the criteria that have been achieved
    through oral questioning.

    Your assessor will sign off an outcome when all
    criteria have been competently achieved in a
    single client service.




      Achieving range
    The range section indicates what must
    be covered. Ranges should be practically
    demonstrated as part of an observation. Where
    this is not possible other forms of evidence may
    be produced. All ranges must be be covered.

    Your assessor will document the portfolio
    reference once a range has been competently
    achieved.




4           UV40414
                                                    Observations

     Outcome 1

Be able to prepare for skin rejuvenation treatment

You can:
a.    Prepare yourself, the client and work
      area for laser or light treatment for skin
      rejuvenation
b.    Use suitable consultation techniques to
      identify treatment objectives
c.    Carry out skin analysis and any relevant
      tests to identify any influencing factors
d.    Provide clear recommendations to the client
      based on outcomes of skin analysis
e.    Select products, tools and equipment to
      suit client treatment needs, skin types and
      conditions
f.    Select personal protective equipment that
      should be worn by the client and therapist
      during laser and intense pulsed light
      treatments




*May be assessed through oral questioning.

 Observation                                  1         2       3
 Date achieved
 Criteria questioned orally
 Portfolio reference
 Assessor initials
 Learner signature

                                                            UV40414   5
         Outcome 2

    Be able to provide laser and light treatment for skin
    rejuvenation
    You can:
    a.   Communicate and behave in a professional
         manner
    b.   Position yourself and the client correctly
         throughout the treatment
    c.   Use products, tools, equipment and
         techniques to suit client treatment needs
    d.   Follow health and safety working practices
    e.   Adapt treatment to suit client needs and skin
         conditions
    f.   Complete the treatment to the satisfaction of
         the client
    g.   Record and evaluate the results of the
         treatment
    h.   Provide suitable aftercare advice




    *May be assessed through oral questioning.
    Observation                                 1        2   3
    Date achieved
    Criteria questioned orally
    Portfolio reference
    Assessor initials
    Learner signature

6            UV40414
                                                                    Range

  *You must practically demonstrate that you have:

Used a mimum of 1 of the 2 types of equipment                            Portfolio reference

Laser

Intense light

Covered all specifications and variables                                 Portfolio reference

Wavelength(s)

Optical energy

Optical power

Fluence

Pulse duration/width

Pulse delay

Pulse repetition frequency (PRF)

Spot size

Cooling devices

Hand-pieces/beam delivery systems/scanners

Electrical requirements




*It is strongly recommended that all range items are practically demonstrated. Where this is not
possible, other forms of evidence may be produced to demonstrate competence.




                                                                                 UV40414           7
      *You must practically demonstrate that you have:

    Ensured that laser controlled areas have                                 Portfolio reference

    Minimum reflective surfaces

    Enclosed area

    Suitable window coverage

    Lockable entry and exit points

    Adequate fire precautions and suitable services

    Adequate ventilation

    Signage

    Used all consultation techniques                                         Portfolio reference

    Questioning

    Visual

    Manual

    Referencing to client records

    Treated all areas                                                        Portfolio reference

    Face

    Neck

    Chest

    Hands

    Other body areas that have suitable lesions for treatment


    *It is strongly recommended that all range items are practically demonstrated. Where this is not
    possible, other forms of evidence may be produced to demonstrate competence.




8            UV40414
  *You must practically demonstrate that you have:

Met all the treatment objectives                                         Portfolio reference

Reduction of fine lines

Evening out of pigmentation, colour tone and texture

Reduction of superficial telangiectasia, spider naevi and Campbell
De Morgan spots (blood spots)

Improving the appearance of photoaged skin

Given all the types of advice                                            Portfolio reference

Avoidance of activities which may cause contra-actions

Future treatment needs Campbell De Morgan spots

Home care

Modifications to lifestyle patterns

Skin recovery time




*It is strongly recommended that all range items are practically demonstrated. Where this is not
possible, other forms of evidence may be produced to demonstrate competence.




                                                                                 UV40414           9
            Developing knowledge


       Achieving knowledge outcomes

     You will be guided by your tutor and assessor     Where possible your assessor will integrate
     on the evidence that needs to be produced.        knowledge outcomes into practical observations
     Your knowledge and understanding will be          through oral questioning.
     assessed using the assessment methods listed
     below:

        •   Observed work
        •   Witness statements
        •   Audio-visual media
        •   Evidence of prior learning or attainment
        •   Written questions
        •   Oral questions
        •   Assignments
        •   Case studies




10           UV40414
Knowledge

  Outcome 1

Be able to prepare for skin rejuvenation treatment
                                                                            Portfolio reference /
 You can:
                                                                            Assessor initials*

 g.   Explain salon requirements for preparing yourself, the client and
      work area

 h.   Explain the environmental conditions suitable for laser and light
      treatments for skin rejuvenation

 i.   Explain the different consultation techniques used to identify
      treatment objectives

 j.   Explain the importance of carrying out a detailed skin analysis and
      relevant tests

 k.   Explain how to select laser or intense pulsed light equipment to
      suit client skin types and conditions

 l.   Identify the range of equipment used for laser and intense pulsed
      light treatment for skin rejuvenation

 m. Explain the contra-indications that prevent or restrict advanced
      laser or intense pulsed light treatment for skin rejuvenation

 n.   Explain the required legislation for laser and intense pulsed light
      treatments and the importance of compliance with regulations


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.




                                                                                  UV40414           11
       Outcome 2

     Be able to provide laser and light treatment for skin
     rejuvenation
                                                                                  Portfolio reference /
      You can:
                                                                                  Assessor initials*

      i.   Explain how to communicate and behave in a professional manner

      j.   Explain health and safety working practices

      k.   Explain the importance of positioning yourself and the client
           correctly throughout treatment

      l.   Explain the importance of using products, tools, equipment and
           techniques to suit client treatment needs, skin types and conditions

      m. Explain how to work on different treatment areas
      n.   Explain the consequences of inaccurate identification of client skin
           type/colouring according to the Fitzpatrick scale

      o.   Describe how treatments can be adapted to suit client treatment
           needs and skin conditions

      p.   Explain the contra-actions that may occur during and following
           treatments

      q.   Explain the methods of evaluating the effectiveness of the
           treatment

      r.   Summarise the aftercare advice that should be provided to prevent
           post-treatment damage

      s.   Explain the suitable methods of dealing with the reappearance of
           skin conditions between treatments


     * Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

     Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.




12            UV40414
  Outcome 2 (continued)

Be able to provide laser and light treatment for skin
rejuvenation
                                                                             Portfolio reference /
 You can:
                                                                             Assessor initials*

 t.   Explain the effects and benefits of laser or intense pulsed light on
      the skin and underlying tissues

 u.   Explain different skin types, conditions, diseases and disorders

 v.   Explain the structure and functions of the skin

 w.   Explain the principles of skin healing

 x.   Explain how natural ageing, lifestyle and environmental factors
      affect the condition of the skin and underlying structures

 y.   Explain the structure and function of the endocrine system and its
      effect on skin conditions

 z.   Explain the structure and function of circulatory and lymphatic
      systems


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.




                                                                                   UV40414           13
         Unit content

     This section provides guidance on the recommended knowledge and skills required to enable you
     to achieve each of the learning outcomes in this unit. Your tutor/assessor will ensure you have the
     opportunity to cover all of the unit content.


       Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for laser and light treatments


       Prepare the therapist: Ensure personal             of injury to yourself and the client); actively
       appearance meets accepted industry                 encourage the client to ask questions and
       and organisational requirements. Clean             clarify any points of which they are unsure;
       professional uniform, no jewellery, hair           tactfully advise achievable outcomes of the
       tied back from face, sensible footwear,            treatment where clients have unrealistic
       personal hygiene and cleanliness (shower/          expectations or hair colour and types
       bath), oral hygiene, and make-up applied           that are unsuitable for treatment; use
       correctly. Always maintain the hygiene             assessment techniques which identify
       and safety procedure throughout the                the condition and skin classification of
       treatment. Wear personal protective                the client; explain the physical sensation
       equipment to avoid cross infection and             created by the equipment being used; refer
       prevent accidental exposure to light/laser         clients with contra-indications which are
       to yourself, the client and others within          suspected of requiring medical treatment
       the controlled area, e.g. recommended              to their general practitioner, prior to any
       eyewear, disposable gloves.                        treatment and without reference to a
                                                          specific condition; clearly and tactfully
       Prepare the client: Consultation
                                                          explain to the client recognised contra-
       procedure should take a minimum of 20
                                                          indications which prevent treatment;
       minutes and should include an informed
                                                          recommend alternative treatments which
       consent form (signed by client and
                                                          are suitable for the client’s condition and
       therapist), medical history (physical and
                                                          needs if contra-indicated for light/laser
       emotional conditions), doctor’s referral
                                                          treatments; clearly explain and agree with
       letter (if required), treatment details
                                                          the client, the projected cost, likely duration
       (skin classification, sun tanning history,
                                                          and frequency of treatment and recovery
       pigmentation, skin condition on area being
                                                          time.
       treated, and a treatment record card (date,
       area treated, treatment method, patch test         Preparation of work area: Prepare the
       methods, equipment settings, time and              IPL/laser controlled area to meet safety,
       duration, treatment outcome).                      legal, hygiene and treatment requirements,
                                                          ensure equipment is switched on and in
       Ensure that the consultation procedure is
                                                          standby/safety mode, make sure that the
       conducted in a sensitive and supportive
                                                          environmental conditions are suitable
       manner (i.e. privacy, modesty, trust and
                                                          for the treatment, client and practitioner
       confidentiality); check the client’s wellbeing
                                                          (lighting, heating, ventilation and general
       and give ongoing reassurance where
                                                          comfort), ensure that positioning of the
       necessary, ensuring position and posture
                                                          client and equipment permits effective
       whilst working (minimises fatigue and risk
                                                          access, minimising the risk to the


14           UV40414
Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for laser and light treatments (continued)


practitioner and discomfort to the client.   • PPE (Personal Protective Equipment).
Light/laser controlled areas must have:      Consultation techniques to identify
                                             treatment objectives: Communication
• non-reflective surfaces
                                             – private comfortable area to carry out
• protective eyewear worn (according to      consultation, positioning of the client (no
  manufacturers’ instructions)               barriers between the therapist and client),
• enclosed area                              positive body language, eye contact,
                                             enthusiasm, act in a professional manner,
• suitable entry and exit points             keep confidentiality, open questions,
• adequate fire precautions and suitable     listening.
  services (i.e. provision for hand          Develop client profile – client lifestyle,
  sanitation)                                commitment to treatment, skin
• waste management (i.e. sharps bin)         rejuvenation methods used by client,
                                             client’s requirements and expectations
• extraction (if required)
                                             of treatment. Impart to the client a brief
• hazardous warning signs displayed on       explanation of the treatment to include:
  equipment and entry/exit points or area    how the treatment works (this gives
                                             realistic goals), how many sessions are
• maximum of one IPL/laser system in
                                             required, appointments and frequency,
  operation in the controlled area at any
                                             re-growth, skin reaction, sensation,
  one time
                                             contra-indications, aftercare advice,
• all windows covered with blinds/shutters   consent, special precautions prior to
  (blackout curtains if necessary)           treatment, when to refer to a dermatologist
• no flammable materials stored in the       or medical practitioner to include:
  controlled area                            consultation records, patch test, before and
                                             after pictures (visual).
• local rules displayed in the controlled
  area (these are written rules and
  procedures that must be followed when      Carry out skin analysis and any relevant
  working with light systems)                tests to identify any influencing factors:
• equipment procedures detailing how to      You should not carry out a patch test
  turn on/off, operate safely and maintain   until you have carried out a thorough
  the equipment                              consultation and the client has signed the
                                             informed consent form. Skin treatments
• safety procedures – what are the           should only be carried out on skin types 1,
  hazards? Checks? Who is responsible?       2 and on type 3 with caution.
  Know how to prevent use by unauthorised
  persons and adverse incident procedures    Make accurate recommendations for
                                             treatment, skin typing, Fitzpatrick’s photo
• controlled area procedures and access      scale, relevant questions regarding history



                                                                         UV40414            15
     Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for laser and light treatments (continued)


     of skin tanning. Carry out patch tests          follow treatment protocol with emphasis on
     according to skin types, understand and         the importance of application of a minimum
     explain the procedure of and reasons for        factor 30 sun block post-treatment).
     patch testing, to include: the procedure
                                                     Understand and explain the importance
     for the test, the sensation, record settings,
                                                     of test shots and how to recognise
     skin response (depending on skin type, 72
                                                     skin reactions, to include: determining
     hours for skin types 1, 2, and 3. Skin types
                                                     the correct treatment parameters, per
     4, 5, and 6 should not be treated unless by
                                                     follicular oedema clients comfort levels
     a medical practitioner), recognise adverse
                                                     and suitability for treatment, treatment
     reactions.
                                                     objectives (i.e. pigmentation, vascular or
     The patch test should preferably be carried     anti-ageing issue). During skin treatments,
     out in the area to be treated, as this will     be particularly aware of erythema in the
     give the truest indication of the reaction.     treatment area.
     If this is not possible a discrete area with
                                                     Understand and explain different skin
     a similar skin issue may be selected. The
                                                     types, colours, tones and textures to
     ideal outcome of the patch test is that
                                                     include:
     the skin and hair will respond “normally”
                                                     Skin types – caucasian (pallor, midtone,
     – there will be no excessive erythema,
                                                     tanned), African descent (pallor, midtone,
     blistering, swelling or pigmentation
                                                     tanned), Asian descent (pallor, midtone,
     changes.
                                                     tanned), young skin, mature, dry, oily,
     If you intend to carry out treatment on         combination.
     more than one area, it may be necessary
                                                     Skin conditions – sensitive, milia,
     to patch test on each of the proposed
                                                     comedomes, dehydrated, broken
     treatment sites i.e. facial areas differ from
                                                     capillaries, pustules, papules, open pores,
     décolleté, hands due to skin/bone density,
                                                     hypo/hyper-pigmentation, dermatosis,
     skin type and amount of UV exposure.
                                                     papulosa, nigra, pseudo folliculitis, keloid,
     Carry out patch tests for tactile and thermal   ageing of skin, muscle tone, crows feet etc.
     safety tests (client skin sensation to hot/     Fitzpatrick photo scale, skin types 1, 2, and
     cold, sharp/soft). You must understand          3 only to be treated. Skin types 4, 5, and 6
     and explain the procedure and reasons for       only to be treated by medical professionals.
     each, i.e thermal – to ascertain whether
                                                     Provide clear recommendations to
     the client feels the burning sensation of
                                                     the client based on outcomes of skin
     hea, tactile – to ascertain if the client can
                                                     analysis: Based on the outcomes of skin
     tell the difference between sharp and soft
                                                     analyses the therapist should be able to:
     sensations. Peform visual check for contra-
     indications, skin conditions, any identifying   • identify the condition and skin
     skin lesions (e.g. moles), carry out the          classification of the client and ensure that
     patch test to ensure safety procedures            the patch test determines the suitability
     are in place (patch test procedure should         for treatment



16        UV40414
Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for laser and light treatments (continued)


• design a treatment plan for the client,         satisfactory result for your client they may
  advising achievable outcomes of the             require maintenance treatments to uphold
  treatment where clients have unrealistic        the result. This is particularly relevant with
  expectations of hair colour and types that      rosacea clients as they must identify the
  are unsuitable for treatment                    trigger in their lifestyles that causes the
                                                  rosacea to reoccur. IPL will only help in
• clearly explain to the client any
                                                  the maintenance of rosacea as there is no
  recognised contra-indications that prevent
                                                  permanent cure for this condition.
  treatment
                                                  The same may apply for veins, which can
• refer clients with contra-indications to
                                                  also appear due to lifestyle and heredity
  their GP, prior to any treatment and
                                                  factors. Clients must work closely with their
  without reference to a specific condition
                                                  therapist to achieve a realistic outcome for
• recommend alternative treatments which          their condition (home care/aftercare advice
  are suitable for the client, if contra-         must be followed in order to achieve the
  indicated for IPL/Laser treatments              best possible results). 3–4 treatments may
• agree with the client a projected               be required before you can see a result,
  treatment plan to include: the number of        depending on the severity of the problem.
  treatments required, treatment intervals,       The more severe the problem, the longer
  treatment cost and percentage reduction         the treatment cycle will be.
  goals to client satisfaction                    Pigmentation – normal pigmentation
• ensure the client’s wellbeing and               problems may be treated (i.e. sun damage,
  satisfaction by giving ongoing support          freckles, age spots), however the most
  and reassurance where necessary                 important thing to remember when
                                                  determining suitability for treatment is
• explain to the client the importance of         what not to treat. Under no circumstances
  their commitment to the treatment and the       should you treat a raised mole, melasma,
  importance of listening to aftercare and        chlosama, dermal pigmentation, skin
  home care advice, to ensure maximum             cancers or any pigmentation caused by
  efficiency of treatment                         hormonal issues. Saver hyper-pigmentation
• recommend treatment intervals.                  will occur and this is irreversible. If in any
                                                  doubt do not treat, instead refer your client
For skin rejuvenation it is recommended           to their GP or dermatologist.
to treat between 3–4 weekly intervals:
                                                  When treating normal pigmentation you
Vascular/veins/rosacea – it is very               may do so between 3–4 weekly intervals.
important to ascertain the severity of the        The client must work closely with their
condition, client lifestyle, hereditary factors   therapist to achieve a realistic outcome for
and client suitability to treatment. It is        their condition – Home care and aftercare
possible to treat your client at 3–4 weekly       advice must be followed in order to achieve
intervals. Once you have achieved a               the best possible results, and continual use


                                                                                UV40414            17
     Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for laser and light treatments (continued)


     of sun block must be adhered to in order to     in controlled area, trolley, couch, bin for
     keep pigmentation under control.                general waste, appropriate warning signs
                                                     attached to IPL/laser equipment. It may
     Photo-rejuvenation – can be used
                                                     be necessary to use smaller protective
     to treat a combination of vascular and
                                                     eyewear for skin treatments, particularly in
     pigmentation conditions, however, the
                                                     the case of photo rejuvenation as you will
     primary function of photo rejuvenation
                                                     be working around the eye area.
     is to reduce fine lines and wrinkles. The
     stimulation of fibroblasts, improves the        Select personal protective equipment
     tone and texture of the skin giving the skin    that should be worn by the client and
     an overall glow. Treatments should not be       therapist during laser and intense
     carried out less than three weeks apart to      pulsed light treatments – Intense
     allow for skin recovery. It is recommended      Pulsed Light and Lasers emit light which
     to carry out a course of 3-5 treatments for     has the potential to damage unprotected
     maximum results. Maintenance can be             eyes, both the operator and client must
     ongoing, depending on client preference         wear the manufacturer’s recommended
     and budget.                                     eyewear before commencement of
                                                     treatment, overall recommended grade 5
     Approximate skin treatment times – as
                                                     laser protection goggles.Type of eyewear
     skin treatments vary hugely in size and
                                                     (blackout), wavelength range (compete
     severity, it is not possible to give accurate
                                                     optical protection), IPL (Grade 5+), laser
     treatment times. Please always allow a
                                                     OD (Optical Density 4+).
     minumum of 20 minutes per area.
                                                     Salon requirements for preparing the
     Products, tools and equipment to suit
                                                     therapist, the client and work area:
     client treatment needs, skin types and
     conditions:                                     Salon requirements – registration with the
                                                     healthcare commission or other voluntary
     Products – anti-bacterial wipes, hand
                                                     regulator may be required to provide IPL/
     sanitisers, cotton wool, tissues, spatulas,
                                                     laser treatments. Medicines and health
     facial cleanser, soothing aftercare, SPF
                                                     care products regulatory agency document,
     30 (minimum), aprons, gloves, ultrasound-
                                                     guidelines on the safe use of lasers,
     cooling gel, couch roll, towels, gowns.
                                                     intense light source systems and LEDs
     Tools and equipment – recommended               in medical, surgical, dental and aesthetic
     protective eyewear, appropriate applicator/     practices, local rules applicable to the laser
     hand piece required for skin treatment,         controlled area, insurance is required.
     red marker to mark out treatment area
                                                     Fitness of premises – the salon may
     (if required), white stickers to cover skin
                                                     be required to appoint a laser protection
     conditions (e.g. moles), camera for before
                                                     advisor, who will guide the salon on layout
     and after pictures, consultation forms,
                                                     of the controlled area (i.e. room layout,
     aftercare forms, IPL/laser warning signs
                                                     window protection, safety measures,
     in controlled area, non-reflective surfaces
                                                     warning signs etc.). The salon may be


18         UV40414
Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for laser and light treatments (continued)


required to appoint a fire protection            paper work completed/signed by client
advisor who will advise on safety, use of        and therapist at each treatment, to follow
fire extinguishers (must be CO2 with black       health, hygiene and safety procedures
label), these should be placed near the          at all times, to respect and uphold client
controlled area.                                 privacy and confidentiality according to the
                                                 data protection legislation, to be honest in
Fitness of equipment – the salon must
                                                 all dealings with clients, work colleagues,
ensure that the selection of equipment
                                                 and be respectful of working environment.
meets treatment requirements and
outcomes and may need to appoint a               Preparation of treatment area – the
GP to write up treatment protocols for           preparation of light/laser ‘controlled area’
the correct use of equipment (these              must meet safety, legal, hygiene and
protocols need to be updated on a yearly         treatment requirements in addition to
basis). All equipment must be regularly          normal health and safety standards. The
maintained and serviced, correct methods         area must meet the following criteria:
used to sterilise equipment according
                                                 • the room should be dedicated to light
to manufacturers’ instructions (to keep
                                                   treatments only
equipment in proper working order and
safe to use on clients), ensure that systems     • only authorised personnel should have
are in place to prevent accidental exposure        access
to the client or therapist within the            • there should be no more than one IPL/
controlled area. There should be a quality         laser operating in a room at the same
system in place (all records should be             time
accurate, stored properly and verifiable),
the salon should have written policies           • identifying labels should feature on all
in place (health and safety policy, fire           equipment, (indicating their wavelengths
protection policy, complaints policy, policy       and maximum output power radiation
for creating, storing confidential information     emitted)
according to data protection legislation).       • warning signs must be displayed on
Fitness of persons – the salon is                  equipment and on/over the outside of
responsible for providing suitable staff to        doors to the controlled area. On or over
carry out services offered, all staff should       these doors there must be a red light that
have relevant training and qualifications          is switched on when the IPL/laser is in
in order to carry out the services provided        use
and all staff should be insured to carry out     • protective eyewear (PPE) must be worn
services provided.                                 by everyone in the controlled area (to the
Therapists responsibilities – to work in           required standard of the manufacturers’
accordance with the salon/clinic policies          of equipment selected).
and procedures, to carry out proper client       Recommended eyewear for IPL – Grade
care pre-/post-treatment, to ensure all          5+ for operator and client.


                                                                              UV40414           19
     Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for laser and light treatments (continued)


     Recommended eyewear for laser –              Lighting – must be sufficient enough
     OD (Optical Density) superior to 4+ for      to enable treatments to be carried out.
     operator and total block for client. Light   Windows should have blinds/shutters in the
     speed shutters may be used providing they    controlled area.
     are of the standard required for equipment
                                                  Heating – the temperature in the work
     being used:
                                                  place should provide reasonable comfort
     • windows must be covered by blinds/         at least 16oC, to maintain a comfortable
       shutters during treatment                  temperature heating or cooling may be
                                                  used. In extremely hot weather, fans or
     • if foot pedal is used for application of
                                                  increased ventilation would be an option.
       treatment this must be covered
                                                  Ventilation – ventilation must be effective
     • doors to the controlled area should be
                                                  with sufficient quantities of purified air
       lockable or interlocked
                                                  particularly in an enclosed workspace,
     • no flammable materials in the controlled   windows may provide sufficient ventilation
       area                                       but mechanical methods may be used
     • proper fire protection in place near the   when appropriate and should be regularly
       controlled area                            cleaned, tested and maintained. In the
                                                  case of laser equipment, proper extraction
     • local rules should be displayed near       methods must be used. When using IPL
       the light source, read and signed by all   equipment (Pulsar Recommendations)
       operators: these are written rules and     requirements recommend a 30cm gap
       procedures that must be followed when      at the rear of the system to allow air to
       working with light systems in the salon/   circulate freely and protect the mains lead
       clinic                                     from excessive bending.
     • equipment procedures – how to turn         General comfort – the size of the work
       on/off operate safely and maintain the     place must provide sufficient room to allow
       equipment                                  the employee to work in a safe and healthy
     • safety – what are the hazards?             manner. Work stations should allow ease
       What checks must be made? Who is           of movement so that all tasks may be
       responsible? Know how to prevent use       carried out safely and comfortably. The
       by unauthorised persons and adverse        work place should be kept clean, waste
       incident procedures                        materials should be kept in enclosed bins
                                                  and disposed of according to health and
     • controlled area procedures and access
                                                  safety protocols.
     • the PPE required.
                                                  Different consultation techniques used
     Environmental conditions suitable            to identify treatment objectives:
     for laser and light treatment for skin
                                                  Building a client profile – expectations of
     rejuvenation:
                                                  treatment and treatment plan.



20         UV40414
Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for laser and light treatments (continued)


Consultation – should be a minimum of 20       How to select laser and light treatment
minutes to include correct procedure and       equipment to suit client skin types and
protocol i.e. medical history form, patch      conditions: MHRA guidelines, lasers used
test consent form (to include test shots on    for skin treatments (tattoo removal) are: Q
the treatment area), pre-/post-care advice     switched ruby (green tattoos), Alexandrite
form, GP referral letter if necessary.         (blue/black tattoos), and ND Yag (red
                                               tattoos).
Test shots – determine the treatment
parameters, client comfort level, adverse/     When treating the skin the following has
normal skin reaction.                          to be taken into account – only skin types
                                               1, 2 and 3 (with caution) are suitable
Photographs before and after – visual
                                               for treatment. Skin types above this
(record of treatment, record of condition of
                                               tend to contain a high amount of skin
skin/skin conditions present).
                                               melanin and therefore the risk of burning
Importance of carrying out a detailed          and pigmentation change is higher. It is
skin analysis and relevant tests:              important to carry out patch tests and wait
• to enable the therapist to identify the      a minimum of 72 hours before treating.
  condition and skin classification of the     Identify the range of equipment used
  client                                       for laser and light treatment for skin
• to assess the outcome of the patch test      rejuvenation: Intense Pulsed Light (IPL)
  as necessary, to determine the suitability   systems, fractional non-ablative lasers.
  for treatment                                Ablative lasers are not recommended for
                                               beauty therapy and should be operated by
• to assess the skin and client response to    medical professionals.
  determine suitable reactions and avoid
  adverse reactions                            Examples of contra-indications that
                                               may prevent or restrict laser and light
• to adjust variables as necessary, whilst     treatment for skin rejuvenation:
  monitoring skin client response and
  discontinuing treatment where adverse        • epilepsy (flashing of light)
  reactions occur                              • hepatitis
• to explain the physical sensation created    • long term diabetes (the client skin more
  by the IPL/Laser equipment being used          sensitive to IPL/laser treatment and could
Remember to apply a small number of              result in severe bruising)
shots to the treatment area or with similar    • haemophilia (bleeding disorder)
skin type, record settings, wait for skin
                                               • clients taking anti-coagulant medication
response, i.e. 72 hours (skin types 1, 2,
                                                 (aspirin, waferan, phenediene, hapazin)
and 3). Treat skin type 3 with caution.
Under no circumstances should you treat        • clients sensitive to light within the range
skin types 4, 5, 6.                              of 500 nm–900 nm



                                                                                UV40414        21
     Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for laser and light treatments (continued)


     • client with keloid scarring                   • under the influence of drugs or alcohol.
     • skin cancers                                  Contra-indications requiring medical
                                                     referral or the client to indemnify their
     • pregnancy (this alters the hormones
                                                     condition in writing prior to treatment:
       and therefore could affect hair growth/
                                                     medical oedema, osteoporosis, diabetes,
       pigmentation) client could be treated 3–4
                                                     asthma, arthritis, acute rheumatism, bells
       months after childbirth
                                                     palsy, inflamed/trapped pinched nerve,
     • pigmentation problems (vitiligo, melasma      any condition already being treated by GP/
       moles, pigmented naevi moles)                 dermatologist.
     • clients taking photosensitising medication    Explain the required legislation for laser
       (including drugs or medication that cause     and light treatment and the importance
       skin thinning effects)                        of compliance with regulations: It is
     • cardiovascular conditions (thrombosis,        important to comply with regulations
       phlebitis, hyper-tension, hypo-tension,       that reduce the risk of injury to the
       heart conditions)                             practitioner and clients when using IPL/
                                                     laser equipment. Contact the Care Quality
     • connective tissue disorders (scleroderma)     Commission for more details. Local
     • tattoos, permanent and semi permanent         authority regulations may also apply.
       make-up (micropigmentation)
     • herbal supplements that cause photo
       sensitisation i.e. St. John’s Wort, beta
       carotene
     • sun burned, sun tanned skin at time
       of treatment, artificial tan/self tanning
       products; until the product has worn off
       (approx 7–10 days before treatment)
     • pacemaker/defibrillators
     • metal pins/plates
     • fever
     • contagious or infections diseases
     • loss of skin sensitivity (test with tactile
       and thermal methods)
     • cuts, bruises, burns, abrasions
     • undiagnosed lumps and bumps
     • allergies to products or materials used


22         UV40414
Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatment for skin rejuvenation
(continued)


Communicate and behave in a                     Equipment use – there should be no
professional manner: Positive                   more than one IPL system or laser source
body language, eye contact, good                operating in a room at the same time,
communication skills, open questions,           the room should be dedicated to light
enthusiastic, friendly, confident and           treatments only, and only trained personnel
knowledgeable, punctuality, client              authorised to use equipment should have
loyalty and confidentiality, respectful of      access. When using equipment, you must
colleagues, clients and work environment,       ensure that:
adhere to salon etiquette regarding health
                                                • you do not operate the equipment if a
and hygiene practices.
                                                  safety problem is known to exist
Follow health and safety working                • warning signs are displayed on
practices: Health and safety at work to           equipment and are on the outside of
include safety precautions in the salon           doors to controlled areas
when dealing with the general public (i.e.
                                                • protective eyewear is worn by everyone
safe working areas, maintenance and
                                                  in the controlled area
safe use of equipment), electricity at work
to include the therapist’s responsibilities     • windows are covered by blinds or
to the client, care and maintenance of            shutters
equipment, calibration and safety checks.       • surfaces are non-reflective
• ensure the light/laser controlled area        • doors are lockable or interlocked
  is set up to meet legal and safety
  requirements                                  • there are no flammable materials in the
                                                  controlled area
• ensure the equipment selected meets
  treatment requirements and outcomes           • you do not attempt to operate the
                                                  equipment if the applicator is not
• check that the treatment settings are           connected
  correct to carry out the treatment
                                                • the applicator has a dedicated holder to
• ensure systems are in place to prevent          avoid damage to the applicator
  accidental damage to the client, therapist
  and any other people in the controlled        • the crystal of the applicator is cleaned
  areas                                           regularly, the system isn’t used if there
                                                  are excessive amounts of gel on the
• check that the equipment is safe and            surface
  working correctly
                                                • the fluids used to clean the applicator are
• follow manufacturers’ and organisational        non-corrosive/non-alcohol products.
  instructions for the start up and shut down
  of equipment.                                 Fire precautions –
General safety protocols:                       • only the recommended gels to be placed



                                                                              UV40414           23
     Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatment for skin rejuvenation


       between the applicator and the target         treatment and prevent cross infection
       skin                                          occurring)
     • always use the equipment on the target      • red/white pen (if required) to help mark
       skin area only                                out treatment area as these colours
                                                     will reflect light and will not cause any
     • never use the equipment on anything
                                                     surface reaction or burns. Using darker
       other than the target skin area
                                                     pen to mark out areas will always result
     • do not use the equipment in presence of       in burning the skin and should never be
       flammable anaesthetics                        used
     • do not use flammable chemicals to clean     • white sticker or cotton to cover any skin
       the equipment or its applicators              conditions present at time of treatment
     • use a covered foot pedal.                     (i.e. moles) – white will always reflect the
                                                     light away from the area.
     Operator related precautions –
     • never treat bare skin                       Position client and therapist correctly
     • always sanitise equipment, applicators      throughout the treatment –
       before and after treatment                  • ensure the positioning of the client and
     • maintain hygiene and safety throughout        equipment permits effective access and
       the skin photo rejuvenation treatments        minimises the risk to practitioner and
                                                     discomfort to the client
     • sanitatise hands and use of disposable
       gloves pre-/during treatment                • ensure position and posture whilst
                                                     working to minimise fatigue and risk of
     • applicator is in full contact with the
                                                     injury to yourself and the client
       treatment area and pressure is applied
                                                   • ensure the hand piece/applicator is
     • dispose of sharps/waste to meet legal
                                                     used at the correct angle and pressure
       and organisational requirements
                                                     according to treatment protocols and
     • do not use the system if there is any         client comfort
       obvious damage to the applicator or the
                                                   • stretch and manipulate the skin where
       main unit, disconnect the system and call
                                                     necessary, according to treatment
       for an engineer
                                                   • maintain client modesty and privacy
     • recommended eyewear – therapist and
                                                     throughout the treatment.
       client must wear protective eyewear to
       ensure eyes are protected from exposure     Use products, tools, equipment and
       from IPL/laser light to avoid damage to     techniques to suit clients treatment
       eyes (health and safety requirement)        needs:
     • disposable gloves, masks, spatulas          Products –
       (to maintain hygiene standards during


24         UV40414
Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatment for skin rejuvenation
(continued)


• products for carrying out skin treatment –     always look at erythema before doing
  pre-cooling gel                                a second pass (on bony areas i.e.
                                                 neck, décolleté, only one pass is
• products used on the skin during skin
                                                 recommended)
  treatment – hand sanitisers, facial
  cleanser (if required), soothing aftercare,   • do not direct light into any open orifices
  SPF factor 30 (minimum)                         (i.e. eyes, nostrils, ears, mouth), plug with
                                                  damp cotton as a precaution if necessary
• products for equipment – anti-bacterial
  wipes (non-alcoholic) for cleaning of         • in case of braces/fillings, place damp with
  machine and applicators before and              cotton wool over area (i.e. in the mouth)
  after treatment, de-ionised water (if using     to reduce sensitivity when treating
  water cooling systems).
                                                • when treating around the eye area, never
Tools and equipment –                             treat beyond the bone area, always keep
                                                  the applicator/hand piece tilted away from
• recommended protective eyewear,
                                                  the eye
  disposable gloves, aprons, masks,
  spatulas                                      • it is advisable to fire a safety shot in
                                                  the direction of the ground from your
• IPL/laser equipment, appropriate
                                                  applicator prior to treatment to ensure
  applicator for skin treatment, couch,
                                                  that all air bubbles are cleared from the
  trolley, magnifying lamp, woods lamp, bin
                                                  applicator
  for general waste, camera (before and
  after pictures) IPL/laser safety signs at     • (important) it is advisable not to apply any
  exit points of controlled areas.                pre-epilation cleanser or alcohol based
                                                  products prior to treatment, as this will
Treatment techniques – positioning                cause an adverse reaction and heighten
(semi-reclining couch, work either side           the risk of burning to the skin. if you need
of treatment area), preparation of area           to use cleanser for any area to remove
(cleanse treatment area, remove surface           surface oils, make-up or deodorant
oil debris and make-up).                          residue it is important to cleanse the area
                                                  with damp cotton, directly before and
Application of treatment – (important)            after treatment.
the following are Pulsar IPL treatments
recommended guidelines (please always           Treatment procedure for Pulsar IPL
refer to specific manufacturer’s guidelines     skin treatments (see manufacturers’
on use of equipment):                           guidance if using other equipment):

• pre-cooling gel prior to treatment            • (important) only to be carried out on skin
                                                  types 1, 2 and 3 (with caution)
• no pressure, touching the skin lightly
                                                • applicator heads/wavelengths used –
• it is possible to use two passes during         green/yellow filter 515 nm–950 nm (for
  treatment depending on skin issues,             vascular and pigmentation); yellow/


                                                                              UV40414             25
     Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatment for skin rejuvenation
     (continued)


      orange filter 550 nm–950 nm (for collagen       j) set machine for skin treatments
      stimulation)                                    k) apply ultrasound gel with spatula
                                                      (dispose of spatula)
     • patch test – it is advisable to do a patch
                                                      l) give client goggles and apply your own
       test on all skin types, with only skin types
                                                      (you may apply white eye pads to eye area
       1,2 and 3 being treated, caution should
                                                      to give extra protection against the light)
       be taken with skin type 3. As we are
                                                      m) check settings and carry out one shot
       working using shorter wavelengths they
                                                      n) float the applicator head in the gel, and
       are working at a more superficial level
                                                      do not press into the skin, resting pressure
       in the skin and can cause pigmentation
                                                      only.
       damage.
                                                      It is important to explain to the client that
     • (important) all patch tests for skin           the light will be very bright and the feeling
       treatments should be given 72 hours            during skin treatment will be much snappier
       before commencing treatment to                 and intense on the skin due to the fact that
       make sure that there is no change in           the light is only penetrating the surface
       pigmentation. If there is any lightening       levels of the skin.
       in colour, then this is an indication
                                                      • assess client reaction and decide whether
       that permanent damage may occur if
                                                        energy levels need to be increased. If
       treatment is carried out again. Do not
                                                        there is little sensation or erythema, it is
       treat this client.
                                                        possible to put the machine up 1 joule
     Procedure –                                        and re-test. This may be performed
     a) greet client, ask them to slip off shoes        again to assess the client tolerance,
     and lie on a semi-reclining couch                  (important: at no time should the client
     b) cover client’s feet with couch roll and         feel excessively uncomfortable)
     place a towel across client’s chest
                                                      • a mild erythema is acceptable, but be
     c) complete client consultation and consent
                                                        careful that you are working within your
     forms (doctor’s note if required)
                                                        client’s comfort levels. Remember that
     d) excuse yourself and wash your hands
                                                        the heat may build up afterwards within
     e) choose appropriate application head
                                                        the skin
     required for treatment
     f) clean application head and goggles            • on completion of treatment clean the
     g) wipe hands with sanitiser                       applicator head and place the applicator
     h) apply disposable gloves                         back in the holder, switch off machine
     i) prepare client skin for treatment
                                                      • remove the ultrasound gel and apply the
     * cleanse and tone (if wearing make-up for
                                                        aftercare lotion to soothe the areas just
     a facial area) wipe over with damp cotton
                                                        treated (aloe vera, witch hazel, antiseptic
     wool
                                                        cream).
     * cleanse all other areas with damp cotton
     wool                                             It is important to apply SPF to exposed
     * blot with tissue                               areas (i.e. facial areas – apply factor 30).



26         UV40414
Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatment for skin rejuvenation
(continued)


a) remove and dispose of gloves                  • ensure the treatment is carried out within
b) give aftercare advice, ask client to sign       an acceptable time frame
form and keep this with the records
                                                 • punctuality at all times, aim to carry out
c) give client their part of the home care
                                                   appointments to the specified time the
advice form
                                                   client has booked
d) if happy with patch test, book treatment
for 72 hours                                     • check the client’s wellbeing and give
e) fill in treatment record card.                  ongoing reassurance where necessary

It is important to avoid use of UV light or      • ensure your client wears protective
self tanning products during treatment.            eyewear at all times
Always check any medical history change          • ensure all jewellery is removed from client
with client prior to each treatment to avoid       and therapist before treatment
possible contra-indications. Check that the
client is following recommended aftercare        • continuously assess the skin and listen
and home care advice.                              to client response to determine suitable
                                                   reactions and avoid adverse reaction
Adapt treatments to suit client needs
and skin type:                                   • where necessary stretch or manipulate
                                                   the skin according to treatment protocols
• only skin types 1, 2 and 3 (with caution) is
  recommended for IPL skin treatments            • ensure the applicator is used at the
                                                   correct angle and pressure to suit client
• identify what client treatment needs are         comfort, according to treatment protocols
  i.e. pigmentation, telangiectasia, rosacea,
  rejuvenation                                   • maintain health and hygiene when
                                                   carrying out the treatment
• carry out relevant patch test procedure to
  note client tolerance levels when doing        • give an accurate follow up, home care
  the treatments                                   /aftercare advice at completion of
                                                   treatment
• if results are not seen, the fluence/energy
  levels may have to be raised to get            • ensure the treated area is cooled and
  maximum results                                  soothed, during and after treatment

• treatments are carried out at 3–4 weekly       • ensure client records are up-to-date,
  intervals                                        legible and complete

• the treatment is more superficial              • protect client privacy by storing
  compared to hair reduction so sensation          information safely and securel in
  on the skin may be more uncomfortable            accordance with the Data Protection Act.
  for the client.
                                                 Record and evaluate the results of the
Complete the treatment to the                    treatment:
satisfaction of the client:                      • treatment can only begin following


                                                                               UV40414           27
     Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatment for skin rejuvenation
     (continued)


      consultation, completion of record card,       reduction i.e. rosacea will always need
      informed consent and a normal patch test       maintenance as the client’s lifestyle can
      response                                       be a trigger.
     • details of the treatment should be           Aftercare advice and aftercare products:
       accurately recorded on the client record     As the treatment puts light energy into the
       card, to include: date, time of treatment,   skin, it is important to advise your client not
       area treated, skin type, energy settings     to do anything that will add to the sensation
       noted, skin response immediately after       of heat or irritate the area. You must stress
       treatment, therapist’s signature, and        to your client the importance of post-
       client’s signature                           treatment care. Aftercare advice should be
     • any medical changes should be noted          given either verbally (after each treatment
       and signed                                   is carried out) or written (an aftercare
                                                    leaflet to be given to client to take away
     • information should be clearly and
                                                    with them, signed by client and therapist).
       accurately written up, and updated at the
       end of each treatment and signed             • Cooling gel (cools the skin by
                                                      evaporation) – water-based gels are
     • treatment should be monitored to
                                                      applied to the skin pre-treatment, and if
       determine percentage of reduction on
                                                      necessary post-treatment
       pigmentation/vascular areas to determine
       future treatment interval timings i.e. if    • Cold air or cryogen spray – cold air
       a good/significant reduction is seen           is generated and directed onto the
       then treatment intervals may need to           treatment area either by the laser
       be revised. this will result in overall        operator (or occasionally the client
       client satisfaction for both treatment and     is asked to direct the air if they feel
       economic outcome                               discomfort both pre- and post-treatment).
                                                      This method means that the cool air can
     • any changes to skin condition or poor
                                                      be precisely directed to the required area.
       results to be noted and recorded, so
                                                      Cryogen cooling is built into some laser
       therapist can adapt treatment to get
                                                      systems, timed to be delivered just prior
       better results or discontinue treatment if
                                                      to a laser pulse
       necessary
                                                    • Simultaneous contact cooling – this
     • record and monitor any adverse reactions
                                                      system is available on lasers which
     • take before/after pictures – photo             operate through a scanner to speed
       evidence of condition of skin and hair at      up treatment time by allowing a series
       time of treatment                              of laser pulses to be emitted in quick
     • once you have achieved a satisfactory          succession and in a controlled area
       level of reduction for the particular          of approximately 3 x 3 cm2. The laser
       skin treatment, the client may need            beam is emitted through a sapphire
       maintenance to uphold the level of             (glass) window, providing a vehicle for



28         UV40414
Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatment for skin rejuvenation
(continued)


 cooled water which facilitates easy pre-        • not put ice directly onto the skin surface
 and post-treatment cooling, as well as            or a freezer burn may occur
 simultaneous cooling with the lasing            • wear loose clothing to avoid friction on
• Ice packs – cooling with ice packs is            treated areas (such as neck, décolleté)
  an economical method, and can be               • contact the clinic or salon if they
  applied to the treatment area pre- and           experience excessive blistering, crusting
  post-treatment. They cannot, however,            or swelling in the treatment area.
  be used simultaneously with the lasing.
  Great care should be taken not to apply        Explain how to work on different
  ice packs directly to the skin as this could   treatment areas: When performing skin
  cause an ‘ice burn’. Packs should be           treatments using the Pulsar IPL system,
  wrapped in a disposable thin covering          yellow and orange applicators are used.
  such as a couch roll.                          The treatments are more surface than in
                                                 hair reduction treatments, therefore there
Aftercare advice post IPL/laser                  is a higher risk of burning the skin. As we
treatment: You should advise the client to:      are working on the surface layers, the
• cool the area with soothing gels, damp         sensation for the client tends to be very
  cotton pads or aloe vera if the hot            uncomfortable and the fluence levels need
  sensation or feeling of warmth remains         to be applied within client comfort and
  after treatment                                tolerance levels.
                                                 a) the applicators are applied using a
• avoid sun exposure in the treatment area
                                                 different technique when performing skin
  and to always wear a high factor sun
                                                 treatments
  protection cream (SPF 30 minimum) after
                                                 b) the applicator is glided over the skin,
  and between treatments
                                                 there is no pressure applied
• stop using sun beds and self tanning           c) the yellow–green applicator is used
  products in the treatment area (fake tan       for the reduction of pigmentation,
  can be applied 48 hours after treatment.       telangiectasias, and rosacea
  However, before the next treatment is          d) the wavelength applied is 525 nm and
  carried out self tan should not be applied     goes 1 mm into the skin targeting the
  a minimum of 10 days prior to treatment)       surface damage (i.e. pigmentation, veins,
                                                 vascular problems)
• keep the area free from deodorants,
                                                 e) the yellow–orange applicator is used
  make up, aromatherapy oils or perfumed
                                                 for the rejuvenation of skin tissue, the
  products for 24 hours
                                                 wavelength applied is 550 nm and it
• avoid hot baths, showers or heat               penetrates 2mm into the skin targeting the
  treatments (sauna, steam rooms, heavily        fibroblasts, collagen and elastin.
  chlorinated swimming pools and hot tubs)
  for 24 hours
• avoid vigorous exercise for 12–24 hours


                                                                             UV40414            29
     Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatment for skin rejuvenation
     (continued)


     General guidelines when performing IPL         See further information on above training
     skin treatments:                               protocols exclusive to Pulsar.
     • one or two passes per session                Consequences of inaccurate
       (depending on the skin damage)               identification of client skin type/
     • when treating vascular issues the            colouring according to the Fitzpatrick
       treatment should be kept at room             scale: Inaccurate identification of correct
       temperature/cold gel applied afterwards      skin type will result with the client being
       to cool area if necessary                    treated with the wrong treatment settings.
                                                    The consequences of which are: burns,
     • when treating pigmentation issues the
                                                    blistering, hyper-pigmentation, hypo-
       treatment gel may be kept chilled/cold gel
                                                    pigmentation, scarring, ineffective
       applied after treatment if necessary
                                                    treatment, physiological damage.
     • hover/glide as the neck and chest use
       a weaker fluence and perform one pass        Contra-actions that may occur during
       only                                         and following treatments: Understanding
                                                    of principles and practice of skin treatments
     • in the proximity of bones (forehead,
                                                    i.e. target for treatment, melanin/
       shoulder blades etc.) reduce the fluence
                                                    haemoglobin in the skin. Greater care and
       as bone structure reflects back the
                                                    caution is required when using IPL for skin
       energy and light
                                                    treatments.
     • start at lowest useful energy levels and     Understand the skin types that are ideally
       work up according to client comfort levels   suited to these treatments i.e. only skin
     • always keep applicator tilted away from      types 1, 2 and 3 with caution as there is
       the eye area                                 less melanin in these skin types making the
                                                    skin less susceptible to skin damage.
     • do not treat eyes beyond the bone area
                                                    Possible adverse reactions to
     • check the temperature of the applicator
                                                    treatments – excessive redness of the
       head, cool with damp cotton when hot
                                                    skin (erythema), excessive localised
     • treatment gel should be applied slightly     swelling (perifollicular oedema), excessive
       thicker than for hair removal treatment      urticarial reactions (i.e. cold sores/herpes),
       (appox 1–2mm)                                blistering (which may be only temporary
     • post-treatment – apply cooling gels, cold    but indicates treatment settings are not
       water spray, cold masks (if required)        appropriate), long term complications
       factor 30 minimum sun block                  such as hyper-pigmentation or hypo-
                                                    pigmentation (tanned skin being at greater
     • never apply ice packs after skin treatment   risk of pigment changes), scarring (which
       as this will cause surface burns.            is rare but clients must be warned of the
     NB. The guideline for treatment will vary      risks).
     according to manufacturers’ guidelines.


30         UV40414
Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatment for skin rejuvenation
(continued)


Advice to prevent post-treatment damage:       being taken?).
• apply an aloe vera or tea tree soothing      Possible causes of reappearance of
  cream for 48 hours after treatment           pigmentation – post/home care advice
                                               not being adhered to (i.e. not adhering
• avoid sun exposure or sun beds for the
                                               to use of sun block, non-exposure to UV/
  duration of IPL/laser treatments
                                               sun light, medication prescribed causing a
• apply an SPF30 (minimum) after and           photosensitive reaction, use of St John’s
  between treatments (exposed areas only)      Wart) will cause pigmentation changes.
• avoid the use of tanning products for a      Beta carotene will cause pigmentation
  minimum of 48 hours after treatment          changes – stop treatment until out of
                                               client’s system for approximately 4–6
• keep the area free from deodorants,          weeks. For normal hormonal changes (i.e.
  make-up, aromatherapy oils or perfumed       menopause) stop treatment and refer to
  products for 24 hours                        GP or dermatologist.
• avoid hot baths, showers or heat             Possible causes of reappearance of
  treatments (saunas, steam rooms,             vascular/telangiestesia – hereditary,
  swimming pools and hot tubs) for 24          possible ongoing problem, veins around
  hours                                        nose are the most difficult to treat and may
• do not put ice directly onto the skin        reoccur, therefore client needs to be aware
  surface or a freezer burn may occur          of ongoing maintenance to uphold result.
                                               Lifestyle, diet and skin care, all affect
• loose clothing is recommended to
                                               telangectasia reappearing on the skin. Give
  avoid friction on treated areas i.e. neck/
                                               advice to clients regarding this to prolong
  décolleté
                                               the effects of the IPL treatments. Auto-
• contact clinic/salon if any adverse          immune deficiencies (stress) – depletion
  reaction occurs after treatment.             in these areas can trigger hypo-/hyper-
                                               pigmentation, stop treatments, refer to GP/
Suitable methods of dealing with               Dermatologist for further investigation.
reappearance of skin condition between
treatments:                                    Effects and benefits of laser or intense
                                               pulsed light on the skin and underlying
Pigmentation – if pigmentation                 tissues: The effects and benefits of
occurs between skin treatments (i.e.           Intense Pulsed Light on the skin and
the reappearance or appearance of              underlying tissues offer the following four
pigmentation), the operator has to             benefits:
identify the underlying cause. Ask open
questions about the client’s current medical   •   stimulates collagen production
history (are there any changes? Is the         •   improves the quality and texture of the
client having any hormonal issues (i.e.            skin
menopause)? Is there any medication
                                               •   minimises surface damage (improving


                                                                           UV40414            31
     Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatment for skin rejuvenation
     (continued)


         the look and tone of the skin, thread       – vein/vascular issues, pigmentation
         vein and capillary reduction)               issues (slowing down the production of
                                                     melanin results in production of irregular
     •   reduces rosacea (keeps the condition
                                                     melanocytes), fine lines wrinkles (cross
         under control, this is triggered by
                                                     linkages of collagen and elastin become
         internal factors), Intense Pulsed Light
                                                     more brittle and week, resulting in loss of
         will reduce the outbreaks, however diet
                                                     tone and texture in the skin).
         and home care are needed to enhance
         the effect.
     How does IPL treatment work: Use of             Veins and vascular treatment: Green/
     wavelengths from 515 nm – 550 nm for            yellow applicator at 515 nm, penetrates 1
     this type of treatment. When using IPL          mm into the skin, surface penetration. In
     for skin treatments absorption by certain       the case of skin treatments the light targets
     cromophores will allow skin to regenerate.      a certain chromophore (i.e. haemoglobin),
     The energy levels administered in photo         without damaging the surrounding skin
     rejuvenation treatment with IPL will allow      structures. The light creates a heat which
     sufficient energy to be absorbed into the       is strongly absorbed into the targeted blood
     dermis to increase blood flow.                  vessels, causing them to coagulate and
     There are different theories for the            break down, white blood corpuscles rush
     stimulation of collagen:                        to the area and carry the particles away
                                                     through the lymphatic system. The thicker
     • it is believed that the light causes slight
                                                     the blood vessel the more treatments are
       trauma to the dermis and epidermis which
                                                     required.
       stimulates the fibroblasts
                                                     Pigmentation: Age spots/freckles will
     • stimulation of blood flow brings fresh
                                                     give patches of pigmentation that are
       oxygen and nutrients to the area whilst
                                                     darker to the ambient skin colour due to
       removing waste
                                                     an inconsistency in melanocytes. These
     • cells absorb more water therefore hydrate     patches of pigment can be treated without
       the tissues – NMF (Natural Moisture           affecting the ambient skin colour. The light
       Factor) depletes as we age                    is absorbed into these patches and the
     • cross fibres regenerate targeting the         melanocytes are caused to shatter. They
       collagen and elastin.                         dissipate and break-up over a period of
                                                     time. A sun block is recommended to be
     Photo-rejuvenation: IPL photo                   used at all times, avoidance of further sun/
     rejuvenation is the process of removing         UV light exposure, otherwise pigmentation
     sun damage, stimulating new cell growth         will reoccur.
     and increasing collagen production. It gives
     the skin a “blank canvas”, a more even          Treatment intervals:
     tone and appearance.                            Rejuvenation – 3–5 sessions at 3 weekly
                                                     intervals. 3 weeks is considered the
     Three distinctive issues as we age              optimal to get collagen at peak levels,


32         UV40414
Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatment for skin rejuvenation
(continued)


results are accumulative. Maintenance           squamous cell carcinoma, malignant
is required to keep skin at optimal levels,     melanoma).
lifestyle and diet are also important to
                                                Skin:
maintain results.
                                                Skin types and recognition factors –
Veins/rosacea – treat at 3–4 weekly
                                                Dry, oily, sensitive, dehydrated, mature.
intervals between 3–4 sessions, more if
vascular damage is more intense.                Normal skin – smooth texture, thick
                                                epidermis, refined skin, tight pores, even
Pigmentation – 3–4 treatments at 4
                                                moisture supply.
weekly intervals (must avoid UV exposure,
constant use of sun block minimum of            Dry skin – flaky rough texture, thin
factor 30 to avoid reappearance).               epidermis, sensitivity, dull complexion, fine
                                                lines, tight skin
(important) – clinical trials have proven
that the treatment will reduce the skin age     Oily skin – course texture, open pores,
by 2 years, hence 5 sessions can give a         thick epidermis, shiny appearance, sallow
visual reduction of up to 10 years off the      colouring, blemishes may be present.
skin’s texture and tone. It is a non-invasive   Combination skin – coarse textured, open
therapy without the down time or the risk of    pores, shiny appearance, tendency to
surgery.                                        blemish.
Explain different skin and hair types,          Sensitive skin – fine texture, thin
conditions, diseases and disorders:             epidermis, red appearance, reacts to heat
Skin conditions – sensitive, milia,             and abrasion, possible capillary damage
comedones, dehydrated, broken                   (split capillaries).
capillaries, pustules, papules, open pores,     Mature skin – loose soft skin, network of
hyper-pigmentation, keloid, in-growing          superficial lines, lack of supporting adipose
hairs, dermatosis papulosa nigra and            tissue, poor muscle tone (neck and eye
pseudo folliculitis.                            areas), loss of elasticity.
Skin diseases and disorders –                   Blemished skin – glandular imbalance,
infestations (scabies, lice), congenital        allergies, bacterial infection (proceed with
(eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis), bacterial      caution).
(acne vulgaris, impetigo, acne rosacea,
boils, folliculitis), viral (warts, herpes      Skin-epidermis – structure, stratum
simplex, herpes zoster), fungal (tinea/         germinativum, stratum spinosum, stratum
ringworm), pigment disorders (vitiligo,         granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum
albinism, chloasma, epilates, lentigo,          corneum, process of keratinisation.
moles/papilloma, port wine stain/Nevus          Skin-dermis – structure, blood/
Flammeus, leucoderma), general disorders        lymph supply, papillary layer, reticular
(UV damage, urticaria, allergic reaction),      layer, collagen, elastin, macrophages,
skin cancers (basal cell carcinoma,             adipocytes, mast cells, fibroblasts, hair,


                                                                              UV40414           33
     Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatment for skin rejuvenation
     (continued)


     dermal papilla, sebaceous glands and              effluven).
     sebum, arrector pili muscle, sweat glands
     (eccrine and apocrine), sensory nerve
     endings.                                          Growth patterns and causes of hair
     Skin-hypodermis – structure                       growth:
     (subcutaneous layer), adipose tissue,             Factors which effect hair growth –
     adipocytes.                                       congenital, topical, drugs/medication,
                                                       systemic, stress, anorexia, polycystic
     Skin functions: Secretion, heat regulation,
                                                       ovaries, hirsutism.
     absorption, protection, elimination,
     sensation, vitamin D formation, melanin           Previous hair removal methods and their
     production, acid mantle formation.                effects on hair growth to include: shaving,
                                                       plucking, waxing, depilatory creams,
     Hair:
                                                       electrolysis (short-wave and blend).
     Hair structure – arrector pili muscle, hair
     follicle, inner root sheath (Henle’s layer,       Endocrine system:
     Huxley’s layer, cuticle layer), outer root        Structure and function of the endocrine
     sheath, vitreous membrane, connective             system – responsible for the secretion
     tissue sheath, root (bulb/matrix, dermal          of hormones, pituitary gland, pineal
     papilla), sebaceous gland, shaft (medulla,        gland, gonads (the sex glands), adrenal
     cortex, cuticle).                                 glands, thyroid gland, para-thyroid glands,
                                                       pancreas gland, thymus gland.
     Hair growth cycle – anagen, catagen,
     telogen.                                          Other glands – Sweat or sudodiferous
                                                       glands, ceruminous or wax producing
     Hair functions – insulation and                   glands, pancreas.
     protection.
                                                       Hormones secreted by the anterior
     Diseases and disorders of the hair:               pituitary – somatotrophin (growth
     Signs and causes of asteatosis, canities,         hormone), thyroid stimulating hormone
     discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE),                (TSH), adreno-cortico tropic hormone
     fragilitis crinium, hypertrichosis, keloids,      (ACTH), gonado tropic hormone (GTH),
     monilethrix, ringed hair, trichoptilosis,         follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), (LH)
     trichorrehexis nodosa. Scalp (pityriasis          luteinising hormone, prolactin.
     capitis simplex, pityriasis capitis, steatoids,
                                                       Hormones secreted by the posterior
     seborrhea oleosa), fungal (tinea favosa,
                                                       lobe – vasopressin (anti-diuretic hormone
     tinea capitis, tinea sycosis), parasite
                                                       ADH), oxytocin.
     (scabies, pediculosis capitis), bacterial
     (furuncle, carbuncle, stye), alopecia             Hormones secreted by the thyroid gland
     (androgenetic, adnata, areata, follicularis,      – thyroxine and triidothyronine, calcitonin.
     premature, senilis, totalis, universalis,         Hormones secreted by the parathyroid
     traction/traumatic, postpartum, telogen


34           UV40414
Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatment for skin rejuvenation
(continued)


glands – parathormone.                             descending aorta, subclavian, carotid,
                                                   pulmonary, hepatic, splenic, renal,
Hormones secreted by the pancreas –
                                                   mesenteric, iliac, vertebral, axillary,
insulin, glucagons.
                                                   brachial, ulnar, radial, palmar arch, femoral,
Hormones produced by the adrenal                   popliteal, anterior tibial, plantar arch.
medulla – adrenalin, noradrenalin.
                                                   Major veins of the body – vena cava
Hormones produced by the                           (inferior and superior), pulmonary, hepatic,
adrenal cortex – andrenocortical,                  splenic, renal, iliac, axillary, brachial,
adrenocorticotrophic (steroid hormones),           basilic, cephalic, subclavian, saphenous
mineral corticoids, glucocorticoids,               (long and short), venous arch, femoral,
gonadotrophic.                                     popliteal, posterior tibial, anterior tibial.
The gonads (sex glands) – ovaries                  Composition of blood – plasma,
(oestrogen, progesterone), testes                  leucocytes (granulocytes and
(testosterone).                                    agranulocytes), erythrocytes,
                                                   thrombocytes.
Circulatory system:
                                                   Principles of skin healing:
Heart structure – heart wall (endocardium,
myocardium, pericardium), aorta, atria,            • wound healing is a complex and dynamic
bicuspid (mitral) valve, chordae tendineae,          process of restoration of skin cell
inferior and superior vena cava, papillary           structures and tissue layers
muscles, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein,         • wound healing – bleeding generally
semilunar valves (aortic and pulmonary),             follows a tissue injury via an incision.
septum, tricuspid valve, ventricles.                 The cascade of vasoconstriction and
Functions of cardiovascular system:                  coagulation begins with clotted blood
transport, defence, clotting, regulation and         immediately impregnating the wound,
homeostasis.                                         leading to hemostasis, and after
Blood vessels – Structure and function:              dehydration a scab forms
arteries, arterioles, veins, venules,              • an influx of inflammatory cells follow, with
capillaries.                                         the release of cellular substances and
Circuits – Structure and function:                   mediators. Angiogenesis (growth of blood
pulmonary circulation, portal circulation,           vessels) and re-epithelisation occurs and
coronary circulation, systemic circulation.          the deposition of new cellular and extra
                                                     cellular components ensues.
Major arteries of the head and neck –
carotid, facial, occipital, temporal.              Phases of skin healing:
Major veins of the head and neck –                 • inflammatory phase – occurs
jugular, occipital, temporal, maxillary, facial.     immediately following the injury and lasts
Major arteries of the body – aorta,                  approximately 6 days



                                                                                 UV40414            35
     Outcome 2: Be able to provide laser and light treatment for skin rejuvenation
     (continued)


     • fibroblastic phase – occurs at the          wrinkles, effects of the sun and wrinkles,
       termination of the inflammatory phase       sunlight affect on the epidermis and
       and can last up to 4 weeks                  dermis, explain what and how to recognise
                                                   basal cell, carcinoma and what are the risk
     • scar maturation phase – begins at the
                                                   factors. Free radicals and their effects on
       fourth week and can last for years.
                                                   the skin, hormone effects, muscle tone and
     Factors which interfere with wound            gravity as we age.
     healing: Trauma (initial or repetitive),      Lifestyle and ageing skin – sun
     scalds and burns (both physical and           exposure, smoking, lack of exercise,
     chemical), animal bites or insect stings,     exposure to cold water, alcohol, lack of
     pressure, vascular compromise, arterial,      sleep, stress, preventative measures (i.e.
     venous or mixed, immunodeficiency,            sun screens avoidance of sun exposure,
     malignancy, connective tissue disorders,      diet, moderate/no alcohol, avoid smoking,
     nutritional deficiencies, psychosocial        good skin care).
     disorders, adverse effects of medications.

     Theories underpinning IPL and laser
     technology:
     • light tissue interaction and its effects
       on skin and eyes to include reflection,
       transmit ion, scattering, absorption
     • elective phototermolysis, thermal
       relaxation time, haemoglobin,
       oxyhaemoglobin
     • light according to the electromagnetic
       radiation (EMR) to include the spectrum
       of electromagnetic radiation, the types
       of light used by lasers and intense
       pulsed light, the wavelengths and depth
       of penetration, photons, joules. Pulse
       repetition rate. Pulse duration, fluence,
       the size of the treatment beam (spot
       size).

     How natural ageing, lifestyle and
     enviornmental factors affect the
     condition of the skin and underlying
     structures:
     Natural ageing – chronological ageing and


36         UV40414
UV40464
Quality management of client
care in the hair and beauty
sector
Through this unit you will develop your management skills
in client care within your salon.

You will analyse the client service experience that is
on offer in your salon as part of your quality assurance
process. You will carry out planned and spot checks,
use various methods to gather feedback, recommend
improvements, engage your staff with the new
improvements and follow through with a monitoring
process.

The foundation of a successful business is great client care
and if your salon meets your client’s expectations you will
have a winning combination. Part of being a good manager
is to continually evaluate your own practice and lead by
example.

This unit is suitable for hairdressing, barbering, beauty
salon, nail salon and spa managers.




UV40464_v14
Level




        4
Credit value




        12
GLH




        50
Observation(s)




        1
External paper(s)




        0
Quality management of client
care in the hair and beauty
sector
     Learning outcomes                                   Evidence requirements

On completion of this unit you will:                1.    Environment
                                                          Evidence for this unit must be gathered in a
1.   Be able to review the overall client service
                                                          real or realistic working environment.
     experience as part of quality assurance
2.   Be able to implement and monitor               2.    Simulation
     procedures to improve the overall client             Simulation is not allowed in this unit.
     service experience
                                                    3.    Observation outcomes
                                                          Competent performance of ‘Observation’
                                                          outcomes must be demonstrated to your
                                                          assessor on at least one occasion.

                                                    4.    Knowledge outcomes
                                                          There must be evidence that you possess
                                                          all the knowledge and understanding
                                                          listed in the ‘Knowledge’ section of this
                                                          unit. This evidence may include projects,
                                                          assignments, case studies, reflective
                                                          accounts, oral/written questioning and/or
                                                          other forms of evidence.

                                                    5.    Tutor/Assessor guidance
                                                          You will be guided by your tutor/assessor
                                                          on how to achieve learning outcomes in this
                                                          unit. All outcomes must be achieved.

                                                    6.    External paper
                                                          There is no external paper requirement for
                                                          this unit.




                                                                                     UV40464             3
      Achieving observations
      and range

      Achieving observation outcomes                     Maximum service times

    Your assessor will observe your performance        There are no maximum service times that apply
    of practical tasks. The minimum number             to this unit.
    of observations required is indicated in the
    evidence requirements section of this unit.

    Criteria may not always naturally occur during
    a practical observation. In such instances you
    will be asked questions to demonstrate your
    competence in this area. Your assessor will
    document the criteria that have been achieved
    through oral questioning.

    Your assessor will sign off an outcome when all
    criteria have been competently achieved in a
    single client service.




      Achieving range
    There are no range statements that apply to this
    unit.




4           UV40464
                                                Observations

  Outcome 1

Be able to review the overall client service experience as part
of quality assurance
You can:
a.   Evaluate client care procedures, using
     quality assurance and inspection processes
b.   Conduct a client satisfaction survey




*May be assessed through oral questioning.

 Observation                                1      Optional    Optional
 Date achieved
 Criteria questioned orally
 Portfolio reference
 Assessor initials
 Learner signature

                                                              UV40464     5
         Outcome 2

    Be able to implement and monitor procedures to improve the
    overall client service experience
    You can:
    a.    Recommend approaches to or ways of
          improving the client service experience
    b.    Engage staff in consultation necessary
          for effective implementation of a quality
          scheme




    *May be assessed through oral questioning.
    Observation                                  1    Optional   Optional
    Date achieved
    Criteria questioned orally
    Portfolio reference
    Assessor initials
    Learner signature

6             UV40464
                                    Developing knowledge


  Achieving knowledge outcomes

You will be guided by your tutor and assessor     Where possible your assessor will integrate
on the evidence that needs to be produced.        knowledge outcomes into practical observations
Your knowledge and understanding will be          through oral questioning.
assessed using the assessment methods listed
below:

   •   Observed work
   •   Witness statements
   •   Audio-visual media
   •   Evidence of prior learning or attainment
   •   Written questions
   •   Oral questions
   •   Assignments
   •   Case studies




                                                                              UV40464              7
    Knowledge

      Outcome 1

    Be able to review the overall client service experience as part
    of quality assurance
                                                                                Portfolio reference /
     You can:
                                                                                Assessor initials*

     c.   Use client feedback and complaints to inform a review of the client
          service experience

     d.   Draw conclusions from the client satisfaction survey and client
          complaints

     e.   Analyse client expectations

     f.   Describe different quality assurance and inspection processes
          used within businesses in the hair and beauty sector

     g.   Describe how to conduct a client satisfaction survey

     h.   Explain the value of feedback and client complaints in reviewing
          the client service experience

     i.   Analyse the impact of client satisfaction on the business

     j.   Explain the importance of meeting client expectations


    *Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

    Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.




8            UV40464
  Outcome 2

Be able to implement and monitor procedures to improve the
overall client service experience
                                                                           Portfolio reference /
 You can:
                                                                           Assessor initials*

 c.   Evaluate the effectiveness of newly implemented procedures

 d.   Propose new systems or modifications to existing systems that
      could improve the client service experience

 e.   Evaluate own quality management of client care

 f.   Describe different approaches to quality management of client care
      within the hair and beauty sector

 g.   Explain the importance of staff engagement to the success of
      newly implemented procedures

 h.   Explain the importance of monitoring the effectiveness of newly
      implemented procedures

 i.   Explain the factors necessary for continuous improvement

 j.   Explain how quality management can be measured


*Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.




                                                                                 UV40464           9
         Unit content

     This section provides guidance on the recommended knowledge and skills required to enable you
     to achieve each of the learning outcomes in this unit. Your tutor/assessor will ensure you have the
     opportunity to cover all of the unit content.

       Outcome 1: Be able to review the overall client service experience as part
       of quality assurance


       Client care procedures, quality                    problems and improve service made in
       assurance and inspection processes:                consultation with the workplace team,
       Policies and procedures for services and           feedback to group and/or individual
       sales delivery, practical observations,            staffs, responsibility for meeting client
       communication skills, client suggestion            requirements, actions required for
       box, monitoring, sampling, record keeping,         improvement, review of actions.
       client feedback is sought, records of
                                                          Analyse client expectations: Client
       meetings, provision of services, salon
                                                          consultation records, client’s current
       turnover, adequate resource allocation,
                                                          concerns, treatment/service objectives
       quality client service provision.
                                                          and overall treatment/service plan, client
       Conduct a client satisfaction survey:              feedback, staff’s reflection of treatment,
       Feedback on client satisfaction is                 review appointment records for further
       sought, improve future operations,                 treatments, treatment brochure, relevant
       appropriate questions, measurable,                 qualified staffs, professionalism, complaint
       format of questionnaire, improve services,         records.
       opportunities to increase retail sales,
                                                          Quality assurance and inspection
       safety consideration, overall ambience,
                                                          processes used within businesses
       staff knowledge, client service capabilities,
                                                          in the hair and beauty sector: Quality
       timing of treatment/service, consistency
                                                          management standards (ISO, BSI,
       in treatments offered, technical and
                                                          CEN), national and european industry
       treatment/service-related complaints
                                                          standards, thrid-party certification; policy
       addressed swiftly.
                                                          and procedure, morale of staff, continuous
       Client feedback and complaints to                  professional development programme,
       inform a review of the client service              communication methods, record keeping,
       experience: Corrective actions taken,              business planning, targets and goals
       monitor and evaluate for effectiveness,            achieved, professionalism, client feedback,
       results used for future planning, adequate         staff feedback, team work, health and
       supply of stock is maintained, support             safety, mutual respect, consistency in
       of quality services, client requirements,          maintenance, monitoring and evaluation
       feedback provided, consultation skills,            of service and retail delivery, procedure to
       correct product recommendation.                    deal with client concerns, review of policy.
       Conclusions from the client satisfaction           Client satisfaction survey: Consistent
       survey and client complaints: Review               communication, interpretation of
       of evaluation, decisions to overcome               information, implementation of strategies



10           UV40464
Outcome 1: Be able to review the overall client service experience as part
of quality assurance (continued)


for improvement, dissatisfaction reports
dealt with, allergic reactions, waiting and/or
treatment time, retail products, cost-related
complaints, areas for improvement, action
to be taken, feedback, review.
Value of feedback and client complaints
in reviewing the client service
experience: Monitor and evaluate to
analyse data, improve services offered,
product choice and client satisfaction,
availability of new products and services,
increased professionalism, valued clients,
quality assurance.
Impact of client satisfaction on
the business: Growth of client base,
increase in appointments, avoid
re-appointments, financial implications,
client experience, critical evaluation,
adaptation, improvements, monitoring,
review, professional development,
consultation techniques, correct product
recommendations, trust, loyalty, business
growth.
Meeting client’s expectations:
Resources, value for money, initial
consultation, treatment/service outcomes,
treatment/service plan, competence,
professionalism, communication,
knowledge of products, quality assurance,
business growth, success.




                                                              UV40464        11
     Outcome 2: Be able to implement and monitor procedures to improve the
     overall client service experience

     Approaches to, or ways of, improving             agreed outcomes, commitment to quality,
     the client service experience: Personal          continuous professional development.
     appearance, qualified staff, interpersonal
                                                      Different approaches to quality
     skills, communication skills, latest
                                                      management of client care within
     techniques offered, salon environment,
                                                      the hair and beauty sector: Quality
     up-to-date equipment, hygiene and
                                                      management system, KPIs (Key
     sterilisation, time management,
                                                      Performance Indicators), SMART
     consistency, reliability, variety of
                                                      (Specific, Measurable, Achievable,
     treatments, consultations, home care and
                                                      Realistic, and Timely), client satisfaction,
     aftercare advice, client satisfaction charter,
                                                      treatment productivity, retail sales,
     achieving agreed client expectations or
                                                      re-appointments, high standards through
     specifications.
                                                      the code of conduct, competency, training
     Engage staff in consultation necessary           and education, set standards, salon
     for effective implementation of a                policies, client perceptions, staff morale,
     quality scheme: Continuous professional          personal/team/client safety, salon goals,
     development, motivation, inclusiveness,          accountability, teamwork, client feedback
     communication skills, feedback,                  and review.
     documentation records, responsibilities,
                                                      Importance of staff engagement to
     goals and targets, review.
                                                      the success of newly implemented
     Effectiveness of newly implemented               procedures: Employee involvement, KPIs,
     procedures: Impact on business, review           responsibility, system based approach,
     new procedures, set time constraints for         motivation to perform, competent qualified
     monitoring, re-survey clients, analysis of       staffs, culture of respect, constructive
     findings, fully inclusive review.                feedback, opportunities for advancement,
                                                      training sessions, continuous professional
     New systems or modifications to
                                                      development.
     existing systems that could improve
     the client service experience: Goals to          Important to monitor the effectiveness
     develop customer service, client profile,        of newly implemented procedures: Client
     client expectations, client records, loyalty     needs, client satisfaction, surveys, focus
     rewards, promotional events, exclusive           groups, comment cards, responsibilities,
     products, special themes, uniqueness,            co-operative, accommodating,
     event planning.                                  professionalism, accurate record keeping,
                                                      relevant information communicated to all,
     Quality management of client care: Initial
                                                      equipment maintained, stock managed
     consultation, attentiveness, respectfulness,
                                                      effectively, review of client feedback, staff
     professionalism, communication and
                                                      feedback, analyse, action plan for further
     listening skills, client requirements,
                                                      improvement.
     knowledge of the treatments, knowledge
     of product, individual treatment plan,


12         UV40464
Outcome 2: Be able to implement and monitor procedures to improve the
overall client service experience (continued)

Factors necessary for continuous
improvement: Professional development,
quality qualified staff, investment in
business, ongoing training, competitive
edge, reaching targets, teamwork, transfer
of skills and knowledge, new treatments,
products, documented research, changes
to the industry.
Quality management can be measured:
Employee happiness, number of sick days,
lateness, staff turnover, client satisfaction
(re-appointments, client complaints),
meeting KPIs, metrics for KPIs,
organisational success, set measurable
objectives, evaluate progress, monitor
trends, make improvements, support
decision making, quantifiable, appropriate,
data gathering, SMART (Specific,
Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Timely),
report, analyse, action required, record
keeping, monitor, evaluate, review.




                                                          UV40464       13
                            Notes
               Use this area for notes and diagrams




14   UV40464
UV40463
Physiology of ageing


This is a preparation for work unit which is based on
knowledge and understanding. This unit is about the
nature of ageing, causes and effects of ageing on the body
systems, and the beauty treatments and products that may
delay the ageing process.




UV40463_v8
Level




        4
Credit value




        10
GLH




        64
Observations




        0
External paper(s)




        1
Physiology of ageing


     Learning outcomes                                Evidence requirements

On completion of this unit you will:             1.    Knowledge outcomes
                                                       There must be evidence that you possess
1.   Understand the nature of ageing
                                                       all the knowledge and understanding
2.   Understand the causes and effects of              listed in the ‘Knowledge’ section of this
     ageing of the skin                                unit. This evidence may include projects,
3.   Understand the causes and effects of              assignments, case studies, reflective
     degenerative disorders as a result of the         accounts, oral/written questioning and/or
     ageing process                                    other forms of evidence.
4.   Understand how beauty therapy treatments    2.    Tutor/Assessor guidance
     and products may delay the ageing process         You will be guided by your tutor/assessor
                                                       on how to achieve learning outcomes in this
                                                       unit. All outcomes must be achieved.

                                                 3.    External paper
                                                       Knowledge and understanding in this unit
                                                       will be assessed by an external paper.
                                                       The criteria that make up this paper are
                                                       highlighted in white throughout this unit.
                                                       There is one external paper that must be
                                                       achieved.




                                                                                UV40463              3
           Developing knowledge


      Achieving knowledge outcomes

    You will be guided by your tutor and assessor        Where possible your assessor will integrate
    on the evidence that needs to be produced.           knowledge outcomes into practical observations
    Your knowledge and understanding will be             through oral questioning.
    assessed using the assessment methods listed
    below:

       •      Observed work
       •      Witness statements
       •      Audio-visual media
       •      Evidence of prior learning or attainment
       •      Written questions
       •      Oral questions
       •      Assignments
       •      Case studies




      Achieving the external paper

    The external paper will test your knowledge of the criteria highlighted in white. A pass mark of
    70% must be achieved. Criteria not achieved will be identified to your tutor/assessor. You will then
    be orally questioned or asked to produce other forms of evidence as all unit criteria must
    be achieved.

    Your assessor will complete the table below when the 70% pass mark has been achieved.

     Paper           Date achieved                             Assessor initials

     1 of 1




4              UV40463
Knowledge

  Outcome 1

Understand the nature of ageing
                                                                         Portfolio reference/
 You can:
                                                                         Assessor initials*

 a.   Describe the characteristics of ageing

 b.   Explain the differences between intrinsic and extrinsic
      environmental effects on the skin which contribute to the ageing
      process

 c.   Critically compare different theories of ageing

 d.   Explain the ageing process in cells and tissues


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.




                                                                               UV40463          5
      Outcome 2

    Understand the causes and effects of ageing of the skin
                                                                             Portfolio reference/
     You can:
                                                                             Assessor initials*

     a.   Analyse the changes which occur to the repair mechanisms of the
          skin with ageing

     b.   Explain how ageing causes microscopic changes to the structure
          of skin

     c.   Evaluate the causes of changes to the skin when ageing

     d.   Explain pathological conditions of the skin which may occur as a
          result of ageing

     e.   Explain the ageing effect of UV on the skin

     f.   Recommend precautions to minimise damage caused by UV light


    * Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

    Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.




6            UV40463
  Outcome 3

Understand the causes and effects of degenerative disorders
as a result of the ageing process
                                                                            Portfolio reference/
 You can:
                                                                            Assessor initials*

 a.   Explain possible causes of degenerative disorders and their effects
      on the:
        •   skeletal system

        •   muscular system

        •   nervous system

        •   cardiovascular system

        •   immune system

        •   respiratory system

 b.   Describe contra-indications to beauty therapy treatments when a
      degenerative disorder is present


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.




                                                                                  UV40463          7
      Outcome 4

    Understand how beauty therapy treatments and products may
    delay the ageing process
                                                                             Portfolio reference/
     You can:
                                                                             Assessor initials*

     a.   Justify how beauty therapy treatments and products may delay the
          skin ageing process

     b.   Evaluate the performance of beauty therapy treatments and
          products considered to delay the ageing process


    * Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

    Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.




8            UV40463
    Unit content

This section provides guidance on the recommended knowledge and skills required to enable you
to achieve each of the learning outcomes in this unit. Your tutor/assessor will ensure you have the
opportunity to cover all of the unit content.


  Outcome 1: Understand the nature of ageing


  Characteristics of ageing: Chronological,          Ageing process in cells and tissues:
  physiological and functional ageing,
                                                     Cellular changes – membrane-transport
  senescence, senility, biogerontology,
                                                     changes, reduced fluidity, nuclear (faulty
  geriatrics, longevity, demography, disease,
                                                     DNA, protein synthesis errors, reduced
  morbidity, mortality, structural changes
                                                     organelle manufacturing, membrane
  (height, muscle mass, hip diameter,
                                                     defects, cross linking, condensed
  elasticity, lung function), compositional
                                                     chromatin, reduced mitosis), cytoplasmic
  changes (water content, fat content),
                                                     (lipofuscin), ribosomal (reduced numbers),
  functional changes (movement,
                                                     mitochondrial (reduced numbers,
  respiration, fertility, cardiac function, blood
                                                     membrane disorganisation), lysosomal
  pressure, digestion, excretion).
                                                     (reduced efficiency).
  Intrinsic environmental effects on the
                                                     Tissues – reduced tissue mass (atrophy),
  skin:
                                                     increased cell size (hypertrophy), increased
  Internal and natural causes – reduced              cell numbers (hyperplasia), abnormal cell
  collagen and elastin production, slower            size, shape, reduced function (dysplasia),
  rate skin renewal, poor desquamation,              tumour formation (neoplasia), reduced
  hormones.                                          mitosis, increased pigment (lipofuscin),
                                                     increased lipids, reduced cell/tissue
  Extrinsic environmental effects on the
                                                     function, increased waste.
  skin:
  External causes – sun exposure, facial
  expressions, gravity, sleep, hydration,
  smoking, alcohol, diet and nutrition,
  chemicals, products.
  Theories of ageing (genetic and
  non-genetic theories): programmed
  death theory, DNA error theory, cellular
  theory, free radical theory, collagen theory,
  mutating auto-immune theory,
  neuro-ageing theory, nutritional theory,
  ageing by program, gene theory, gene
  mutation theory, cross-linkage theory,
  cellular garbage theory, accumulation of
  errors theory, wear and tear theory,
  auto-immune theory.


                                                                                  UV40463             9
     Outcome 2: Understand the causes and effects of ageing of the skin


     Repair mechanism of the skin:                   Pathological conditions of the skin
     Wound healing process – haemostasis             which may occur as a result of ageing:
     (clotting), inflammatory (phagocytosis),        Acrochordon/skin tag, actinic keratosis,
     autolysis, cell migration and division,         angiomas, cancer (basal cell carcinoma,
     proliferation (granulation, angiogenesis,       squamous cell carcinoma, malignant
     collagen deposition, tissue formation,          melanoma), decubitus ulcers, easy tearing,
     epithelialisation, wound contraction),          eczematous dermatitis, asteatotic eczema,
     remodelling (collagen remodelled along          nummular eczema, seborrheic dermatitis,
     tension lines, apoptosis, growth factors).      gravitational eczema, autoeczematization
                                                     eczema, elastotic skin and comedones,
     Changes to the repair mechanisms
                                                     herpes zoster, laxity, lentigo, naevi,
     (ageing): Reduced ability and slower
                                                     pruritus, purpura, rosacea, seborrheic
     rate of repair, microscopic changes
                                                     keratosis, telangiectasia, verruca filiformis,
     to the structure of skin during ageing,
                                                     vitiligo, xerosis.
     melanocytes (numbers decline, density
     doubles upon sun exposure, increased            Ageing effect of UV on the skin:
     lentigines), Langerhans cells (reduced          Abnormal elastin production, accelerated
     density and responsiveness), dermal             ageing, actinic keratosis, affected DNA
     changes (reduced collagen, decreased            repair, altered cell death, bruising, collagen
     density, loss of elasticity).                   and elastin breakdown, free radical
                                                     generation, hyper/hypo-pigmentation,
     Causes of changes to the skin when
                                                     lowered immunity, photosensitivity,
     ageing: Reduced activity of sebaceous
                                                     seborrheic keratosis, tumours/cancers.
     and sudoriferous glands (dryness,
     heat exhaustion), hardened elastin              Recommended precautions to minimise
     (loss of elasticity), cross-linking and         damage caused by UV light: Avoid
     hardening collagen (wrinkles), reduced          UV sunbeds, awareness of medications
     skin regeneration, increased scaling,           and cosmetic procedures causing
     reduced number fibroblasts (thinning skin/      photosensitivity, diet and nutrition, minimise
     transparency), less subcutaneous fat            exposure, protective clothing, shade, use
     (bony appearance), reduced muscle tone          sunscreen.
     (flaccid muscles), poor circulation (visible/
     broken capillaries), reduced metabolism
     and poor waste elimination (dull and
     sallow complexion/puffiness), hyperplasis
     (enlarged naevi, seborrheic warts, verruca
     filiformis), melanocyte enlargement
     (pigmentation), hormonal changes
     (terminal hair growth).




10        UV40463
Outcome 3: Understand the causes and effects of degenerative disorders
as a result of the ageing process

Degenerative disorders (causes and             pressure, micro-pigmentation, history of
effects):                                      thrombosis or embolism, botox, dermal
                                               fillers, metal pins or plates, medication,
Skeletal system – bursitis, fractures, gout,
                                               pregnancy, piercings, anxiety, cuts,
kyphosis, osteoarthritis, osteomalacia,
                                               abrasions, bruising, irritation, allergic
osteopenia, osteoporosis, rheumatoid
                                               reaction, excessive erythema, muscle
arthritis, tumours.
                                               fatigue, hyper/hypo-pigmentation.
Muscular system – lumbago, muscle
cramps, muscle atrophy, muscle dystrophy,
myasthenia gravis, polymyositis,
polymyalgia rheumatic.
Nervous system – anxiety, dementia
(Alzheimer’s disease, non-Alzheimer’s
dementias, multi-infarction dementia),
depression, insomnia, multiple sclerosis,
Parkinson’s, reduced reflex response,
reduced autonomic response.
Cardiovascular system – angina
pectoris, arrhythmias, arteriosclerosis,
atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure,
coronary artery disease, hypertension,
myocardial infarction, pacemaker, phlebitis,
stroke, thrombosis, varicose veins.
Immune system – decreased immune
response, reduced bone marrow,
lymphoma.
Respiratory system – chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease (COPD) (emphysema,
chronic bronchitis), pneumonia,
tuberculosis, pulmonary embolism.
Contra-indications: Contagious skin
diseases, dysfunction of the nervous
system, heart disease/disorder, pacemaker,
recent scar tissue, undiagnosed lumps
and swellings, medication causing thinning
or inflammation of the skin (steroids,
accutane, retinols), recent dermabrasion,
diabetes, epiliepsy, high/low blood



                                                                            UV40463         11
     Outcome 4: Understand how beauty therapy treatments and products may
     delay the ageing process

     Skin effects: Hydration, moisturising          Evaluate the effectiveness of beauty
     effects, exfoliation, cell regeneration,       therapy treatments: Consultation, client
     collagen promotion, nutrients, cell            requirements, desired results, before and
     metabolism, fine lines and wrinkles,           after photographs, course of treatments,
     desquamation, acid mantle.                     treatment plans, home care products, client
                                                    satisfaction, record keeping.
     Pentapeptides: Increase collagen and
     elastin production in the skin.
     Collagen and elastin: Reduces the
     appearance of fine lines and wrinkles and
     improves elasticity, promotes firmer skin,
     similar to a ‘filler’ effect.
     Fatty acids: Combination of fatty acids
     and synthetic peptides enable deeper
     penetration for collagen stimulation.
     Retinol (Vitamin A compound):
     Anti-oxidant, breaks down free radicals,
     free radicals cause wrinkles.
     Hydroxy acids: Exfoliating effect,
     stimulates growth of smooth evenly
     pigmented new skin.
     Enzymes: Nutrients regulate energy in
     cells, reduces the appearance of fine lines.
     Copper peptides: Enhance wound
     healing, stimulate collagen production.
     Electrotherapy treatments: Improve
     muscle tone, plumping out fine lines and
     wrinkles, promote deeper penetration
     of skincare products, improve lymphatic
     circulation which aids cell metabolism.
     Microdermabrasion: Removal of fine
     surface layer of skin, vacuum suction and
     aluminium oxide crystals, subtle temporary
     results.
     IPL and Laser (non-ablative lasers): Heat
     to the dermis causes new collagen and
     elastin production.


12        UV40463
UV30474
Provide electrical epilation


This unit is about the skills involved in assessing, preparing
for and carrying out electrical needle epilation treatments to
remove hair using alternating current and blend techniques.
You will also need to show you can competently advise
clients on the care needed after electrical epilation.

To carry out this unit you will need to maintain effective
health, safety and hygiene procedures throughout their
work.




UV30474_v12
Level




        3
Credit value




        11
GLH




        88
Observation(s)




        6
External paper(s)




        1
Provide electrical epilation


     Learning outcomes                                  Evidence requirements

On completion of this unit you will:               1.    Environment
                                                         Evidence for this unit must be gathered in a
1.   Be able to prepare for electrical epilation
                                                         real or realistic working environment.
2.   Be able to provide electrical epilation
                                                   2.    Simulation
                                                         Simulation is not allowed in this unit.

                                                   3.    Observation outcomes
                                                         Competent performance of ‘Observation’
                                                         outcomes must be demonstrated to your
                                                         assessor on at least six occasions.

                                                   4.    Range
                                                         All ranges must be practically demonstrated
                                                         or other forms of evidence produced to
                                                         show they have been covered.

                                                   5.    Knowledge outcomes
                                                         There must be evidence that you possess
                                                         all the knowledge and understanding
                                                         listed in the ‘Knowledge’ section of this
                                                         unit. This evidence may include projects,
                                                         assignments, case studies, reflective
                                                         accounts, oral/written questioning and/or
                                                         other forms of evidence.

                                                   6.    Tutor/Assessor guidance
                                                         You will be guided by your tutor/assessor
                                                         on how to achieve learning outcomes and
                                                         ranges in this unit. All outcomes and ranges
                                                         must be achieved.

                                                   7.    External paper
                                                         Knowledge and understanding in this unit
                                                         will be assessed by an external paper.
                                                         The criteria that make up this paper are
                                                         highlighted in white throughout this unit.
                                                         There is one external paper that must be
                                                         achieved.




                                                                                    UV30474             37
       Achieving observations
       and range

       Achieving observation outcomes                     Maximum service times
     Your assessor will observe your performance        There are no maximum service times that apply
     of practical tasks. The minimum number             to this unit.
     of observations required is indicated in the
     evidence requirements section of this unit.

     Criteria may not always naturally occur during
     a practical observation. In such instances you
     will be asked questions to demonstrate your
     competence in this area. Your assessor will
     document the criteria that have been achieved
     through oral questioning.

     Your assessor will sign off an outcome when all
     criteria have been competently achieved in a
     single client service.




       Achieving range
     The range section indicates what must
     be covered. Ranges should be practically
     demonstrated as part of an observation. Where
     this is not possible other forms of evidence may
     be produced. All ranges must be covered.

     Your assessor will document the portfolio
     reference once a range has been competently
     achieved.




38           UV30474
                                                   Observations

  Outcome 1

Be able to prepare for electrical epilation

You can:
a.   Prepare yourself, client and work area for
     electrical epilation treatments
b.   Use suitable consultation techniques to
     identify treatment objectives
c.   Carry out skin and hair analysis
d.   Select products, tools and equipment to
     suit client treatment needs, skin types and
     conditions
e.   Provide clear recommendations to the client




*May be assessed through oral questioning.
Observation                                1           2       3
Date achieved
Criteria questioned orally
Portfolio reference
Assessor initials
Learner signature

Observation                                4           5       6
Date achieved
Criteria questioned orally
Portfolio reference
Assessor initials
Learner signature

                                                           UV30474   39
       Outcome 2

     Be able to provide electrical epilation

     You can:                                             f.   Complete the treatment to the satisfaction
                                                               of the client
     a.   Communicate and behave in a professional
          manner                                          g.   Record and evaluate the results of the
                                                               treatment
     b.   Follow health and safety working practices
     c.   Position yourself and the client correctly
                                                          h.   Provide suitable aftercare advice
          throughout the treatment
     d.   Use products, tools, equipment and
          techniques to suit client treatment needs
     e.   Insert the needle into the hair follicle with
          regard to depth and angle




     *May be assessed through oral questioning.
     Observation                                   1                    2                      3
     Date achieved
     Criteria questioned orally
     Portfolio reference
     Assessor initials
     Learner signature

     Observation                                   4                    5                      6
     Date achieved
     Criteria questioned orally
     Portfolio reference
     Assessor initials
     Learner signature

40            UV30474
                                                                    Range

 *You must practically demonstrate that you have:

Used all consultation techniques                                         Portfolio reference

Questioning

Visual

Reference to client records

Dealt with a minimum of 1 of the necessary actions                       Portfolio reference

Encouraging the client to seek medical advice

Explaining why the treatment cannot be carried out

Modification of treatment

Treated all areas                                                        Portfolio reference

Upper lip

Chin

Bikini line

Eyebrows

Underarms

Neck

Used all the types of needle                                             Portfolio reference

One piece

Two piece

Insulated

Gold



*It is strongly recommended that all range items are practically demonstrated. Where this is not
possible, other forms of evidence may be produced to demonstrate competence.



                                                                                 UV30474           41
       *You must practically demonstrate that you have:

     Dealt with all hair types                                                Portfolio reference

     Fine

     Coarse

     Curly

     Dealt with all skin types and conditions                                 Portfolio reference

     Dry

     Oily

     Sensitive

     Dehydrated

     Mature

     Carried out all electrical epilation treatments                          Portfolio reference

     Alternating currents

     Blend

     Given all the types of advice                                            Portfolio reference

     Avoidance of activities which may cause contra-actions

     Future treatment needs

     Home care

     Dealing with regrowth between treatments


     *It is strongly recommended that all range items are practically demonstrated. Where this is not
     possible, other forms of evidence may be produced to demonstrate competence.




42            UV30474
                                       Developing knowledge


  Achieving knowledge outcomes

You will be guided by your tutor and assessor        Where possible your assessor will integrate
on the evidence that needs to be produced.           knowledge outcomes into practical observations
Your knowledge and understanding will be             through oral questioning.
assessed using the assessment methods listed
below:

    •     Observed work
    •     Witness statements
    •     Audio-visual media
    •     Evidence of prior learning or attainment
    •     Written questions
    •     Oral questions
    •     Assignments
    •     Case studies




  Achieving the external paper

The external paper will test your knowledge of the criteria highlighted in white. A pass mark of
70% must be achieved. Criteria not achieved will be identified to your tutor/assessor. You will then
be orally questioned or asked to produce other forms of evidence as all unit criteria must
be achieved.

Your assessor will complete the table below when the 70% pass mark has been achieved.

 Paper           Date achieved                             Assessor initials

 1 of 1




                                                                                 UV30474               43
     Knowledge

       Outcome 1

     Be able to prepare for electrical epilation
                                                                                 Portfolio reference /
      You can:
                                                                                 Assessor initials*

      f.   Describe the different consultation techniques used to identify
           treatment objectives

      g.   Explain the contra-indications that prevent or restrict electrical
           epilation treatment

      h.   Describe health and safety working practices

      i.   Explain the importance of carrying out detailed hair and skin
           analysis

      j.   Describe how to select products, tools and equipment to suit client
           needs

      k.   Describe the environmental conditions suitable for electrical
           epilation treatments


     * Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

     Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.




44            UV30474
  Outcome 2

Be able to provide electrical epilation
                                                                          Portfolio reference /
 You can:
                                                                          Assessor initials*

 i.   Describe how to select the needle type and size to suit hair and
      skin types

 j.   Describe how to work on different hair growth patterns and
      treatment areas

 k.   Explain the consequences of inaccurate probing

 l.   Explain the principles, uses and benefits of galvanic, short wave
      diathermy and blend

 m. Describe how treatments can be adapted to suit client treatment
      needs, skin, hair types and conditions

 n.   Describe how moisture gradient in the skin affects the electrical
      epilation treatment

 o.   State the contra-actions that may occur during and following
      treatments

 p.   Describe the methods of evaluating the effectiveness of the
      treatment

 q.   Describe the aftercare advice that should be provided

 r.   Describe the suitable methods of dealing with regrowth between
      treatments

 s.   Describe different skin types, conditions, diseases and disorders

 t.   Describe the structure, growth and repair of the skin

 u.   Describe the structure and function of the hair


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.


                                                                                UV30474           45
       Outcome 2 (continued)

     Be able to provide electrical epilation
                                                                                 Portfolio reference /
      You can:
                                                                                 Assessor initials*

      v.   Describe the hair types, growth patterns and causes of hair growth

      w.   Describe the structure and function of the endocrine system and its
           effect on hair growth

      x.   Describe the structure and function of circulatory and lymphatic
           systems


     * Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.

     Requirements highlighted in white are assessed in the external paper.




46            UV30474
    Unit content

This section provides guidance on the recommended knowledge and skills required to enable you
to achieve each of the learning outcomes in this unit. Your tutor/assessor will ensure you have the
opportunity to cover all of the unit content.


  Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for electrical epilation


  Management of health and safety at                  legislation, employer’s liability (compulsory
  work: Cleaning up spillages, report slippery        insurance), fire precautions legislation,
  surfaces, remove/report obstacles, good             first aid at work, health and safety at work,
  all round access to trolleys and equipment,         local government legislation, occupier’s
  sterilise or disinfect tools, equipment             liability, local bye-laws.
  and work surfaces, personal protective
                                                      Regulations: Control of substances
  equipment.
                                                      hazardous to health, management
  Electricity at work: Checking/visual check          of health and safety at work, manual
  of equipment, no trailing wires, portable           handling, personal protective equipment,
  appliance testing.                                  reporting of injuries, diseases and
                                                      dangerous occurrences, workplace (health
  Manual handling: Moving stock, lifting,
                                                      and welfare).
  working heights, unpacking, posture,
  deportment, balance weight, preserve back,          Hazards and risks: A hazard is
  prevent slouching.                                  something that has the potential to cause
                                                      harm. A risk is the likelihood of a hazard
  Towels: Clean for every client, dirty towels
                                                      happening.
  in covered bin.
                                                      Employer responsibility: Current and
  Liability insurance: Employers, public,
                                                      valid liability insurance, display health and
  professional indemnity.
                                                      safety rules (covering staff, employees,
  Reporting of injuries, diseases and                 clients, fire evacuation), provide regular
  dangerous occurrences: Accident book,               training, accurate record keeping,
  reporting diseases, local bye-laws, code of         monitoring.
  conduct, risk assessment.
                                                      Hazards: Something with potential
  Control of substances hazardous to                  to cause harm, requiring immediate
  health regulations: Replace lids, ventilation       legislation, level of responsibility, report,
  for vapour and dust, avoid over exposure to         nominated personnel, duty to recognize/
  chemicals, correct use of chemicals, follow         deal with hazards.
  storage handling use and disposal, correct
                                                      Equipment: Only used for intended
  disposal of contaminated waste, products,
                                                      purpose, safe usage, handling, storage,
  check end date, packaging, store away from
                                                      cleaning, lifting, visual checks, worn,
  heat, damp and direct sunlight, dispose of
                                                      faulty, repairs, maintenance, portable
  contaminated waste in a closed top bin,
                                                      appliance testing, correct disposal of
  relevant manufacturer’s instructions, no
                                                      contaminated waste, records.
  smoking, eating, drinking.
                                                      Security (cash): Staff training, point of
  Health and safety legislation: Data
                                                      sale, regular banking, in transit.
  protection legislation, electricity at work


                                                                                    UV30474           47
     Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for electrical epilation (continued)


     Security (people): Staff, clients, visitors,   exercises, standing posture, even weight
     children, personal belongings, systems         distribution, client comfort, maintain
     (security, emergency evacuation, storage,      modesty, client correctly positioned to get
     client records, business information).         maximum benefit from treatment, ensure
                                                    therapist positioning delivers appropriate
     Risk: Likelihood of a hazard happening,
                                                    techniques, appropriate space between
     risk assessment, determine the level of
                                                    client and therapist, prevent injury, optimum
     risk, preventative measures, reduce a
                                                    results, allow for visual checks.
     potentially harmful situation, judgement
     of salon hazards who, what, level of risk,     Work area: Clean and hygienic, height
     interpret results, conclusions, record         adjustable chair, correct posture, correct
     findings, regular reviews.                     couch height, lighting, ventilation, noise,
                                                    music, temperature, ambience, no trailing
     Reasons for risk assessment: Staff,
                                                    wires, no obstructions, tools and equipment
     visitor, client health and safety, safe
                                                    in a safe working position for therapist.
     environment, minimising hazards and risks,
     requirement of legislation.                    Client preparation: Protect client clothing,
                                                    client comfort, privacy, modesty, client
     Hygiene:
                                                    positioned correctly.
     General – sterilise and sanitise tools,
                                                    Communication:
     disinfect work surfaces, cover cuts and
     abrasions, sanitise therapist hands before     Verbal – speaking manner and tone,
     and after treatments, sanitise with sprays     professional, supportive, respectful,
     and gels, clean towels between clients,        sensitive to client, open questioning related
     dirty towels in covered bin, disposable        to treatment.
     towels, dispense products with a spatula,
                                                    Non-verbal – eye contact, body language,
     pump or spray, disposables used wherever
                                                    listening.
     possible, no smoking, personal hygiene,
     replace loose lids, uncapped bottles and       Record keeping: Accurate appointment
     pots.                                          systems, stationery, loyalty, rewards,
                                                    acknowledgement of occasions,
     Disinfection – heat or chemical methods,
                                                    consultation record keeping,
     bactericides, fungicides, viricides, UV
                                                    contra-indications, signatures, refer to
     cabinet for storage only.
                                                    existing records, information clear and
     Disposal of waste: Single use items,           accurate, logical order, name, address,
     pedal bin with a liner, spillages and unused   contact numbers, age range, reason for
     chemicals, contaminated waste (sharps          treatment, occupation, sport/hobbies,
     box), hazardous waste, environmental           medical history, allergies/hypersensitivity,
     protection.                                    contact lenses, contra-actions,
                                                    contra-indications, skin sensitivity
     Therapist posture and deportment:
                                                    tests, adaptations and modifications,
     Correct posture when sitting, correct
                                                    recommendations, requirement, treatment
     posture when lifting, correct posture
                                                    plan, update record at the end of the
     when carrying, working methods to
                                                    treatment, update at each visit, records
     avoid Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI), hand


48        UV30474
Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for electrical epilation (continued)


maintained electronically, paper records.       Interpret results of skin sensitivity test
                                                (thermal sensitivity test)
Professional appearance: Clean
professional uniform, no jewellery, hair        Positive – red, itchy, irritated, swelling and
neatly tied back fringe secured, closed in      painful).
footwear, make-up (light day make-up),
                                                Negative – no change to skin.
personal hygiene and cleanliness (shower/
bath, cover cuts and abrasions, deodorant       Contra-actions: Erythema, oedema,
or antiperspirant, oral hygiene, clean teeth,   blanching, minor blood spots, rash,
fresh breath), nails (good condition and        bruising, burns, broken/ ingrowing hairs,
maintained), no piercings.                      histamine/allergic reaction.
Professional ethical conduct: Polite,           Response to contra-actions: Discontinue
cheerful and friendly manner (friendly facial   treatment, take remedial action.
expressions, positive attitude, eye contact),
open body language, client relations,
confidentiality, respect for colleagues and
competitors, avoid gossip, take pride in
work, punctuality, employer and client
loyalty.
Example of contra-indications that
may prevent treatment: Haemophilia,
heart disorders, pace-makers, contagious
diseases and disorders, nickel allergy.
Contra-indications that may restrict
treatment: Hepatitis B, HIV, steroid
drugs, endocrine disorders, metal plates
& pins, cardiovascular disorders, loss
of tactile sensation, skin disorders and
diseases, hairy moles, pregnancy, drugs/
alcohol, cuts/abrasions/bruising, emotional
problems, dermagraphic skin condition,
micro-dermabrasion or dermabrasion,
chemical peels, latex allergy (wear
vinyl gloves), certain medications (e.g.
Roacutane, Retin A), breast implants
(under arm), epilepsy, diabetes, psoriasis,
eczema.
Areas contra-indicated to electrolysis:
Nostrils, ears, eyelashes.
Patch test – recommended 24hrs before
treatment.


                                                                             UV30474             49
     Outcome 2: Be able to provide electrical epilation


     Products: Cotton wool, tissues, couch            of application time, needle size, previous
     roll, disposable spatulas, cotton buds,          treatments given, stretch and manipulate
     sanitising solutions, skin cleanser, aftercare   skin during treatment, accurate insertion
     soothing lotion/gel, disposable gloves,          of needle (angle and depth), adaptation
     antiseptic hand cleansing gel, (use of           and modification of treatment if necessary,
     products in compliance with manufacturer’s       removal of hairs without traction,
     instructions)                                    post-treatment cataphoresis.
     Tools – forceps, probe holder, needles           Moisture gradient: Galvanic current only
     (one piece/two piece/stainless steel/            affects the tissue where it encounters
     insulated/gold/various sizes, sharps box.        moisture, galvanic current converts tissue
                                                      moisture and body salts into lye, moisture
     Equipment – diathermy, blend, magnifying
                                                      gradient ensures the largest amount of
     lamp.
                                                      galvanic action is concentrated on the
     Short wave diathermy: Produces intense           moist area of the lower follicle without
     heat at the base of the follicle, high           causing damage to the surface skin.
     oscillations of current cauterises blood flow
                                                      Aftercare: Avoidance of activities which
     to the follicle.
                                                      may cause contra-actions, recommending
     Galvanic epilation: Direct current flows         intervals between electrical epilation
     down the probe into the follicle, current        treatments, no touching the area, no
     mixes with natural fluid to form a chemical      wearing face powder, no using any form
     called lye, lye cauterises blood flow to the     of perfumed products, no make-up on the
     follicle.                                        area treated for 24 hours, no sunbathing/
     Blend method: Combines both short                sun beds, no deodorant (under arm only)
     wave diathermy and galvanic and so offers        for 24 hours, avoidance of heat treatments
     a more speedy treatment, beneficial for          of any type for 24 hours, no swimming in
     sensitive skins.                                 chlorinated/salt water, avoidance of fake
                                                      tanning products prior to epilation,
     Needle types: Stainless steel, insulated
     steel, gold, platinum, pre-packed and            Home care: Recommended homecare
     sterilised (gamma irradiation/ethylene oxide     products and skin care regime, the benefits
     gas) in disposable packets.                      of drinking recommended water intake.

     Needle sizes: Two piece and one piece            Causes of hair growth and growth
     needles, 002, 003 (fine hair growth e.g. top     patterns: Hormonal changes, hereditary,
     lip, forearms), 004 (for average hair growth     ethnic characteristics, puberty, pregnancy,
     e.g. chin, bikini area), 005 (for coarse body    menopause, glandular changes, topical
     hair e.g. bikini line), 006 (for very coarse     changes (e.g. tweezing, waxing or
     body hair), match needle size to hair            steroid creams), environmental changes,
     diameter.                                        emotional changes, surgical changes
                                                      (e.g. hysterectomy), Iatrogenic hirsutism,
     Factors that influence current intensity:        chemotherapy, antibiotics, contraceptive
     Pain threshold, skin type/sensitivity, hair      pill, HRT, anti-depressants.
     type/texture, area to be treated, length



50        UV30474
Outcome 2: Be able to provide electrical epilation (continued)


Growth patterns: Hypertrichosis (causes             Skin:
– genetic, ethnic factors, follicle sensitivity).
                                                    Epidermis – stratum germinativum,
Endocrine causes of hirsutism:                      stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum,
pituitary tumour, adrenal tumour, adrenal           stratum lucidum, stratum corneum.
hyperplasia, ovarian tumour, polycystic
                                                    Dermis – blood/lymph supply, papillary
ovaries.
                                                    layer, reticular layer, collagen, elastin,
Probing Faults: Indentations (pitting),             macrophages, adipocytes, mast cells,
tissue damage, black or blue marks                  fibroblasts, hair, dermal papilla, sebaceous
(bruising) blanching, hyper-pigmentation,           glands and sebum, arrector pili muscle,
hypo-pigmentation, raised lumps, using              sweat glands (eccrine and apocrine),
bent or blunt probes, insufficient current          sensory nerve endings.
strength, inaccurate needle insertion,
                                                    Hypodermis – subcutaneous layer,
operating too quickly, using faulty
                                                    adipose tissue, adipocytes.
equipment.
                                                    Functions of the skin – secretion,
Skin types: Normal, oily, dry.
                                                    heat regulation, absorption, protection,
Skin conditions: Mature, sensitive,                 elimination, sensation, vitamin D
dehydrated, congested.                              production, melanin production, understand
                                                    the process of keratinisation.
Skin characteristics:
                                                    Hair structure: Arrector pili muscle, hair
Sensitive – often pale skins, dry, colour
                                                    follicle, inner root sheath (Henle’s layer,
easily, redness, react to products.
                                                    Huxley’s layer, cuticle layer), outer root
Dehydrated – normal sebaceous                       sheath, vitreous membrane, connective
secretions but still flaky, tight.                  tissue sheath, root (bulb/matrix, dermal
Mature – loss of elasticity, loose muscle           papilla), sebaceous gland, shaft (medulla,
tone, wrinkles.                                     cortex, cuticle).

Normal – fine texture, no visible pores,            Hair growth cycle – anagen, catagen,
smooth, supple, flexible.                           telogen.

Oily – shiny, slight thickening, sallow,            Hair functions – insulation and protection.
coarse texture, enlarged pores, congestion,         Examples of skin diseases and
comedones.                                          disorders:
Combination – combination of two or more            Congenital – eczema, psoriasis.
skin types, usually oily T zone, normal or
                                                    Bacterial – acne vulgaris, acne rosacea,
dry on cheeks.
                                                    folliculitis, boils (furuncles), impetigo.
Dry – lacks moisture, dry to touch,
                                                    Viral – warts, verruca, herpes simplex
flakiness, fine texture, thin, tight, small
                                                    (HSV), herpes zoster.
pores, broken capillaries, ageing.
                                                    Fungal – tinea (pedis, corporis, ungium).
                                                    Infestations – scabies, pediculosis


                                                                                UV30474            51
     Outcome 2: Be able to provide electrical epilation (continued)


     (capitas, pubis).                             Hormones produced by the
                                                   adrenal cortex: Andrenocortical,
     Pigmentation – vitiligo, albinism,
                                                   adrenocorticotrophic (steroid hormones),
     chloasma, ephelides, lentigo, papilloma,
                                                   mineral corticoids, glucocorticoids,
     naevae, port/wine stains.
                                                   gonadotropic.
     Others – basal cell carcinoma, squamous
                                                   The gonads (sex glands): Ovaries
     cell carcinoma, malignant melanomas.
                                                   (oestrogen, progesterone), testes
     Examples of diseases and disorders of         (testosterone).
     the hair: Hypertrichosis (excessive hair
                                                   Heart Structure: Heart wall (endocardium,
     growth), public lice, body lice.
                                                   myocardium, pericardium), aorta, atria,
     Structure and function of the endocrine       bicuspid (mitral) valve, chordae tendineae,
     system: Responsible for the secretion         inferior and superior vena cava, papillary
     of hormones, pituitary gland, pineal          muscles, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein,
     gland, gonads (the sex glands), adrenal       semilunar valves (aortic & pulmonary),
     glands, thyroid gland, para-thyroid glands,   septum, tricuspid valve, ventricles.
     pancreas gland, thymus gland.
                                                   Functions of cardiovascular system:
     Other glands: Sweat or sudordiferous          Transport, defence, clotting, regulation and
     glands, cerominous or wax producing           homeostasis.
     glands, pancreas.
                                                   Blood vessels: Arteries, arterioles, veins,
     Hormones secreted by the anterior             venules, capillaries.
     pituitary: Somatotrphin (Growth
                                                   Circuits: Pulmonary circulation, portal
     Hormone), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
                                                   circulation, coronary circulation, systemic
     (TSH), Adreno-cortico Tropic Hormone
                                                   circulation.
     (ACTH), Gonadotropic Hormone (GTH),
     Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH),           Major arteries of the head & neck:
     Luteinising Hormone (LH), Prolactin.          Carotid, facial, occipital, temporal.
     Hormones secreted by the posterior            Major veins of the head & neck: Jugular,
     lobe: Vasopressin (anti-diuretic hormone      occipital, temporal, maxillary, facial.
     ADH), Oxytocin.
                                                   Major arteries of the body: Aorta,
     Hormones secreted by the thyroid              descending aorta, subclavian, carotid,
     gland: Thyroxine and Triidothyronine,         pulmonary, hepatic, splenic, renal,
     Calcitonin.                                   mesenteric, iliac, vertebral, axillary,
                                                   brachial, ulnar, radial, palmar arch, femoral,
     Hormones secreted by the parathyroid
                                                   popliteal, anterior tibial, plantar arch.
     glands: Parathormone.
                                                   Major veins of the body: Vena cava
     Hormones secreted by the pancreas:
                                                   (inferior & superior), pulmonary, hepatic,
     Insulin, glucagons.
                                                   splenic, renal, iliac, axillary, brachial,
     Hormones produced by the adrenal              basilic, cephalic, subclavian, saphenous
     medulla: Adrenalin, noradrenalin.             (long & short), venous arch, femoral,
                                                   popliteal, posterior tibial, anterior tibial.


52        UV30474
Outcome 2: Be able to provide electrical epilation (continued)


Composition of blood: Plasma,
leucocytes (granulocytes & agranulocytes),
erythrocytes, thrombocytes.
Functions of the lymphatic system:
Subsidiary circulation (lymph formation),
immunity, return of lost plasma proteins to
the blood, transport dietary lipids.
Lymphatic components: Lymph, lymph
capillaries, lymphatic vessels, lymph
nodes, lymphatic trunks, lymphatic ducts
(thoracic & right lymphatic duct), subclavian
veins.
Lymphatic nodes: Location of axillary,
cervical (superficial & deep), inguinal,
intestinal, occipital, popliteal, post-auricular,
pre-auricular (parotid), supratrochlear.
Other lymphoid tissue: Appendix, peyers
patches, spleen, tonsils, thymus.




                                                                 UV30474   53
                                     Notes
         Use this area for making notes and drawing diagrams




54   UV30474

								
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