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Big Ideas

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 35

									Moving Toward Small Group/
  Targeted and Individual
 Supports: Building Efficient
   and Effective Systems

  Janice Morris and Barbara Mitchell
       Columbia Public Schools
                                            Tertiary Prevention:
  CONTINUUM OF                                  Specialized
   SCHOOL-WIDE                                 Individualized
 INSTRUCTIONAL &                           Systems for Students
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR           ~5%           with High-Risk Behavior
     SUPPORT
                                          Secondary Prevention:
                            ~15%
                                            Specialized Group
                                          Systems for Students
                                          with At-Risk Behavior
 Primary Prevention:
 School-/Classroom-
  Wide Systems for
    All Students,
  Staff, & Settings




                       ~80% of Students
           What Do We Know?
1. Understand interaction between behavior and the
   teaching environment
      Behavior is functionally related to the
         teaching environment

2. Provide supports to Teach pro-social
   “replacement” behaviors
      Small group or targeted to function


3. Create environments to support the use of
   appropriate behaviors
      Practice and acknowledge success
                  Social Competence &
Positive         Academic Achievement
Behavior
Support             OUTCOMES


                                        Supporting
 Supporting
                                         Decision
Staff Behavior
                                         Making


                    PRACTICES



                     Supporting
                  Student Behavior
Research Findings on “Scaling Up”
       (Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005, p. 70)



• Best evidence documents what doesn’t
  work:
  – Information dissemination alone
  – Training by itself
 Research Findings on “Scaling Up”
        (Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005, p. 70)


• What works
  – Long term, multi-level approaches
  – Skills-based training
  – Practice-based coaching
  – Practioner performance-feedback
  – Program evaluation
  – Facilitative administrative practices
  – Methods for systems intervention
Applied Work in Progress

    Gentry Middle School
         Background and Context

• PBS in Columbia Public Schools
  –   18 elementary buildings
  –   3 middle schools
  –   3 junior highs
  –   3 high school programs
  –   17,000 students
           Gentry Middle School

• Three core teams per grade level
    – Five general education teachers
    – One special education /One paraprofessional
•   Elective team
•   Literacy support center
•   Self-contained/Special education
•   Administrative team
                PBS at Gentry
                     Year 1-2
• Universal Features
  –   Administrative and faculty buy in
  –   Building wide expectations (RRKS)
  –   PBS team
  –   Matrix
                PBS at Gentry
                     Year 3-4
• Universal Features
  –   Lesson plans
  –   Redesign office referral
  –   Track discipline data
  –   System for acknowledging (RRKS Ribbon)
  –   Team process revisited
                PBS at Gentry
                      Year 5-6
• Universal Features
  –   Revisit matrix
  –   Lesson plans and teaching schedule
  –   Behavioral expectations posted
  –   RRKS Ribbon data collection
  –   Assign sub-committee work
                                              Number of Referrals
                      158




160



140



120



100



80

                                       42
60

                                                       22                                          19
40                                                                       14           12



20



 0
      1-3 referrals    4-6 referrals   7-9 referrals   10-15 referrals        16-20        20-45
              The Saga Begins

• Student Assistance Team (SAT)
  –   Administrator
  –   School psychologist
  –   Counselors
  –   Team teacher
  –   Behavior specialist
• Goal = Individual supports
            Painful Lessons…

• Year 1: Floundering, Flailing and Failing
  – Inadequate universal supports
  – Targeted interventions not systematic or data-
    based
  – Individual plans overwhelming and ineffective
             Initial Outcomes

• Multiple changes in individual plans
• Ineffective supports for teachers and
  students
• Loss of time
• Increased number of referrals
• Diminished credibility
           The Saga Continues

• Year 2: Reinforcements Arrive
  – Outside expertise
  – Administrative supports
     • Money
     • Meetings
     • Melee
                Building Systems

•    How to get there
    1.   Develop method for communication
    2.   Provide tools for decision making
    3.   Design process for accessing support
    4.   Plan for maintaining and sustaining
Communicating Practice

    SAT-STAT-RRKS
                             Method for Communicating Practice
         SAT Process
         Teacher Assistance and                 SAT
         Support                               Team
         Targeted Interventions             Administrator
         Individual Student Plans            Counselor
                                          Behavior Specialist

   Core Team/Classrooms                      STAT Team
   Implement AIS                      Core Team Representative
   Monitor Progress                         SAT Partner
   Refer to SAT                         Core Team Teachers

                                           *Meets Weekly

School-Wide Systems                       RRKS Team
Matrix
Lesson Plans                        Core Team Representative
School-Wide Data                      District PBS Support
Acknowledgement
                                    Building Administrator and
Communication
                                            Counselors

                                         *Meets Monthly
        Skills-Based Assistance
• Assistance Model
  – SAT members with behavior specialist
     • Behavior basics and management
     • SAT process
     • Function-linked strategies
  – SAT members with STAT team representative
  – SAT and STAT with core team teachers
    Ongoing Intensive Support
• Weekly, skills-based, with feedback
• Periodic, intensive, with follow-up
• Example: 2007-08 Sessions
     •   Classroom/team universals
     •   AIS process
     •   Follow-up AIS
     •   Peer observations
     •   Feedback and systems maintenance
Decision Making Tools

    Pyramid to Success
          RRKS TOC
 AIS guide (Alternative Intervention
            Strategies)
                             Pyramid to Success for All
                                              Office Issues
                     Bus referrals, Truancy, Chronic offender, Threatening student or adult,
                  Fighting, Refusal to go to or Disruptive in Buddy Room, Sexual harassment,
                    Weapons, Drug/cigarettes/ tobacco/alcohol, Assault – physical or verbal
                       Teacher Method for handling student behaviors
                             Referral Form – send student to office with completed form
                Process with student before re-entry
                        Office Method for handling student behaviors
                                 Proactive: RRKS Review, Parent Contact
                    Corrective: Loss of Privilege, Saturday detention, Opportunity Center,
                                               Suspension, etc.



                                              Team Issues
 Repeated minor & major disruptions in multiple classrooms, Throwing things, Hallway/Lockers problems,
Attendance, Repeated disrespect to peers or adults, Cheating, Inappropriate to substitute, Insubordination,
                                          Chronic Disruptions
                             Method for handling student behaviors
Proactive: Parent contact (mandatory), RRKS review, Team conference, Team conference with student,
 Team conference with Parents, Team conference with Administrator/Counselor, Triage in the AM with the
                       student, Triage at lunch with the student, Team Focus, etc.
           Corrective: Removal of privilege on team, Recovery Study Hall, Buddy Room, etc.


                                      Classroom Teacher Issues
  Out of seat, Talking to classmates, Talking out, Off-task, Violation of class rules, Inappropriate language,
            Lack of materials, Gum, Disrespect, Cheating, Tardies, Minor destruction of property
                              Method for handling student behaviors
   Proactive: Positive call to parents, Use praise, Use Rewards, Daily/Weekly Goal sheets, Proximity to
 instructor, Provide choices, One-to-One assistance, Pre-correct for transitions/trouble situations, Regular
               breaks for exercise, Give a job, RRKS Review, Reward lunch with teacher, etc.
 Corrective: One and only one REDIRECT, RRKS Review, Safe-seat, Buddy Room, Think Sheet, Parent
         Phone call, Lunch Detention, Recovery Study Hall, Removal of privilege in classroom, etc.
                    RRKS TOC               (front side)




RRKS – Time Out of Class              Code: _____

Student: _________________________ Date:______________________

Incident Time: ____________________# of min. out of rm.: __________

Teacher: _______________________Subject: ____________________

What did you do/not do that got you sent out of class?
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Circle the RRKS expectation that was not followed:
  Respect Responsible Kind Safe

What will you do differently next
time?______________________________________
                                   RRKS TOC                          (back side)




  Processing Checklist:                                      Whole group instruction
  Processing data & time:
                                                             Small group instruction
  • Review with the student reason he/she
  was sent out.
                                                             Individual work

  • Teach & practice replacement behavior.
                                                             Working with peers
  • Provide positive reinforcement for
  replacement behavior.                                      Alone


  • Check the setting in which the behavior                  1-on-1 instruction
  occurred.
                                                             Interacting with peers

                                                             Other: Please identify below
Minor List: Circle the appropriate code
 (MDD)                               (MDS)         (MI)
 Defiance/Disrespect/Non-            Disruption    Inappropriate Verbal
 compliance                                        Language
 ( MO) Other                         (MPC) Phys.   (MP) Property Misuse
                                     Contact
                                               Gentry FBA Matrix
 Problem Behavior             Function            Replacement                 Intervention                   Outcome for Replacement
                                                    Behavior                                                         Behavior
Off-task, Non-          Peer Attention        On-task, work            RRKS lesson Š Ņon    -taskÓ     Earn time with peers for meeting
disruptive                                    completion               Pre-correct @ start of class    self-management goals
                                                                       Self -monitor: on-task
                                                                       Periodic praise by teacher
                                                                        for on-task
                                                                       Quick de-brief at end of
                                                                        class on self -monitoring
Off-task, Disruptive    Peer Attention        On-task, respectful       RRKS lesson Š Ņon    -taskÓ    Earn time with peers for meeting
                                              responses, work           RRKS lesson Š Ņ   conflict     self-management goals
                                              completion                 manag ement/res pectÓ
                                                                        Pre-correct @ start of class
                                                                        Self -monitor: on-task &
                                                                         RRKS
                                                                        Periodic praise by teacher
                                                                         for on-task
                                                                        Quick de-brief at end of
                                                                         class on self -monitoring
Off-task, Non-          Escape (avoids        On-task, work            RRKS lesson Š Ņon    -taskÓ     Earn a Ōskipa homeworkÕpass
disruptive, work        teacher and peers     completion               Pre-correct @ start of class
completion              during instruction)                            Self -monitor: on-task +        Earn other preferred activity for
                                                                        work completion                 meeting sel f-manag ement and work
                                                                       Quick de-brief at end of        completion goals
                                                                        class on self -monitoring
Off-task, Non-          Attention (responds to On-task, work           RRKS lesson Š Ņon    -taskÓ     Earn Ņ work with peerÓactivity
                                                                                                              a
disruptive, work        teacher directions,    completion              Pre-correct @ start of class
completion              engages p eers)                                Self -monitor: on-task +        Earn other preferred activity for
                                                                        work completion                 meeting sel f-manag ement and work
                                                                       Periodic praise by teacher      completion goals
                                                                        for on-task +work
                                                                        completion
                                                                       Quick de-brief at end of
                                                                        class on self -monitoring
Off-task, Disruptive,   Escape                On-task, respectful       RRKS lesson Š Ņon    -taskÓ    Earn a Ōskipa homeworkÕpass

                                                                                                                                Lewis, 2008
Process for Accessing Support

      AIS - SAT Flowchart
Plan for Maintaining and Sustaining

       Administrative Perspective
       Work Smarter Not Harder

• Restructure resources

• Realign responsibilities

• Revise routines

• Review results
              Build Buy-In
• Same things we do for students
   – Teach expected behavior
   – Reinforce reasonable approximation
   – Acknowledge success
           A Happy Ending…

• Outcomes to Date
  – Increased implementation of universals
  – Paradigm shift
  – Building infra-structure to sustain small group/
    targeted and individual supports
          Pulling It All Together
• Success in building sustained systems
   – Long-term, multi-level approach
   – Skills-based training
   – Practice-based coaching
   – Practitioner performance-feedback
   – Program evaluation
   – Facilitative administrative practices
   – Methods for systems intervention

								
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