Introduction to Computers and Programming by ewghwehws

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									Introduction to
Computers and
Programming
What are humankind’s
greatest inventions?
What are humankind’s
greatest inventions?
 Wheel?
 Fire?
 Cotton gin?
 Light bulb?
 Disneyland?
 Microscope?
 Television?
What are humankind’s
greatest inventions?
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
What are humankind’s
greatest inventions?
1. Language (first spoken, then written)
2. Mathematics
3. Computer
The invention of the computer
The invention of the computer

 1945 – Eckert & Mauchly built ENIAC
  (Electronic Numerical Integrator &
  Calculator) at Penn
 1951 – E&M built UNIVAC I for
  Remington-Rand
     which became Sperry
        which   merged with Burroughs
             which became Unisys
 1953 – IBM entered the market
The invention of the computer

 PCs
     Altair
     Imsai
     Apple, Atari, Commodore (in West
      Chester, PA), Sinclair
     Finally IBM PC (w/out windows & mouse)
     Mac (w/ windows & mouse)
The invention of the computer

 Paralled developments in electronics
     50’s – vacuum tubes
     60’s – transistors
     70’s – ICs (integrated circuit)
     >= 80’s – VLSI (very large scale
      integration)
 In 1988, President Ronald Regan visited
  the Great Valley corporate center and
  called it “the Silicon Valley of the East.”
      What is a computer?


   INPUT        PROCESSING    OUTPUT
(information)                (information)

                 MEMORY
The components of a
computer
 Monitor (CRT or LCD)
 Chassis
 Mouse
 Keyboard
 Printer
 Speakers
 Network connection
 Memory
 CPU
The components of a
computer
 Chassis
   Outside
        Many  connectors for peripherals
        Drives (floppy, CD, DVD, etc.)

     Inside
        Power supply
        Motherboard
              CPU, RAM, ROM
              Expansion slots
        Drives   (hard, etc.)
Types of computers

 Super (fast, expensive)
 Mainframe
 Mini
 Personal (micro)
 Laptop
 Palm (hand)
 Embedded (slow, cheap)
Number of processors (cores)

 1 – uni
 2 – dual
 4 – quad
…
 Multi/parallel
Hierarchy of memory

 Registers (fast, electronic, expensive,
  few; bytes to K bytes)
 Cache (K to M bytes)
 RAM & ROM (M to few G bytes)
 Drives (slow, electro-mechanical, cheap,
  vast; M to T bytes)
CPU = central processing unit

 Not just Intel!
       AMD, Analog, ARM, IBM, Microchip,
        nVidia, TI, VIA, Xilinx, …


 Parts:
   1.    storage
   2.    ALU (arithmetic logic unit)
   3.    control
Types of storage:

1. Input
2. Program
3. Working
4. Output
Bits & bytes

 Bit = 0 or 1 (contraction for ?)
 Nibble = 4 bits
 Byte = 8 bits
 K bytes = 210 = 1024 ~= 1000 bytes
 M bytes
 G bytes
 T bytes
 P bytes
 X bytes (exabyte)
 Z bytes (zettabyte)
 Y bytes (yottabyte)
Bits & bytes
 Some interesting facts about what these various-sized
  bytes can store:
    1 bit: a binary decision

    1 byte: a character

    5 megabytes: the complete works of Shakespeare

    2 gigabytes: 20 meters of shelved books

    10 terabytes: the printed collection of the US Library
     of Congress
    200 petabytes: all printed material

    5 exabytes: all words ever spoken by human beings


          from http://th.atguy.com/techCorner/powers.shtml
Bits & bytes

 What comes after a yottabyte?
     xonabyte then
        wekabyte   then
             vundabyte then what happens?
Bits & bytes

 What comes after a yottabyte?
     xonabyte then
        wekabyte   then
             vundabyte then what happens?
                 rabies vaccination?

                 lottabytes?
Base 2 vs. base 10

 Why base 2? Why base 10?


 Numbers in base 10
     908110 = 9x103 + 0x102 + 8x101 + 1x100

     10112 = ? in base 10
So do we humans always use
base 10?
So do we humans always use
base 10?
 How about time?
So do we humans always use
base 10?
 How about time?
     “Sexagesimal (base 60) is a numeral
      system with sixty as its base. It
      originated with the ancient Sumerians in
      the 3rd millennium BC, it was passed
      down to the ancient Babylonians, and it
      is still used — in a modified form — for
      measuring time, angles, and the
      geographic coordinates that are angles.”

        from   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexagesimal
So do we humans always use
base 10?
 How about time?
     “The number 60, a highly composite number, has twelve
      factors, namely { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30, 60 } of
      which two, three, and five are prime numbers. With so
      many factors, many fractions involving sexagesimal
      numbers are simplified. For example, one hour can be
      divided evenly into sections of 30 minutes, 20 minutes,
      15 minutes, 12 minutes, 10 minutes, 6 minutes, 5
      minutes, etc. Sixty is the smallest number that is divisible
      by every number from one to six. This is because 60 = 1
      × 60 = 4 × 3 × 5 = 2 × 6 × 5.”
          from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexagesimal
So do we humans always use
base 10?
 How about metric or
  decimal time?
 It’s already been done!
    See
      http://en.wikipedia.org/
      wiki/Decimal_time and
      http://en.wikipedia.org/
      wiki/Metric_time.

								
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