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Haig Interpretation ppt.. - Wikispaces

VIEWS: 43 PAGES: 13

									 Tuesday 2nd December


What is a Zeitgeist? The mood of
                     the time

 The Zeitgeist is a point of view or set of opinions
   that is held by a lot of people at one time e.g.
        ‘I’m a Celebrity is really interesting!’
  The Zeitgeist can influence people as they start
                  to share this view.
 How Have Changing Zeitgeists
Affected Interpretations of Haig?
Learning Objective

Develop understanding
of how popular
opinions have affected
historical
interpretations.
         Why have attitudes to Haig changed so much over time?
                                                                                              1990s: A campaign is
                                                              1940s: Winston Churchill        launched to get Haig’s
 1916:                                                        praises                         name removed from the
 First day of the      1921: Retires from                                                     centre of the poppies
                       the army after                         Haig for being ‘like a
 Battle of                                                    great surgeon’                  sold to raise money. It is
 the Somme             setting up the                                                         successful. 2005-08: Lack of
                       Royal British    1928: Haig dies.
 60,000 British                         200,000                     1960 & 70s: With the                 clear success in
 Casualties            Legion
                                        soldiers                    rise of CND (Campaign                Iraq &
                                         file past his              for Nuclear                          Afghanistan lead
                                         coffin in respect.         Disarmament) and the                 people to
                                                                    carnage of the Vietnam               question why
                                                                    War, Haig is once again              soldiers lives are
                                                                    seen as a butcher.                   being lost.


1914                                                                        1967: Summer of Love.                     2008
                                                 1950s: Post World War      Hippies promote ideas
                                                 Two, people are more       of peace and equality
                                                 interested in building a   including protests
                                                 new Britain ‘fit for       against the Vietnam
                                                 heroes’.                   War

          1918 Armistice       1927-1933: Owen’s and
                               Sassoon’s War poems are                                        2008: Douglas Haig and the
 1915                          released and the first anti-First                              First World War, published
 Appointed 1930s: Lots of old, World War books are released;                                  today on the 90th
 commander injured soldiers on ‘All Quiet on the Western Front                                anniversary of the
           the streets. High
                               ‘ & ‘Goodbye to All That’ .                                    Armistice. Very critical of
           unemployment.
                                                                                              Haig.
           Self-Assessment
                       • How successfully
                         have you met the
Learning Objective
                         Learning objective?
Develop understanding • Rate yourself red,
of how popular           amber or green.
opinions have affected   Red – Have not met
historical               the L.O
interpretations.       • Amber – think so
                         but not 100% clear
                       • Green – Totally
                         certain!
Blackadder Goes Forth
was written by Richard Curtis
and Ben Elton. Richard
Curtis was a university
student in the mid-1970s and
Ben Elton went to Manchester
University in the late-1970s.

Blackadder was aired from 28
September to 2 November
1989.
The series was set in a trench
during the First World War.
The series was particularly
strong in its criticism of the
British Army leadership during
the campaign, including
Douglas Haig.
1916:                  1928: Haig dies.
First day of the       200,000
Battle of                                                1940s: Winston Churchill            1990s: A campaign is
                       soldiers                          praises                             launched to get Haig’s
the Somme               file past his
60,000 British                                           Haig for being ‘like a              name removed from the
                        coffin in respect.               great surgeon’                      centre of the poppies
Casualties
                                                                                             sold to raise money. It is
                                                                   1960 & 70s: With the      successful.
 1921: Retires from                                                rise of CND (Campaign
 the army after                                                    for Nuclear
 setting up the                                                    Disarmament) and the
 Royal British                                                     carnage of the Vietnam
 Legion                                                            War, Haig is once again      2005-08: Lack of
                                                                   seen as a butcher.           clear success in
                                                                                                Iraq &
                                         1967: Summer of Love.                                  Afghanistan lead
 1918 Armistice                                                                                 people to
                                         Hippies promote ideas
                                         of peace and equality                                  question why
                                         including protests                                     soldiers lives are
                                         against the Vietnam                                    being lost.
 1930s: Lots of old,
 injured soldiers on                     War
 the streets. High
 unemployment.
                                                                         2008: Douglas Haig and the
                         1927-1933: Owen’s and                           First World War, published
                         Sassoon’s War poems are                         today on the 90th
                         released and the first anti-First               anniversary of the
                         World War books are released;                   Armistice. Very critical of
                         ‘All Quiet on the Western Front                 Haig.
                         ‘ & ‘Goodbye to All That’ .
           What happened to this historian’s views?

There has hardly been a finer defensive general… As a great
gentleman, also in the widest sense, and as a pattern of noble
character, Haig will stand out in the Roll of History, chevalier sans peur
et sans reproche, (knight without fear and without reproach )more
spotless by far than most of Britain ’s national heroes.
Basil Liddell Hart, Reputations (1928)



That an officer who had fought so nobly as Lieutenant JA Raws, should, in the last letter before his
death, speak of the “murder” of many of his friends “through incompetence, callousness, and
personal vanity of those in high authority”, is evidence… of something much amiss in the higher
leadership.
Basil Liddell Hart, The Real War (1930, page 263)

Liddell Hart’s opinion of Haig continued to fall until, in a diary entry in 1935, he could write:
He [Haig] was a man of supreme egoism and utter lack of scruple – who, to his over-weaning
ambition, sacrificed hundreds of thousands of men. A man who betrayed even his most devoted
assistants as well as the Government which he served. A man who gained his ends by trickery of a
kind that was not merely immoral but criminal.
Diary note (1935)
         Why have attitudes to Haig changed so much over time?
                                                                                              1990s: A campaign is
                                                              1940s: Winston Churchill        launched to get Haig’s
 1916:                                                        praises                         name removed from the
 First day of the      1921: Retires from                                                     centre of the poppies
                       the army after                         Haig for being ‘like a
 Battle of                                                    great surgeon’                  sold to raise money. It is
 the Somme             setting up the                                                         successful. 2005-08: Lack of
                       Royal British    1928: Haig dies.
 60,000 British                         200,000                     1960 & 70s: With the                 clear success in
 Casualties            Legion
                                        soldiers                    rise of CND (Campaign                Iraq &
                                         file past his              for Nuclear                          Afghanistan lead
                                         coffin in respect.         Disarmament) and the                 people to
                                                                    carnage of the Vietnam               question why
                                                                    War, Haig is once again              soldiers lives are
                                                                    seen as a butcher.                   being lost.


1914                                                                        1967: Summer of Love.                     2008
                                                 1950s: Post World War      Hippies promote ideas
                                                 Two, people are more       of peace and equality
                                                 interested in building a   including protests
                                                 new Britain ‘fit for       against the Vietnam
                                                 heroes’.                   War

          1918 Armistice       1927-1933: Owen’s and
                               Sassoon’s War poems are                                        2008: Douglas Haig and the
 1915                          released and the first anti-First                              First World War, published
 Appointed 1930s: Lots of old, World War books are released;                                  today on the 90th
 commander injured soldiers on ‘All Quiet on the Western Front                                anniversary of the
           the streets. High
                               ‘ & ‘Goodbye to All That’ .                                    Armistice. Very critical of
           unemployment.
                                                                                              Haig.
               You’re the family of an ‘Old
               Soldier’ who                     Your family are from the
                has seen action                 1960s and believe in CND
                in the trenches and lost a      and therefore peace.
               lot of friends in the First
               World War.
                                                          You are a modern military
You’re the family of a
                                                          historian who understands
Second World War Prime
                                                          the difficulties of fighting
Minister. You understand
needed his country to focus
on successful battles in
Britain’s past to encourage
                               Haig!                      wars and how new the
                                                          trenches were in warfare.

people that Britain could                                 You’re from post war family
win the Second World War.                                 who respected the past but
                                                          your tired of war and want
                                                          to look forward to
               You’re grandfather and grandmother         prosperity and peace.
               were writing between the wars as new
               details of the horrors of the front
               become public they began to question
               their own beliefs and the abilities of      Where do you stand and
               the generals during WW1.                    why?
   How to write an interpretation
     answer...Your Statements
• Think of your statement strand: I think
  interpretations have changed over time due
  to..... the media, such as books, films,
  television programmes changed people’s
  views, the view of war changed, other wars or
  current conflicts made people remember,
  important individuals change the publics’
  mind
   How to write an interpretation
      answer...Your Evidence
• Think of your evidence strand: For example....
  You could use the timeline, the source sheets
  or your own knowledge as evidence.
   How to write an interpretation
     answer...Your explanation
• Think of your explanation strand: Therefore
  this would mean interpretations had changed
  over time because...Link this back to your
  statement.
 Some useful resources about Haig



Books on Haig - the Haig Debate
http://www.johndclare.net/wwi3_HaigHistoriography.htm


Haig-Debate
http://www.gwpda.org/comment/haig-debate.html

								
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