Fungi

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					                     Fungi
A mushroom walks into a bar, sits next to a pretty girl.
  Pretty soon, he asks her for a date. She says, “NO
  WAY!” He says, “Why not? I’m a FUN GUY!”
    The Kingdom Fungi
 Heterotrophic absorbers
 Body consists of septate or coenocytic
  hyphae
 Hyphae form mycelium

 Hyphae have walls of chitin

 Only one phylum has flagella

 Some unicellular forms (yeasts)
    Fungal reproduction
 Asexual – may release asexually
  produced spores
 Sexual – may also release sexually
  produced spores
 Most hyphae haploid

 However, two different hyphae may
  fuse, forming heterokaryon.
     Fungal reproduction
   Some septate hyphae may be dikaryotic
   In sexual reproduction, hyphae of opposite
    mating types fuse, plasmogony.
   Eventually, the haploid nuclei fuse,
    karyogony.
   Diploid nucleus divides immediately by
    meiosis, producing haploid spores.
          Fungal Diversity
   Four phyla
    –   Chytridiomycota
    –   Zygomycota
    –   Ascomycota
    –   Basidiomycota
   In addition, there’s the “Deuteromyces” or
    “Fungi Imperfecti”
   Lichens
   Mycorrhizae
        Chytridiomycota
   Flagellated zoospores
   Coenocytic hyphae or unicellular
   Mostly aquatic – among the critters called
    “water molds”
   Cell walls of chitin
   Parasites, saprobes – some feel decline of
    amphibians due to Chytrids
   Some species have alternation of
    generations – one of few groups to do this
Chytridid
         Zygomycota
 Form zygosporangia when hyphae of
  different mating types fuse
 Coenocytic hyphae – septa form when
  opposite mating types grow together,
  but only around gametangia
 Includes many mycorrhizae

 Common bread mold
Rhizopus - Zygomycota
Pilobolus
            Ascomycota
   Forms ascus after opposite mating types
    fuse
   The asci are most often found in special
    macroscopic fruiting bodies called
    ascocarps
    – Open, cup-shaped ascocarp – apothecium
    – Closed, spherical – cleistothecium
    – Flask-shaped with pore - perithecium
   Asexual reproduction by conidia, which are
    formed at the tip of conidiophores
           Ascomycota
 Hyphae have perforated septa
 Diseases
    – Chestnut Blight
    – Dutch Elm Disease
Varieties of Ascomycote fruiting bodies
Developing Asci of Ascomycotes
Apothecium
Mature Asci
Budding Yeast
          Basidiomycota
   Opposite mating types eventually form
    basidium (“club”)
   The basidia are in special fruiting bodies
    called basidiocarps or basidiomata (we call
    ‘em mushrooms)
   May form clamp connections
   Hyphae are septate, with perforations
    – Septal pore is a dolipore with parenthosomes
   Asexual reproduction relatively rare
Fruiting bodies of Basidiomycota
Coprinus
Amantia – Do Not Eat!!!!
Gills of Basidiomycote – where basidia are
Basidia
        Deuteromycetes
 Sexual phase not known, can’t
  accurately place in Fungal Phyla
 Some exhibit parasexuality
    – Plasmogony, karyogony, haploidization.
Aspergillus
Penicillium
Lichens
Mycorhizzae
Mycorhizzae – plant on left doesn’t have ‘em
Stem Rust   Ergot
Antibiotic action of fungi

				
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posted:8/18/2012
language:English
pages:56