Mozambique by keralaguest

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									                  Provision of Technical Assistance Personnel
               What can we learn from promising experiences?

                                  Desk study on Mozambique

                                               Draft

This desk study report aims to be an input into the Inception Report and the preparation of the
case study on Mozambique, as part of the study Provision of Technical Assistance Personnel.
This study will focus on four questions:

        a)   What are the current and likely future demands for TA?
        b)   What modes of TA have worked best and why?
        c)   What are the various options for managing TA?
        d)   What are the implications for development organisations and partners.

Mozambique is foreseen to be one of the cases studied next to Vietnam and the Solomon
Islands.

The desk study should provide essential information on the use of TA personnel in Mozambique,
in particular in development cooperation programmes of Danida, AusAID and BMZ (donors of the
study). Key questions are:

•     an overview as much as possible of TA in the country, with areas of concentration in general
      and specifically for Danida, AusAid and BMZ.
•     an overview of the programmes of the three donors in the countries concerned and the areas
      of concentration, with some suggestions on which sectors we might want to pursue in detail
•     any evaluations done touching on the key sectors
•     any indications of innovative practices going on such as AusAID's facilities in PNG

Based on this information the report should come with some suggestions on which sectors we
might want to pursue in detail.

The Mozambique-case is expected to be a very interesting case as an example of more
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harmonised approaches . Hereunder, we have included information on the so-called Programme
Aid Partners initiative on harmonisation.

The search for innovative practices has been rather disappointing since it only resulted in
information on pooling initiatives. Non-documented evidence of such practices need to come
from the fieldwork.




1
    According to Henrik Nielsen

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Context

Mozambique is a potentially rich country. It is rich in natural resources and its scope for
agricultural productions is very favourable. The country, however, is among the poorest countries
in the world and its need for international support remains great. After a destructive civil war, the
Peace Accord of 1992 and developments in neighbouring countries, created a basis for renewed
development. Danida’s strategy document for cooperation with Mozambique indicates a changing
situation towards the end of 1990s. Besides political and economic stabilisation, conditions for
defining the state’s role and the country’s list of priorities have changed, which makes more
systematic planning possible. Although the capacity of the state apparatus remains weak at
provincial and lower levels, it has been considerably strengthened at the central level.


Harmonisation and PAPs

Donor coordination is an immense task for Mozambique’s resource weak central administration.
All important and major donors and represented in the country, comprising both national and
international NGOs and UN agencies.

Most donors are committed to supporting the Government’s poverty reduction strategy, the
PARPA. Since 2000, one of the most important donor groupings for promoting government
ownership, alignment and harmonisation has been the group of donors providing budget support.
Over the time the group has grown considerably in size and has sought to develop ways of
working that allow it to effectively support GoM’s poverty reduction strategy. In 2003-04 this led
to the development of a new Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for Programme Aid (Direct
Budget Support and Balance of Payment Support). The MoU was signed by 13 bilaterals, the
European Commission and World Bank, known as Programme Aid Partners or PAPs. The MoU
includes a common performance assessment framework (PAF) in which GoM identifies its
priorities and jointly with PAPs assesses performance on an annual basis. Currently the group
includes 18 donors, including Denmark and Germany.

The MoU defines commitments to improving the quality of development cooperation and
provision of Programme Aid, that imply certain changes in the PAP-government relationship. For
donor behaviour, this leads to:
            Need to align with government’s instruments, processes and systems of financial
             management, shifting accountability from donors to the Mozambican citizens through
             the National Assembly
            More strategic, on-going dialogue with GoM on those instruments and systems
            Need to discuss and form a joint view on the range of government policy and
             performance, including sector and cross-cutting issues related work
            Commitment to greater transparency, predictability and harmonisation
            Commitment to reduce administrative burden




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Capacity development and TA

There is an on-going dialogue among the 18 PAPs on how to improve the support to capacity
development contributing to PARPA and budget support management. Scanteam (a Norwegian
firm) is managing a process to identify "lessons learned" and international "good practices" as a
basis for an improved national Capacity Development Programme. One of the conclusions in the
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draft report of February 2006 is that different aid modalities (budget support, SWAPs, projects)
result in different CD approaches. CD instruments (training, TA, Twinning etc.) are often donor
chosen but not coordinated across donors or based on critical assessment of efficiency,
relevance and sustainability. Donor career incentives based on relatively short stays in
Mozambique may contribute to a focus on short-term outputs rather than sustainable CD impact.

On TA this report says: “ TA (and other tools) should be selected on their net contribution to CD,
and the funding should be untied as much as possible. When tied by the funder, TA efficiency is
significantly reduced. Donor-supplied TA often is linked with other donor concerns than just CD
(e.g. desire for information access or resource control). TA is expensive, but can be efficient if the
local beneficiary has own capacity to define the needs and manage the TA in the context of a
longer-term CD vision. In many other cases TA becomes gap-filling….”.




•   an overview as much as possible of TA in the country, with areas of concentration in
    general and specifically for Danida, AusAid and BMZ.

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Danida is the only one of the three donors involved that has a policy paper on TA . This paper
sets out the principles that need to be considered in the design of TA to enhance its effectiveness
but recognises that circumstances can vary considerably between countries, sometimes even
within countries. It stipulates that sensitivity and responsiveness to context are the most important
preconditions for successful TA. Various TA instruments must therefore be in place and used
flexibly to respond to the variety of requirements for capacity development and circumstances.

With the introduction of Poverty Reduction Strategies and sector-wide approaches, Danida
considers pooling of TA as one promising means of coordinating the provision of TA among
donors for the benefit of partners. Where partner capacity to manage external advisers is not yet
fully in place, Danida will promote pooling “in kind” as an intermediate modality. This reflects the
overall policy of Danida to systematically strengthen national ownership through a gradual
handing over of responsibilities, to firmly align TA behind the country’s development goals and to
support the harmonisation of practices and procedures with other International Development
Agencies…

The Danida “Strategy for Development Cooperation between Denmark and Mozambique 2000-
2004” mentions 25 Danida advisers posted on long-term contracts and attached to the various
sector programmes and projects.“ As a consequence of an as yet limited resource base of
qualified Mozambicans, Mozambique will remain heavily dependent on foreign advisers in several
key positions involved in planning and executing development activities. A reduction in the
number of foreign advisers in the short term is thought unlikely. Mozambicans will be employed
on local advisers’ contracts to the extent possible. To ensure adequate planning capacity and to

2
  Scanteam. 2006. Strengthening Capacity Development Support Programmes, Mozambique. Draft Report.
Scanteam. Oslo.
http://www.scanteam.no/reports.html
3
  Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Danida – Final report – Implementing the ‘Technical Assistance in
Danish Bilateral Aid – Policy Paper’ (July 2005). More information on this policy paper and Danida is
included in annex 1.

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promote dialogue on sector-specific issues, it is the intention to post a chief adviser at each of the
ministries relevant to sector programmes …” . Danida emphasises the need to work with local
consultants, and mentions when they were able to do so, like in writing the 2000-2004 strategy.


AusAid: AusAID’s way of working is mostly based on external technical assistance and relies
highly on Australian contractors. Technical cooperation accounted for 46% of total Australian
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ODA in 2003 . AusAid’s shift towards SWAps and its whole-of-government approach have led to
reconsideration of the role of Australian managing contractors. The DAC Peer Review advised in
2004 that the role and significant share of external technical assistance as well as AusAID’s high
reliance on managing contractors should be analysed and it impact assessed against partnership
and ownership principles. The DAC review notes a review of external technical assistance in
PNG which should provide useful information regarding the effective use of this modality in
programme-based approaches.

Currently bilateral cooperation between Australia and Mozambique is being finalised; Australian
contractors are managing current projects until completion. After 2007 assistance will be provided
principally through multilateral organisations, NGOs and scholarships. AusAID will look for
organisations with a record of strong performance in Africa. If other bilateral donors are
supporting initiatives in areas that are in accord with Australia’s objectives, and if they have
advantages of scale and it is beneficial and efficient, then AusAID will seek to invest in such
initiatives under a delegated cooperation agreement.


BMZ/GTZ: In the German development system, a distinction is made between technical
cooperation and financial cooperation. This distinction is reflected in the institutional set-up and
the existence of two separate principal implementing agencies (GTZ and KfW), with distinctive
but sometimes overlapping mandates. Germany and by extension GTZ views technical
cooperation in a specific contractual way. GTZ does not see itself as providing technical
assistance to a partner organisation for its perusal, but supports capacity development projects of
its partners, with whom it shares responsibility for the results. The German contribution to a
partner project usually consists of a package of inputs - including local and expatriate staff, both
short term and long-term, equipment, training, twinning services etc., sometimes also financial
contributions - as well as, in most cases, the advisory work of the project managers, who manage
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the German contribution. The DAC review confirms that over the last decade one has
deliberately shifted away from narrow technical assistance to technical cooperation in support of
capacity development.

Annex 1-3 provide more information on organisation and TA policies of these three donors.


Other donors that are involved in interesting TA initiatives ….




4
    OECD/DAC. 2004. Australia, DAC Peer Review. OECD. Paris
5
    OECD/DAC. 2005. Germany, DAC Peer Review. OECD. Paris

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•   an overview of the programmes of the three donors in the countries concerned and the
    areas of concentration, with some suggestions on which sectors we might want to
    pursue in detail


Sectors of concentration of Germany, Australia and Germany

Sector                                           Donors

Good governance                                  Australia

Agriculture/ Food security                       Australia, Denmark

Education                                        Denmark, Germany

Humanitarian aid                                 Australia

Rural development /decentralisation              Germany

Energy                                           Denmark

Economic reform                                  Germany

Natural resources + environment                  Denmark

Democracy and human rights                       Denmark

Macro-financial support                          Denmark



Danida:

For information on the Danida-Mozambique cooperation (started in 1995) we need to rely largely
on the Strategy 2000-2004, though it has expired. It was decided to synchronize the preparation
of the next strategy to the launch of Mozambique's National Poverty Reduction Strategy II
(PARPA II) covering the period 2006-2011. The Danish Embassy in Maputo was in June
mandated to go ahead with the negotiations of a Joint Assistance Strategy with GoM and 20
other donors.

Danida’s support in implemented through sector programmes. Danida aims to concentrate on a
few sectors thus facilitating more comprehensive engagement, since development assistance is
channelled via the GoM’s own development programmes or is granted in cooperation with the
specific ministry’s strategy. It is mentioned that this is a highly time-consuming and onerous
process. Implementing sector programmes demand both capacity-building and displacing the
highly centralised control mechanisms that characterise Mozambique’s administration.

The Danish-Mozambican cooperation focuses on the sectors
    agricultural,
    education, and
    energy,
   and on cross cutting themes
    democracy & human rights,
    environment and
    gender aspects.




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AusAid: Bilateral projects are phased out through Australian contractors

Australian assistance in Africa is based on Australian national interests and the potential for the
aid program to make a strategic impact where there is a demonstrated commitment to reform
particularly on budgetary and electoral processes. Between 2003 and 2007 bilateral projects will
be phased out. Mozambique is one of the African countries that will receive assistance through
Australian contractors until current projects are completed. After this period assistance will be
provided principally through multilateral organisations, NGOs and scholarships.

AusAID’s Africa programme focuses on
    promoting good governance,
       The policy document concerning Africa (see foot note) points to Australia’s “recognised
       expertise in many areas of governance …. Our assistance in governance will focus
       largely on providing small-scale strategic technical and expert assistance to improve
       economic and financial management and increase public sector effectiveness.”
    health and food security,
    humanitarian needs,
       In addition to the emergency programme through internal organisations, AusAID will
       “continue to support schemes that deploy skilled Australian medical and technical experts
       in relief operations”.
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    “emerging issues of mutual concerns to the governments of Australia and Africa” .


BMZ/GTZ: emphasis on capacity building and technical cooperation

German-Mozambican cooperation began in 1985. The situation then called for a focus on food
security, reconstruction, dealing with the aftermath of the war, and poverty reduction
programmes. The German-Mozambican development cooperation currently concentrates on
three priority areas:

        Education (including vocational training)
        Rural development (especially decentralisation)
        Economic reform and development of the market system (a relevant strategy paper is
         under development and will be adopted shortly)

Together with 17 other donors in the group known as the 18 Programme Aid Partners (PAP) ,
Germany is also providing Mozambique with direct budget support. The aim is to help the country
implement its national poverty reduction strategy.

The websited of BMZ and GTZ do not provide more comprehensive information about the
German-Mozambican cooperation. (Answers from GTZ staff on our questions are still pending).




6
 AusAID. 2006. Australia and Africa. Facing the Challenges as Partners 2003-2007. Commonwealth of Australia.
Canberra.



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       any evaluations done touching on the key sectors

Reviewing the evaluation activities of some of the major donors of Mozambique, including
Denmark, Germany and Australia - resulted in:

AusAID: We found no reference to major evaluations. Mozambique is not a priority partner
country in Africa. E.g. an evaluation of NGO supported projects in 2000 focused on South Africa,
Kenya and Tanzania. AusAID did an assessment of their technical advisory groups in 1998 - in
Cambodia, Vietnam and PBG - , with positive comments on their functioning.

Danida: Danida has focused its evaluations on their environment, agricultural and education
programmes. The conclusions include recommendations to strengthen, particularly, government
institutions, but do not include special reference to the use of TA personnel.

BMZ / GTZ: GTZ has a systematic and comprehensive evaluation system. Considering this and
their long presence in Mozambique there has to be a large number of evaluation reports. The
GTZ evaluation database does not include reports on Mozambique. Also the DAC database has
no GTZ evaluations in Mozambique in its system. BMZ did evaluations on the Civil Peace
Service, education, the Friedrich Ebert Foundation’s programme, democratisation &
decentralisation, and private sector promotion. The findings include remarks on “the need for
expertise from specialists and backstopping by experts” and “dependency on donor support
reduces probability of programme sustainability “, but not reference to TA inputs.


Study on budget support and its findings on TA

Mozambique was one of seven countries selected for a case study as part of a joint evaluation of
budget support by a group of institutes, lead by the University of Birmingham and commissioned
by a consortium of donor agencies – including Australia, Denmark and Germany - and 7 partner
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governments. A brief paragraph on Technical Assistance and Capacity building in this report
reads as follows: “There is little explicit linkage of technical assistance (TA) and capacity-building
programmes to the PGBS programme, although the capacity-building effects of operating through
GOM systems are part of the rationale. However, PGBS donors have supported the more
important initiatives (e.g. SISTAFE - Integrated System for State Financial Management) in
coordinated capacity building in public finance management… “

The chapter on Government capacity and capacity building in this report notes that the figures
provided on Technical Assistance in the report are probably incomplete, which in itself illustrates
the fact that much of this support is uncoordinated or coordinated by sub-pools of donors. Donor
supported technical assistance is mostly targeted at particular departments of Ministries.
Although it would involve a skills development element, most TA is offered on a “gap-filling” basis
where expatriates substitute for the lack of local qualified staff. This ad hoc, gap-filling approach
has been critised by the government and others as a constraint on effective capacity building.

Annex 3e of the report includes an overview of Technical Assistance received by the Ministry of
Planning and Finance between 1995-2004. This overview distinguishes between coordinated and
not coordinated schemes, but does not provide figures. Australia is not mentioned. Denmark is
involved in both types of TA provision. GTZ only provided “not coordinated TA”.
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A World Bank report notes the government’s perception that it gets better value for technical
assistance where government rather than donor agencies contract and manage consultants.

7
  Batley, R. et al. 2006. Mozambique Country Report. Joint Evaluation of General Budget Support 1994-
2004. University of Birmingham. Birmingham.
8
  World Bank. 2005. An independent review of World Bank Support for Capacity Building in Africa: The
case of Mozambique. (6 April 2005) World Bank. Washington D.C.

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•   any indications of innovative practices going on such as AusAID's facilities in PNG

In 1996 PATA (Pooling Arrangement for Technical Assistance) became the first Common Fund in
the health sector. It is managed by the Ministry of Health, administered by the UNDP and funded
by the governments of the Netherlands, Norway and Switzerland. In 2000 the GoM and its
development partners established a Sector Wide Approach to Programming (SWAP) in health.
The Mozambican health SWAP soon became widely cited in international policy circles as
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epitomized all the advantages of working sector wide.

                   10
An ECDPM study done in 2002 sketches a more varied picture of TA pooling arrangements in
Mozambique: The overall picture of TA pooling in Mozambique gained from this study is clearly
varied. Many sectors are experimenting with different approaches to rationalising external
assistance in order to make it more efficient and effective. The results have been mixed. Some
schemes appear to have been more successful than others, but none stands out as an example
of good practice on all counts. The pooling of resources for TA can be used as a ‘stepping stone’
towards more sector coordination among IDAs and governments, particularly in situations where
the environment is too weak to support ambitious SWAps. In none of the schemes in
Mozambique, however, has this potential been fully realised. The costs to stakeholders of setting
up schemes for pooling external resources (including TA) tend to be high. Progress has been
consistently slow across sectors, and in some cases gains have actually been reversed. In many
cases, the results have fallen short of the original objectives and in no instance have expectations
been met in full.




9
 Martinez, J. June 2006. Implementing a sector wide approach in health: the case of Mozambique.
Technical approach paper. HLSP Institute. London
10
   Pavignani, E. and V. Hauck. 2002. Pooling of Technical Assistance in Mozambique: Innovative
Practices and Challenges. ECDPM. Maastricht.



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Bibliography


AusAID. 1998. Assessment of Technical Advisory Groups. Evaluation Report No: 10. April 1998.
AusAID. Canberra

AusAID. 2006. Australia and Africa. Facing the Challenges as Partners 2003-2007.
Commonwealth of Australia. Canberra.

Batley, R. et al. 2006. Mozambique Country Report. Joint Evaluation of General Budget Support
1994-2004. University of Birmingham. Birmingham.

Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Danida. 2000. Strategy for Development Cooperation between
Denmark and Mozambique 2000-2004.

Danish Agency for Development Assistance. 2005. Technical Assistance in Danish Bilateral Aid:
A Policy Paper. Danida. Copenhagen.

Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Danida. 2005. Final report – Implementing the ‘Technical
Assistance in Danish Bilateral Aid – Policy Paper’. Danida. Copenhagen.

Martinez, J. June 2006. Implementing a sector wide approach in health: the case of Mozambique.
Technical approach paper. HLSP Institute. London

Menocal and Mulley. 2006. Learning from Experience? A review of recipient-government efforts
to manage donor relations and improve quality of aid. ODI Working Paper 268. ODI. London.

OECD/DAC. 2003. Denmark. DAC Peer Review. OECD. Paris

OECD/DAC. 2004. Australia, DAC Peer Review. OECD. Paris

OECD/DAC. 2005. Germany, DAC Peer Review. OECD. Paris

OECD/DAC. 2005. Managing Aid. Practices of DAC Member Countries. DAC Guidelines on
Reference Series. OECD. Paris.

Pavignani, E. and V. Hauck. 2002. Pooling of Technical Assistance in Mozambique: Innovative
Practices and Challenges. ECDPM. Maastricht.

Scanteam. 2006. Strengthening Capacity Development Support Programmes, Mozambique. Draft
Report. Scanteam. Oslo.
http://www.scanteam.no/reports.html

World Bank. 2005. An independent review of World Bank Support for Capacity Building in Africa:
The case of Mozambique. (6 April 2005) World Bank. Washington D.C.




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