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                         PROPOSAL FOR GEF FUNDING

                       United Nations Development Programme

Country Name:                       Lebanon

Project title:                      National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment for
                                    Global Environmental Management

GEF Implementing Agency:            UNDP

GEF Operational Focal Point:        Ms Nancy KHOURY, Acting Head of the Public
                                    Relations & External Affairs Department,
                                    Ministry of Environment (MoE) P.O. Box 70-
                                    1091, Antelias, Lebanon. Phone: + 961 4 522
                                    222, fax: +961 4 525080
                                    E-mail: n.khoury@moe.gov.lb

National Executing Agency:          Ministry of Environment (MoE)

Country Eligibility:                Lebanon is fully eligible for GEF assistance

Convention Participation:

Convention Date           of National Focal Point
UNFCCC       1/8/1994     by Ms. Alia KASKAS, Prevention from Technological
             law 359/94      Impacts and Natural Hazards Service, Ministry of
                             Environment (MoE)
                             P.O. Box 70-1091 Antelias, Lebanon. Phone: + 961 4
                             522 222
                             Fax: +961 4 525080
                             E-mail: a.kaskas@moe.gov.lb
UNCBD        1/8/1994     by Ms Lara SAMAHA, The Conservation of Nature
             law 360/94      Service, Ministry of Environment (MoE)
                             P.O. Box 70-1091 Antelias, Lebanon.
                             Phone: + 961 4 522 222
                             Fax: +961 4 525080
                             E-mail: l.samaha@moe.gov.lb
UNCCD        8/12/1995 by Mr. Fadi ASMAR, Head of the Department of
             law 469/95      Rangeland Conservation, Ministry of Agriculture,
                             Phone +961 1 399297
                             Fax +961 1 393860
                             E-mail: fadyasmar@terra.net.lb
Other Conventions
Convention on Wetlands of 23/2/1999 by Ms Lamia CHAMAS, Acting Head of

International Importance, law 23/99          Conservation of Nature Service,
RAMSAR, IRAN                                 Ministry of Environment (MoE)
                                             P.O. Box 70-1091 Antelias, Lebanon.
                                             Phone: + 961 4 522 222
                                             Fax: +961 4 525080
Montreal     Protocol     on    22/7/1993 by Ms Roula EL CHEIKH, Prevention
Substances that Deplete the     law 253/93   from Technological Impacts and
Ozone Layer (as well as the                  Natural Hazards Service, Ministry of
London and Copenhagen                        Environment (MoE)
amendments to this protocol)                 P.O. Box 70-1091 Antelias, Lebanon.
                                             Phone: + 961 4 522 222
                                             Fax: +961 4 525080
Stockholm Convention on         8/8/2002 by Ms. Alia KASKAS, Prevention from
Persistent Organic Pollutants   law 432/2002 Technological Impacts and Natural
                                             Hazards     Service,   Ministry   of
                                             Environment (MoE)
                                             P.O. Box 70-1091 Antelias, Lebanon.
                                             Phone: + 961 4 522 222
                                             Fax: +961 4 525080
                                             E-mail: a.kaskas@moe.gov.lb

GEF Financing:                      US$ 200,000

Government Contribution:            US$ 50,000

Estimated Total Budget:             US$ 250,000

Estimated Starting Date:            April 2003

Duration:                           18 months


ACSAD       Arab Center for the Study of Arid zones and Dry lands
AUB         American University of Beirut
CCEA        Climate Change Enabling Activity
EU          European Union
FFEM        Fonds Francais pour l’Environnement Mondial
FPN         Focal Points Network
GEF         Global Environmental Facility
GHGs        Greenhouse gases
GTZ         German Agency for Technical Collaboration
IPCC        Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change
IUCN        International Union for the Conservation of Nature
MoA         Ministry of Agriculture
MoE         Ministry of Environment
MoFA        Ministry of Foreign Affairs
MoI         Ministry of Interior
MoSA        Ministry of Social Affairs
MSEA        Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs
NAP         National Action Plan
NBSAP       National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan
NC          National Communication
NCCS        National Council for Civil Service
NCSA        National Capacity Self-Assessment
NCSR        National Council for Scientific Research
NEC         National Environmental Council
NEF         National Environmental Fund
NGO         Non Governmental Organization
NR          National Report
NSR         National Shadow Report
PCE         Parliamentary Commission on Environment
PM          Project Manager
POPs        Persistent Organic Pollutants
PRU         Project Resource Unit
PSC         Project Steering Committee
SoER        State of the Environment Report
TOR         Terms of Reference
UNCBD       United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity
UNCCD       United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
UNDP        United Nations Development Program
UNDP/DDC    UNDP / Dryland Development Center
UNEP        United Nations Environmental Program
UNFCCC      United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
WSSD        World Summit on Sustainable Development



1.      Lebanon is a small country of 10,452 km2, situated on the east coast of the
Mediterranean Sea. The coastal parts of the country enjoy a typical Mediterranean
climate, while the inner parts tend towards being semi-arid due to a lower amount of
rainfall. Due to diverse landscape and climate, Lebanon is characterized by a rich
biological diversity with 9,000 documented species living in 5 geo-morpholigical
regions and habitats (4,633 flora and 4,486 fauna).

2.      Between 1975 and 1990, Lebanon suffered a raging civil war, which damaged
severely its productive resources and accumulated major negative impacts on the
environment (forest fires, land abandonment, degradation of terraced land,
overpopulation and privatization of the coast, solid and liquid waste problems,
uncontrolled hunting and fishing, etc.). Since the cessation of the hostilities in 1991,
the country witnessed ambitious reconstruction and rehabilitation plans, the execution
of which entailed excessive public deficits and escalating public debts leading to
stagnation and recession. The Growth Rate index has been stagnant between 0 and 1%
over the past 4 years.

3.      Plans for reconstruction and rehabilitation tackled some key environmental
issues faced by the country, however, these plans failed to address sustainable
development as an instrumental tool to ensuring long-term viability of the plans and
sustenance of the natural resources. Priority in governmental spending was given to
the rehabilitation and upgrading of the basic infrastructure (roads, power plants, water
plants, telecommunications, sewage systems, etc.), however this process was not
coupled with an integrated developmental approach towards the productive sectors
such as industry, agriculture or tourism. Moreover, these plans didn’t achieve a
geographically balanced development process, since most of the projects were
centered around Beirut and its suburbs (the Greater Beirut area).

4.      The official national developmental policy of the country is overseen, planned
and executed through the Council for Development and Reconstruction (CDR), a
public authority established in 1977, replacing the Ministry of Planning, and reporting
directly to the Cabinet of Ministers. In a recent review of its national development
plan “Horizons 2000” which covered the 1991 – 2001 period, the CDR identified for
the 2002 – 2006 period sustainable development as being a key national priority to be
addressed through a comprehensive set of projects totaling over $100m. These
projects include the Community Development Project ($30m), the Rural Development
Project based on the Rural Development Strategy ($30m), and the Economic and
Social Fund for Development ($30m), in addition to several small scale projects
aiming at improving the living conditions and creating business opportunities in
marginalized regions around the Greater Beirut Area and to a lesser extent in the
regions of South.

5.      The Ministry of Environment (MoE) was established in April 1993. Before
that, the environmental policy of the country was usually decided through the
“Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs” (MSEA), which was established in
1981. MSEA dealt with uprising environmental concerns (such as the controversial

toxic wastes issue during mid 80’s), but its mandate didn’t account for well-defined
strategic vision for the management of environmental resources of the country.
Decisions of MSEA were implemented through the different ministries and
governmental agencies, including the Ministry of Interior (MoI), Ministry of
Agriculture (MoA), Ministry of Water and Energy, Ministry of Health, Ministry of
Industry, Ministry of Public Works and Transport, the Higher Council for Urban
Planning, etc. At the international level, all environmental treaties and conventions
were processed through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MoFA) and were submitted
to the Lebanese Parliament for ratification. After establishing the MoE in 1993, the
Ministry became in charge of the general environmental policy of the country,
including mainstreaming the component of sustainable development from an
environmental perspective as well as all international conventions and treaties dealing
with environment.

6.      The MoE went through two sets of reorganization and structural changes in
1997 and 2002. Currently, a draft law concerning the reorganization of MoE and the
specification of its mandate has been developed and submitted to the Parliament for
endorsement through Decree No. 7749, issued by the Council of Ministers in August
2002. The Law sharpens the mission and mandate of the MoE along four general
policy principles: regionally balanced development, protection through prevention,
polluter pays, and integration of environmental policies into other sectoral
developmental policies.

7.      The same law projected establishing regional offices in 6 districts of the
country in addition to the offices in Beirut and Tripoli and the office near the borders
with Syria. This redefinition of MoE’s mandate aims at consolidating it as one of the
key players in the overall planning and execution of a sound sustainable development
policy in the country.

8.       The summer of 2002 witnessed the ratification of the “Code de
L’Environnement” that was in preparation since 1997. The “Code” defines an
institutional setting and a standard for environment-related management issues faced
by the country. It stipulates the issuance of applications decrees in the shorter term,
and requests the establishment of a National Environmental Council (NEC) and a
National Environmental Fund (NEF). The NEC, once established, will undertake a
national advisory and policy-making role in line with the recommendations of the
Ministry of Environment and as derived from the Council of Minister’s decree. The
NEC will pursue the overall coordination of the following general concepts: 1)
oversee an integrated approach for protection and management of natural resources,
including protecting biodiversity and the broader environment from pollution and
man-made hazards, and 2) oversee the establishment and overall administration of the
National Environment Fund. The current project once operational will facilitate tasks
pertaining to the national capacity building aspects of the NEC.

9.       Another important decree that is currently in the process of endorsement is the
government decree on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). This decree sets the
institutional framework for applying EIA principles on development projects that are
either executed by the government, public or private sectors. According to this law,
EIA reports from various sectoral projects will be channeled to MoE for review and a
special unit within the ministry will be created for this purpose.

Global Environmental Context

10.    Soon after the creation of the MoE, the Lebanese Government ratified the
three Global Environmental Conventions. The United Nations Framework Convention
on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the United Nations Convention on Biological
Diversity (UNCBD) were ratified during the same parliamentary session in August
1994 and were hosted in the MoE, while the United Nations Convention to Combat
Desertification (UNCCD) was ratified in December 1995 and hosted in the MoA.


11.   Lebanon was part of the 155 countries that signed the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change convention in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The
convention was ratified by the parliament in August 1994 (law 359/94).

12.     In 1997, with funding from the UNDP/GEF, and under the Climate Change
Enabling Activity (CC-EA); a national committee was established (Annex 2) and a
special unit was instituted within MoE to respond to the convention’s obligations.
With the financial support of UNDP/GEF, the MoE issued the First National
Communication on Climate Change in 1999, drawing on the resources of many
national and international experts, as well as a number of collaborating institutions
(the National Council for Scientific Research (NCSR), the Faculty of Engineering of
AUB, UNEP, etc…). This National Communication provided the first inventory of
GHG emissions, an analysis of policies, programs and measures related to mitigation
of GHG emissions, and an assessment of climate change impacts and vulnerability
using1994 as a baseline year.

13.     The CC-EA project was reactivated in 2001 and further activities were
initiated through a newly acquired UNDP/GEF top-up funding. The top-up aims at
enabling the MoE to further build national capacity to update the GHG inventory,
increase awareness among key stakeholders and community at large, assess
technology needs and modes of technology transfer methodology and build capacities
for participation in systemic observation networks. The Focal Points of five most
concerned ministries and governmental institutions (MoE, MoA, “Electricite du
Liban”, Industrial Research Institute and the Weather Monitoring Service at the Civil
Aviation Directorate) will be trained on all aspects of the project and will serve as a
Focal Points Network (FPN) for the project.

14.    Projects that are currently being implemented within the UNFCCC umbrella,
through UNDP/GEF support, include the “Lebanon Cross-Sectoral Energy Efficiency
and Removal of Barriers to ESO Operations” and “Capacity Building for the
Adoption and Application of Energy Standards for Buildings” with the Ministry of
Energy and Water and the Directorate General of Urban Planning respectively

15.    Parallel decisions were taken and implemented by the MoE related to air
quality and emissions standards. The MoE Decision 52/1 in July 1996 provided
Lebanon’s first comprehensive air and water quality standards. In 1999, the
EU/UNDP “Strengthening the Permitting and Auditing System for Industries”
(SPASI) project assisted the MoE in developing national Standards for Environmental

Quality, which set less stringent and more realistic emission levels compared to
Decision 52/1. These new standards were promulgated by MoE Decision 8/1 in March
2001. The reinforcement of law 341/2001 on air pollution from the transport sector
helped in reducing considerably transport-generated emissions.


16.      Lebanon ratified the UNCBD in August 1994 (law 360/94). In 1996, the MoA
completed the first country study on biological diversity – the most comprehensive to
date - with financial and technical assistance from GEF through UNEP. Nine
biodiversity assessment reports were compiled by 33 scientists and were disseminated
to relevant ministries, government and non-governmental organizations, academic
institutions and donor agencies. The 9,119 species identified by the report are
believed to represent only a representative part of the actual number of species in
Lebanon and hence applied research was deemed necessary.

17.     With the support of UNDP/GEF, the MoE developed in 1998 a National
Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP), which included specific
recommendations to achieve biodiversity conservation and sustainable use goals on
the short, medium and long term. The NBSAP was developed by a team of national
experts under the overall guidance of a multi-sectoral national steering committee.
The same project enabled the MoE to prepare the first National Report on biodiversity
and to submit it to the Conference of Parties of the CBD in November 1998.

18.     Through UNDP/GEF, a top-up fund acquired in April 2002 was initiated at
MoE to carry out additional assessments of capacity building needs in biodiversity
consistent with country priorities for implementing the CBD and the specific
recommendations of the NBSAP. Within the framework of this project, the National
Biodiversity Steering Committee will be officially declared through a governmental
decree, which will include the scope, ToRs as well as the membership representation
of the committee. (Annex 1 – proposed committee)

19.    Between 1992 and 1999, a total of 7 nature reserves covering about 207 km2
or 2% of the Lebanese territory were established. Three of these reserves (Horsh
Ehden, Al Shouf Cedars and Palm Island) were selected in 1997 for a 5-years
demonstration project funded by UNDP/GEF entitled: “Strengthening of national
capacity and grassroots in situ conservation for sustainable biodiversity protection in
Lebanon”. The project was implemented through MoE by three recognized NGOs
(Arz Al-Chouf Cedar Society; Friends of Horsh Ehden Society, and Friends of
Environment). Each one of these active local NGOs managed one of the reserves
given their field presence and mandate of action, under the overall supervision of the
MoE. The project was technically backstopped by IUCN.

20.     Other relevant projects include the Conservation and Sustainable Use of
Dryland Agro-biodiversity in the Near East (Regional project funded by UNDP-GEF).
This project brings together several national, regional and international organizations
(LARI, ICARDA, IPIGRI, ACSAD, etc.) to promote conservation of important wild
relatives and landraces of agricultural species indigenous to Lebanon, Syria, Jordan
and the Palestinian Authority by introducing and testing in-situ and on-farm

mechanisms and techniques for conservation and sustainable use of agrobiodiversity.
The project works closely with farmers and rural community in the surrounding of
eight sites using indigenous knowledge as the base for attaining sustainable use and
conservation objectives. In Lebanon, the project is implemented by LARI in
collaboration with AUB and NCSR in addition to several local and national NGOs.

21.    In line with CBD objectives, the Government of Lebanon is participating in a
regional project (Med-Wet-Coast) involving six countries along the Mediterranean
region. The Lebanese component is funded by Le Fonds Français pour
l’Environnement Mondial (FFEM), and aims at exploring financial repercussions of
conservation management, and developing a viable socio-economic framework for the
management of two nature reserves (Ammiq Estate in the Beqa’a valley and Tyre
Coastal Nature Reserve).

22.     Lebanon participation in the Med-wet-Coast project is fully consistent with the
objectives of the Ramsar convention, which the GoL ratified in 1999 by law 23/99.
Since then, two more Ramsar sites were created in Lebanon: Ras El Chaq’aa in North
Lebanon and the Palm Islands Nature reserve added in 2000 and 2001 respectively.


23.     Lebanon has identified land degradation and loss of green cover as a priority
issue and is mobilizing significant resources to combat it. The Government of
Lebanon ratified the UNCCD in December 1995 (Law 469/95) shortly before the
convention entered into force in 1996. The Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) is the
authority in charge of implementing the UNCCD and has accordingly appointed a
National Focal Point.

24.      In 1997, with UNDP, FAO support, MoA prepared an umbrella project
document aiming at preparation of National Action Plan to combat desertification,
and a multisectoral National Committee was formed. Due to several bureaucratic and
institutional difficulties, the project initiation was delayed until 2002 when the
National Coordination Committee for Combating Desertification was re-activated and
formalized through a presidential decree (in progress). The committee includes
stakeholders from various ministries and other concerned institutions (Annex 3). The
involvement of non-governmental stakeholders such as NGOs and research institutes
will be accounted for at later stages.

25.     During that period (1997-2002), another parallel project entitled “Combating
Desertification in Lebanon” (CoDeL), funded by the German Agency for Technical
Cooperation (GTZ) and co-financed by MoA and ACSAD, started in June 2000. This
project aimed at building institutional capacities, identifying desertification prone
areas using GIS and remote sensing, raising awareness about desertification among
decision makers, the public at large and the communities of the affected areas and
assisting in drafting a NAP for combating desertification in Lebanon. CoDel
presented a first draft of its suggested NAP in July 2002. UNDP Lebanon is trying to
build up on the CoDeL project by undertaking national consultations for the review
and validation of the NAP. This would be supported through the implementation of
pilot and national capacity building activities.

Other Conventions

26.     In addition to the above conventions, The Government of Lebanon signed the
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in May 2001. The
convention was ratified by the Lebanese parliament in August 2002 by law 432/2002
and MoE has appointed a National Focal Point for the Convention. GEF/ UNEP
Chemicals and with a technical assistance from UNDP has granted the MoE a special
fund to start working on a national strategy for updating the inventory of POPs in
Lebanon and to initiate an implementation plan for their gradual phasing out. The
first measures to control the use of persistent pesticides in Lebanon were taken as
early as 1998, when MoA banned the import and sales of 110 pesticides, including
aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and DDT (Decision 94/1 issued on 20/5/1998).

Capacity and Capacity Needs

27.    Capacity is defined as the ability of individuals and organizations to perform
functions effectively, efficiently and sustainably. The overall contexts within which
organizations undertake their functions are also key considerations in capacity

28.      Starting the mid 1990s, Lebanon witnessed a growing interest and cooperation
from international donor agencies in financing environmental capacity building and
institutional strengthening projects. Projects cover a wide range of issues and areas of
intervention, including natural resource management and biodiversity conservation,
climate change and energy efficiency, sustainable agriculture, protection of the Ozone
Layer. The 2002 State of the Environment report (SoER) shows that since 1994, 18
international funding organizations and instruments have sponsored 46 projects
amounting to US$ 30.7 million. Out of these figures, institutional strengthening
received around US$ 3.5 million, Climate Change around US$ 8 million, biodiversity
US$ 5 million and forest conservation US$ 4.6 million. These figures reflect financial
commitments between the various donor agencies and the government of Lebanon,
but do not account for grants secured by environmental NGOs, research institutes,
municipalities and other stakeholders.

29.     Most capacity building initiatives in Lebanon have traditionally focused their
efforts on the individual and institutional levels much more than it has focused on the
whole system and integrated approach. Initial assessment by the respective focal
points of the different conventions revealed critical capacity constraints in certain
technical expertise, project management and availability of technical instruments such
as updated databases, measurement tools and equipped laboratories. Some of the
expertise needed is being acquired through increased exposure to modalities of the
international treaties and instruments, mainly in the fields of combating desertification
and biodiversity management and to a lesser extent with respect to climate change.
Significant efforts are still needed before achieving sufficiency in capacity needs

30.     At the institutional level, MoE through its new reorganization scheme
(suggested in its new law 7742 of August 2002) is undergoing a major restructuring in
order to better respond to global environment obligations and their domestication. The
two global conventions on biodiversity and climate change are instituted within the

Nature Conservation Service, and the Prevention from Hazards of Technology and
Natural Disasters Service respectively in order to achieve a better incorporation of
work. Formal structures to support the Focal Points of the conventions, such as
advisory committees and steering committees are identified and in the process of
formalization. However, these structures require proper mandates and guidelines to
become fully operational.

31.     During the third term of 2002, a special consultancy unit was established
within MoE as part of the environmental component of the EU/ Investment Planning
Program (IPP – Environment). This unit aims at assisting MoE in the planning and
preparation of projects and their follow-up in several areas such as environmental
policy, regulatory and public licensing policy in addition to institutional strengthening
and human development policy. Interaction and coordination among focal points and
experts working on different conventions is highly needed. Institutional setups at the
national level such as the NEC needs institutional mandates and appropriate
mechanisms to incorporate global environmental management into the natural
development process.

32.     UNDP Lebanon, through its Environment Management and Sustainable
Development Program is also supporting the national capacity building process for
better environmental management and planning. This support is provided through the
different programmes and initiatives being implemented at MoE and other line
ministries as well as through the provision of policy advice, updating environmental
legislation, promotion of national capacities through training of stakeholders and the
establishment of integrated systems.

33.     There are few governmental bodies addressing capacity building needs in
Lebanon. One example is the training institute of the National Council for Civil
Service (NCCS), which provides in-service training for governmental staff.
Completing successfully the programs of NCCS is mandatory for in-service
promotion. Another example is the training center of the Ministry of Social Affairs
(MoSA). The center provides continuous training for the social workers and the
different NGOs and associations collaborating with MoSA. Through a support from
UNDP, this center will expand its mandate beyond the social sector to serve any
ministry or NGO in need of its services.

34.     Coordination among these centers is highly needed to avoid duplication of
efforts and to raise awareness among civil servants and the civil society at large. A
key project in this context is the “Implementation of the Institutional Development
Strategy for Lebanon” executed by the Office of the Minister of State for
Administrative Reform (OMSAR) through a support from UNDP and in partnership
with UNESCO and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA).
Through an appropriate institutional development strategy and appropriate resource
mobilization and optimization, the OMSAR project is expected to help orchestrating
the different governmental projects and initiatives.

35.     Other initiatives are also present within the academic sector aiming at
integrating sustainable development perspectives into national research and
development process. Some of these initiatives include the Environment and
Sustainable Development Unit of the American University of Beirut, the Center for

Environmental Research of the Balamand University and the different centers and
specialized units that are being formed within the major universities of the country to
address sustainable human development.

36.     The NGO sector is also significantly contributing in this process, especially
through capacity building experience exchange on the national, regional and
international levels. Several developmental NGOs are involved in the implementation
of capacity building projects at the local level, especially in the fields of resource
conservation and sustainable development. Their hands on experience can be drawn
upon in any future national capacity building initiative.

37.     To a certain extent and as indicated above, the NBSAP, UNFCCC, the draft
NAP and related enabling activities include an embryonic sectoral analysis of capacity
building needs at the individual, institutional and systematic levels. However, little
efforts were made to set priorities and determine synergies and overlays across the
three conventions. More apparently and except for the formulation of certain policy
aspects, the analysis of capacity needs assessment in a systematic approach is lacking
the following dimensions:

            Regulatory dimensions such as norms and standards within which a
             capacity initiative is to function.
            Management dimensions such as design, management, implementation,
             coordination, monitoring and evaluation
            Resource mobilization dimensions, human financial, information, etc…
            Process dimensions, interrelationships, interdependencies and
             interactions in terms of flow of resources and information.


38.    The principal objective of the NCSA process for Lebanon is to identify
capacity constraints facing the implementation of the three UN environmental
conventions and prepare a National Strategy and Action Plan addressing these
constrains, and to determine the necessary mechanisms for overcoming these
constraints at the institutional and functional levels.

39.     The proposed NSCA process will actively explore developing links and
synergies among on-going environmental management and sustainable development
projects and programs in order to optimize coherent outputs pertinent to capacity
development, updating environmental legislation, training and awareness of
stakeholders, and establishment of integrated capacity building systems. The NCSA
process will specifically link with the ongoing GEF projects: a) Assessment of
capacity building needs and country specific priorities in biodiversity, b) Expedited
financing of climate change enabling activities, Phase II, c) Lebanon PA project, d)
the Dryland Agro-biodiversity project, e) Lebanon Cross-Sectoral Energy Efficiency
and Removal of Barriers, f) Capacity building for adoption and application of energy
standards for buildings, as well as with several other non-GEF funded projects (see
Annex 4 for list of environmental funded projects. Foreseen linkages with these
projects would take the form of information exchange, networking, maximum
representation on project coordinating or steering committees, joint planning for

relevant activities, and joint workshops and consultative meetings. It is anticipated
that the NCSA process will enhance the creation of the NEC and the NEF by working
closely with broad set of stakeholders.

40.    The principal outputs of the NCSA process will be:
       A thorough assessment of all previous activities undertaken to implement
         the Global Environmental Conventions (UNFCCC, UNCBD, UNCCD and
         other conventions)
       A description of existing capacities at the national level, and description of
         gaps and constraints preventing further development of these capacities.
       An analysis of constraints faced during the implementation of these
         conventions at individual, institutional and systemic levels, and criteria for
         prioritizing these constraints and a time line to address them.
       An operational strategy/mechanism insuring proper linkages and
         identifying crosscutting issues with related on-going projects and
       A detailed plan of action to meet the prioritized needs in terms of capacity
         building and institutional strengthening.
       An information-sharing and dissemination mechanism to insure a proper
         information-flow and information sharing cycle amongst stakeholders.
       A mechanism for monitoring and evaluation of the whole process, with the
         aim to extending the work sustainably beyond the duration of the NCSA


41.    The following activities will be undertaken by the project:

1- Coordination, NCSA initiation and formulation of the project steering
i)       Consult with MoE (and the NEC once formed), the GEF Focal Point, the Focal
         Points of the 3 Global Conventions and the various key stakeholders on the
         initiation of the NSCA process and the appointment of a National Project
         Manager (PM).
ii)      Establish within the MoE the NSCA implementation unit (recruitment of staff,
         procurement of equipment, logistics, etc.).
iii)     Form the National Steering Committee (NSC) of the project (Chairperson: the
         Minister of Environment or the Director General, Secretary: the PM,
         members: GEF Focal Point, the Focal Points of the 3 conventions, Focal
         Points of other relevant conventions, senior representatives from the MoA,
         UNDP and other concerned institutions including CDR and NCCS. It is worth
         noting that the CDR is the national official counterpart of UNDP in Lebanon,
         and consequently, the role of this institution starts from the conceptualization
         to the implementation and evaluation of any UNDP supported initiative.
iv)      Initiate a process for the inclusion of the Global Environmental Conventions in
         the modus operandi of the NEC (which if created on time, will formally
         participate in the NCSA process)
v)       Identify necessary national expertise in building capacities for global
         environment issues.

vi)    Develop a detailed work plan for the NCSA process and the TOR of the
       expertise involved with the project.
vii)   Undertake one-day project launching in the presence of all relevant
       stakeholders (including the Steering Committee) to present the project process,
       objectives intended outputs – outcomes, and familiarize project team on the
       various tasks and requirements of the NCSA process.

UNDP, MoE and the Project Manager will undertake these activities

2- Stocktaking, gap identification and thematic assessment

i)     Assess all previous activities/actions/projects undertaken to implement the
       Global Environmental Conventions (UNFCCC, CBD, UNCCD) according to
       the list of obligations, and identify stakeholders and their roles in global
       environmental management.
ii)    Assess the institutional and policy frameworks within which the above listed
       activities/actions/projects under the three conventions were operating
iii)   Identify bottlenecks and constraints faced by the implementation process.
iv)    Describe previous capacity development efforts with special emphasis on GEF
       enabling activities.
v)     Construct a thematic organizational chart describing existing project linkages
       and potential partnerships
vi)    Undertake a first national consultation meeting to 1) present the findings of the
       above assessments, 2) discuss the NCSA needs and prospects with all
       concerned stakeholders and 3) capture and incorporate stakeholders input to
       feed next NCSA process activities.

These activities should be overseen by the PM and executed by 3 experts in
Biodiversity, Climate Change and Land Degradation

3- Identify synergies and cross cutting analysis
i)    Cross-compare capacity constraints and opportunities for the 3 thematic areas
      within a global environmental management and sustainable development
ii)   Identify concrete opportunities for action cutting across the 3 thematic areas
      and other relevant conventions at the local and national levels (example:
      drought management approach)
iii)  Establish links with related on-going national projects and local initiatives and
      seek synergies in terms of joint activities and common projects including
      water resource management, Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and bio-
iv)   Establish appropriate communication and reporting mechanisms that can
      harmonize the implementation approach.
v)    Identify appropriate accountability mechanisms for fostering a synergic
      convention implementation at the national level.

These activities should be overseen by the PM and 2 national experts in Capacity
Building and Institutional Strengthening.

4- In depth analysis of capacity constraints

i)     Prepare criteria to select critical and most relevant capacity building priorities
       within the three thematic areas and a cross other areas of relevance to
       environmental conventions, and prepare a brief assessment of proposed

ii)    Conduct a second National Consultation to discuss proposed priorities
       amongst a broad group of stakeholders (government bodies, international
       agencies, national NGO’s, private sector and the research community). At the
       end of the workshop, select priorities for in-depth analysis and discuss these
       with the PSC.

iii)   Based on the discussions held during the national consultation and the
       priorities selected for in depth analysis, the NCSA team will propose an
       optimal methodology for undertaking the in-depth analysis. It is suggested that
       working groups will be established for each priority area. WGs may like to
       design questionnaires, or conduct interviews or field visits, hold roundtable
       discussions, or a combination of all to determine nature and underlying
       causes/barriers of each capacity constraint.

iv)    Based on working group discussion, the team will be able to identify existing
       resources and expertise in capacity building, review existing institutional,
       policy, legislation, and management potential for capacity development at
       national level and as related to global environmental objectives, also identify
       capacity constraints in the context of national and local development priorities.
       Priority actions -constraints would be categorized in line with the above-
       mentioned criteria and as a result of working-group discussion as being at
       either systematic, or institutional or individual level. This process should start
       to reveal the path towards removing barriers to capacity development

These activities should be overseen by the PM and 2 national experts in Capacity
Building and Institutional Strengthening.

5- Prepare NCSA Report

The findings, analysis and conclusions of steps 2,3,4 should be included in a synthesis
report that will allow a clear identification of the priorities and will help in
determining the areas of intervention in the action plan.

This activity should be overseen by the PM and executed by a multi-disciplinary team
of national experts.

6- Prepare draft Strategy and Action Plan

Based on the NCSA Report, a draft strategy and action plan should be prepared
highlighting the necessary activities, potential partnerships, responsibilities of the
different stakeholders as well as the types and the sources of financing of the different
activities proposed and a mechanism for continuous information sharing.

This activity should be executed by the PM and a national expert in capacity building.

7- Hold a 3rd National Consultation to validate and disseminate the Action Plan

A National Consultation should be held to validate and disseminate the findings of the
NCSA. Ideally, the same participants who attended the first and second consultations
should attend this one. Findings and proposed activities will be fine-tuned during this
consultation before being sent to higher environmental and political authorities for
endorsement and execution.

This activity should be coordinated by the PM with presentations by all the experts of
the PIU who have worked on some of the project components.

8- Submission of the NSCA through the MoE to the Council of Minister and to
   the Parliamentary Commission on Environment (PCE).

The final document will be submitted by MoE to the Council of Ministers and to the
PCE for review and adoption. If an additional legislative framework is needed, it
should be proposed by the MoE, reviewed by the PCE and ratified by the Parliament.
It is hoped that at this stage of the process the NEC would have been formed and
would act as consultative body for the different phases of the project.

9- Establish a monitoring and review mechanism for the NCSA

The NCSA execution should be monitored and constantly reviewed by the Ministry of
Environment. Bi-monthly progress reports should be prepared by the PM and
reviewed and adjusted by the NPC.

The identification and implementation of sustainability process should be set and
facilitated by the project including a monitoring process with clear indicators to
measure progress made and detect bottlenecks. The proposed implementation should
account for sources of funding of the different activities proposed through national,
bilateral and multi-lateral sources. The PM should have a key role in the facilitation of
the process.


42.     This project is the first of its kind in Lebanon. It will be nationally
implemented by the Ministry of Environment under the overall political oversight of
the Council of Minister and the PCE, and the overall technical guidance and
administrative backstopping of UNDP-GEF. The MoE will appoint a national focal
point, who will ensure close linkage and mainstreaming of the NCSA outcomes
within the Ministry’s capacity building planning. Close coordination need to be
established with the Ministry of Agriculture (signatory and implementing agency for
the CCD), the Ministry of Energy and Water, and the CDR to ensure an equal
mainstreaming at all levels.

43.     A Project Steering Committee (PSC) will be established (as suggested in point
1.c). The PSC will oversee regular project activities, endorse work plans and TOR and

disseminate outputs to relevant parties. Under the chairmanship of the Minister of
Environment or the Director General, the PSC will meet on a monthly basis to review
and discuss the progress made by the project as well as means of supporting the
different activities by the different represented institutions. The PSC membership
should include the GEF OFP, UNDP, and the Focal Points of the 3 conventions,
senior representatives of concerned national institutions including the CDR, the
Palimentarian Committee on Environment and the NCCS. This will allow for the
project guidance both at the operational and policy levels.

44.     UNDP and MoE will recruit a full-time Project Manager who will undertake
of the day-to-day implementation of project activities in line with UNDP rules and
regulations. This will include the preparation of timely work- plans and progress
reports to UNDP and PSC, selection of national consultants and services, the financial
management as well as the organization of the meetings of the PSC and acting as its

45.    The Government of Lebanon will contribute in kind support to the project.
This will include, but not be limited to: office space, equipment and supplies, time of
the PSC members, facilities for meetings and consultations and political support.

46.    The project will be monitored in accordance with established UNDP
monitoring procedures. The UNDP office in Lebanon will provide on-going
performance monitoring. A yearly tripartite review meeting will be organized to
review the progress of the project with the participation of the project’s counterparts.
The project performance will be measured against established work plans;
expenditures will be reviewed and overall technical performance will be assessed.

47.    A project terminal report will be prepared for consideration at the terminal
review meeting.


ACTIVITY/OUTPUT            1   2   3   4   5   6   7    8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18
Coordination, initiation
and formulation of SC
Stocktaking and gap
Thematic assessment of
previous activities
First National
Synergies and Cross-
cutting analysis
In-depth analysis of
First National
NCSA Assessment
Draft strategy & Action
Validation and
Endorsement by MoE
and government
Start implementation
Monitoring and Review


GEF inputs:

Activity                        Stocktaking        Process:           PRODUCT:          TOTAL
                                                   (Assessments,      (Reports,         (US $)
                                                   Consultations,     Studies, Briefing
                                                   Workshops,         materials, etc. )
Thematic Assessments

          Biodiversity         3,000              15,000             3,000               21,000
          Climate Change       3,000              15,000             3,000               21,000
          LD                   3,000              15,000             3,000               21,000
          Others(POPs &        1,000              5,000              1,000               7,000
           Ramsar please be
           specific)            10,000             50,000             10,000              70,000


Analysis of cross-cutting       5,000              45,000             5,000               55,000
Issues and synergies

Strategy and action plane       5,000              35,000             5,000               45,000

Coordination,                   5,000              20,000             5,000               30,000
management and M&E
TOTAL                           25,000             150,000            25,000              200,000

  Government in-kind contribution in the amount of US$50,000 will cover costs of counterparts’
participation in the NCSA process, partial costs of local travel, office space, office equipment,
furniture, utilities, and workshop facilities.

Annex 1: Current National Biodiversity Steering Committee

  1.   UNCBD Focal Point, Ministry of Environment
  2.   Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute
  3.   National Council for Scientific Research
  4.   American University of Beirut
  5.   Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute
  6.   Lebanese University
  7.   University of Balamand
  8.   National Center for Marine Research
  9.   Agro-biodiversity Project
 10.   Ministry of Agriculture
 11.   Council for Development and Reconstruction
 12.   Ministry of Finance
 13.   Ministry of Municipalities and Rural Affairs
 14.   A Law Firm
 15.   A representative from the private sector
 16.   Representative(s) from the NGO sector

Annex 2: Current UNFCC Committee

        Ministry of Environment.
        National Council for Scientific Research
        Council for Development and Reconstruction
        Ministry of Energy and Water
        UNDP
        Ministry of Agriculture
        Ministry of Education
        Ministry of Housing
        Ministry of Transport
        Association Libanaise pour la Maîtrise d’Energie (ALME-NGO).
        American University of Beirut
        Ecole Supérieure des Ingenieurs a Beyrouth (ESIB)
        Lebanese University
        Association of Lebanese Industrialists (ALIND)
        Electricité du Liban

Annex 3: UNCCD Committee

NAME                       REPRESENTATION
Mr Hassan JAAFAR           Ministry of Energy and Water

Mrs Lina YAMMOUT           Ministry of Environment

Mr Berthold HANSMANN       GTZ

Mr Youssef BOU ANTOUN      Ministry of Social Affairs

Mr Wajdi RAMADAN           Directorate General for Urban Planning

Dr Mohamad Nabih EL        Lebanese University

Dr Jawdat ABU JAWDE        Council for Development and Reconstruction

Dr Elie Michel MAALOUF     Ministry of Finance

Mr Kamal KARAA             Litani National Authority

Dr Hratch KOUYOUMJIAN      National Council for Scientific Research

Mrs Solange SAADE          FAO

Mr Khalil EL JAMAL         Local Administration & Boards

Miss Dima EL KHATIB        UNDP

Mrs Gloria ABI ZEID        Green Plan

Mr Ghattas AKL             Ministry of Agriculture

Mr Michel AFRAM            Lebanese Agriculture Research Institute
(Mr Fadi KARAM)

Annex 4: Ongoing Related Projects to the NCSA

     Assessment of Capacity Building Needs and Country Specific Priorities in
       Biodiversity, executed by MoE
     Expedited Financing of Climate Change Enabling Activities, Phase II,
       executed by MoE
     Strengthening of National Capacity and Grassroots In-situ Conservation for
       Sustainable Biodiversity, executed by MoE
     Conservation and Sustainable Use of Dryland Agro Biodiversity of the
       Near East, executed by MoA
     Lebanon Cross-Sectoral Energy Efficiency and Removal of Barriers to
       ESO Operations, executed by MoE
     Capacity Building for the Adoption and Application of Energy Standards
       for Buildings, executed by MoE
     Assessment and Alternatives to Permanent Organic Pollutants (POPs), will
       be executed by MoE.

Funding by other sources
       Strengthening the Permitting and Auditing System for Industries (EU,
       National Action Program to Combat Desertification in Lebanon
         (UNDP/UNSO, MoA)
       Ozone Office: Institutional Strengthening for the Implementation of the
         Montreal Protocol, Phase II (MP, UNDP / MoE)
       Methyl Bromide Alternatives Project (MLF/ MoE, UNDP)
       Conservation of Wetlands and Coastal Zones in the Mediterranean (FFEM,
       Coastal Area Management Program (UNEP- MAP, MoE)
       Desertification/ACSAD (GFR/GTZ, ACSAD)
       CoDel: “Combating Desertification in Lebanon” project (German
         Government/ ACSAD, GTZ/MoA/NCSR)


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