Developing Inclusive Practices in Schools by ewghwehws

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									Developing Inclusive
Practices in Schools



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Philosophy of Inclusion


"Children that learn together,
   learn to live together."




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Inclusive education today -




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Classification of CWD according
       to Learning Needs
 Category   I : includes children who can
  study in a general class with some special
  inputs.
 45% of CWD belong to this category
 Category II : children with mild and
  moderate disabilities who need counseling
  services from time to time
 30% CWD come in this category
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         Classification…
 Category   III : children with moderate/
                  severe disabilities, need
                  resource assistance
                  including corrective aids and
                  periodical help in academic
                  areas.

 15% CWD can be classified in this
 category

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          Classification…
 Category  IV : children with severe
                 disabilities who require
                 direct attention from
                 special teachers
 10% of disabled children come under this
  category

 Category 1-3 can be managed by general
 class teachers with input in special
 education.
 Category 4 is to be dealt by special
 teachers in a special class
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          Inclusion Readiness
                      (Schultz,1994)

   Attitudes
   Relationships
   Support for students
   Support for teachers
   Administrative leadership
   Curriculum
   Assessment
   Evaluation of self and program
   Involvement of parents
   Community involvement

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MOST COMMON NEEDS OBSERVED
        IN A CLASS

 Language    and Communication needs
 Academic    Needs - Reading, Writing, Math
 Motivational   Needs
   Personal and Social Needs
 Physical   and loco motor needs

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Special Considerations while Teaching
     Children with Special Needs
  Concrete   multisensory tasks
  Find out the child’s most effective mode of
   learning. - auditory, visual, tactile, etc.
  Pacing
  Repetition
  Modeling and imitation
  Task analysis
  Step wise directions
  Facilitate concept development
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Types of Instructional Programs
   Corrective instruction-in regular classroom
   Remedial instruction- outside the classroom
   Developmental Instruction-Diagnostic -
                              prescriptive
   Accelerated instruction- for bright & well
                             motivated learners
   Adapted instruction- content and the pace


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Corrective and Remedial Program

 Semi  homogeneous grouping in the
  regular classroom
 Provision of special instruction in small
  groups
 Team teaching
 Making Classroom a laboratory
 In service training for regular classroom
  teachers
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      Diagnostic- Prescriptive
            Teaching
 This is a way of achieving “appropriate”
  instruction.
 It represents the following sequence of activities

              Observe
                                   Revise
              (assess)



           plan                             Monitor



                                  Observe
                  Teach

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   Individualized Instruction
 Individualized instruction does not
  necessarily mean 1:1 teaching
 Individualized instruction is not always
  remedial
 Individualized instruction means teacher
  accommodates the situation to the learner
  and not the learner to the situation


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Modifications in the general Classroom
   Homogeneous Grouping -
                         According to age, ability,
                         industry, previous experience, or
                         other factors that affect learning
   Ability Grouping -
                         Average, above average
                         and below average
   Performance Based -
                     How well a child performs on
                          the given task
   Learners’ Characteristics-
                           Fast and slow learners
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Within Classroom Modifications
   Groupings of students into smaller units for
    specific teachings

   Smaller student-teacher ratio

   Take support from reserve or supplemental
    teachers

   Involve parents whenever necessary

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                Contd…
 Emphasizing    Cognitive /academic learning
 Compensatory education-use of
  alternative instruction, alternative
  techniques, and adaptive equipment
 Co-teaching
 Individualized Education program (IEP)
 Modifications in Examination and
  Evaluation procedures
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Structuring Learning Experiences
   Planning instruction

   Structuring the environment
       - Location for learning
       - Selection of material

   Placement / arrangement of materials

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     Adapting the Environment
I.    The Classroom
      Physical Components (Rogers and Warren (1985)
      Actual classroom space
      Arrangement of activity areas within the
      space
      The furniture and fixtures
      The play and work materials


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 Theactivities of the program & their
 sequence

 The number & types of children
 (disabled and non-disabled)

 Grouping   of staff & children


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Adaptations and modifications in
   the physical environment

 Walkways   and ramps
 Doors and doorways
 Stairs and steps
 Flooring
 Playground
 Toilets

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Adaptations required in inclusive
      education practice
 Length   of the task
 Time
 Level   of support
 Input
 Difficulty   of the task
 Output
 Participation
 Alternate    curriculum
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Adaptations in Teacher Education
   Objectives

   Content

   Material-devices and equipment

   Teaching- learning process

   Evaluation

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  Inclusive Teacher Education
              (ITE)
 Be based on transformative pedagogy.

 Be an intersection of perception, ideology,
  culture and knowledge




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Inclusive Teacher Education
            (ITE)
                   Perception




     Ideology          ITE             Culture




                   Knowledge




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  The Inclusive teacher education
      program should aim at

 Addressing the individual needs of “All” children
  in a class
 Facilitating teaching – learning process
 Providing role model to the learners
 Social reconstruction in a context
 Attaching field relevance

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     Additional Competencies of
     Teachers in Inclusive Class
 Creating a community of learners
 Identifying and assessing individual needs of
  learners
 Instructional planning for ‘All’, including students
  with disabilities



                      www.schoolofeducators.com   Contd..
     Additional Competencies of
     Teachers in Inclusive Class

 Adaptation of curricular content
 Managing students’ behaviors
 Consultation/ collaborations with various
 stake holders



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          An Inclusive Teacher

 Creates inclusive culture
 Develops inclusive practice
 Develops attitudes and beliefs that foster
  inclusion
 Engages in joint collaboration (between general
  and special educators) about students with
  disabilities


                  www.schoolofeducators.com   Contd..
         An Inclusive Teacher

 Understands, plans and provides an
  instructional program and behavioral
  support to students with disabilities in a
  regular classroom
 Participates in meaningful school reform
  efforts within schools and in the
  communities
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   In an inclusive class a teacher
               should:

 Provide variety of learning experiences to
  the learners
 Ensure active participation of ‘All’ learners
  in all learning activities
 Encourage students to compare, debate,
  share, and learn from each other

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    In an inclusive class a teacher
                should:
   Facilitate students’ learning through
    absorption, interaction, observation and
    reflection


   Ensure success for each child


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      To bring in equity in society an inclusive
            education program requires:
                    Embedded Support
                       Prior to instruction
                     - Modified materials
                     - Accommodations
                     - Barrier free environment
                     - Access to school



In-Class support      Inclusive Class                External support




                   Multi-disciplinary support
                   Peers, Para-educators, Special educators,
                   Administrators, Psychologists, Counselors, Resource
                   teachers & Volunteers
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        Quality Indicators in ITE

 Comprehensiveness
 Range of diversity
 Flexibility
 Applicability
 Feasibility


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As a teacher ensure Success for
   every learner in the class


Inclusion is a journey, a process
  and not a destination



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Thank you !

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