survey_of_anatomical_landmarks

Document Sample
survey_of_anatomical_landmarks Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                                            Soininen HS, Partanen K, Pitkänen A, et al.
                                                Lehéricy S, Baulac M, Chiras J, et al.
                                                                                           Volumetric MRI analysis of the amygdala and
                                                 Amygdalohippocampal MR volume
                                                                                               the hippocampus in subjects with age-
                                                 measurements in the early stages of
                                                                                           associated memory impairment: correlation to
                                                   Alzheimer disease . AJNR Am J
                                                                                            visual and verbal memory . Neurology 1994;
                                                    Neuroradiol 1994;15:929-37.
                                                                                                            44:1660-8.


                                                         Signa 1.5 Tesla GE                 Siemens, Erlangen                        1.5
                                Scan
                                                      Milwaukee (USA magnet)                                 Tesla

                                               coronal perpendicular to the long axis of      coronal perpendicular to the long axis of
Aquisition




                               Plane
                                                            hippocampus                                    hippocampus
                 Parameters




                                 Sequence             2D spin echo T1-weighted                               MP-RAGE

                                   Matrix                      256x192                                        256x192

                                 Voxel size                0.94x1.25x5mm                              1.02x1.02x1.5to1.8mm


                                                            HISTO-RAG
                              Software                                                                 Numaris by Siemens
                                                           Biocom France
Pre-Processing




                              Alignment                           no                       perpendicular to the long axis of hippocampus



                    Normalization                                 no                                             no



                  Slice Thikness                                5 mm                                           1 mm

                      Image format                              Digital                                      ima-format

                                                                                           measure area of both hemispheres in one slice
                        Denominator                              TIV
                                                                                                               ICA

                      Plane Tracing                            sagittal                                       coronal
TIV




                                              trace the outline of the inner table from side measure area of both hemispheres in an MRI
                              Landmark
                                                             to side the head                         taken at level of the AC



                   Slice Thikness/
                                                                6 mm                                           1 mm
                       n.of slice
Killiany RJ, Moss MB, Albert MS, et al.    Malykhin NV, Bouchard TP, Ogilvie CJ, et Pantel J, O'Leary DS, Cretsinger K, et al.
  Temporal lobe regions on magnetic        al. Three-dimensional volumetric analysis  A new method for the in vivo volumetric
resonance imaging identify patients with       and reconstruction of amygdala and    measurement of the human hippocampus
 early Alzheimer's disease . Arch Neurol        hippocampal head, body and tail .      with high neuroanatomical accuracy .
            1993; 50:949-54.                    Psychiatry Res 2007; 155: 155-65.         Hippocampus 2000; 10:752-8.


       GE Signa, General Electric                                                             GE Signal                    General
                                                 Siemens Sonata          1.5 Tesla
              1.5 Tesla                                                                           Electric           1.5 Tesla

coronal perpendicular to the AC-PC plane   coronal perpendicular to the AC-PC plane                           coronal


                SPGR                                        MP-RAGE                                          GRASS

               256x256                                       256x256                                      256x192x124

           0.86x0.86x1.5mm                                 1x1x1.5mm                                   1.02x1.35x1.50mm
                                                                                             BRAINS (TIV was measured based on
    Software integrated on the SUN                                                               the fully automated algorithm
                                                        Siemens Console
             sparcstation I                                                                   implemented in the BRAIN software
                                                                                                            package)

                  no                                            no                                    AC-PC realignement


                                                                                            6 point linear registration (Talairach atlas
                  no                                            no                            space) + intensity correction + partial
                                                                                                        volume correction


                1.5 mm                                        1.5 mm                                          1 mm

              Headerless                                      DICOM                                       not mentioned


    Generated from dual echo scan                               ICV                                       not mentioned


                 axial                                        sagittal                                    not mentioned


                                           trace below the dura mater. Where the dura
             not mentioned                 mater is not visible, the cerebral contourn is                 not mentioned
                                                               outline



          3 mm to cover head                                 10 slice                                     not mentioned
                                                                                    Puessner JC, Li LM, Serles W, et al.
                                           Convit A, De Leon MJ, Tarshish C, et        Volumetry of hippocampus and
Jack CR Jr. MRI-based hippocampal            al. Specific hippocampal volume       amygdala with high-resolution MRI and
 volume measurements in epilepsy .          reductions in individuals at risk for   three-dimensional analysis software:
Epilepsia 1994; 35   Suppl 6:S21-9.        Alzheimer's disease . Neurobiol Aging minimizing the discrepancies between
                                                      1997; 18:131-8.             laboratories. Cereb Cortex 2000; 10:433-
                                                                                                     42.


 3 Tesla with phased array Head coil                                                              not mentioned

                                           coronal perpendiculr to the long axis of
                sagittal                                                                             sagittal
                                                       hippocampus

              MP-RAGE                                  not mentioned                                  SPGR

               256x256                                    256x256                                 nto mentioned

                1x1x1.2                               0.94x0.94x4 mm                              1mm isotropic


                                              Software integrated on the SUN            Alghoritm integrated on the Silicon
              Analyze 8.0
                                                       sparcstation I                       Graphics O2 workstation

   perpendicular to the long axis of
                                                       not mentioned                                  AC-PC
       hippocampus formation
                                                                                          correction of magnetic field non-
                                                                                           uniformaties +linear stereotaxic
               intensity                               not mentioned                  trasformation into coordinates based on
                                                                                        Talairach atlas +resampling in 1mm
                                                                                                  voxel dimension
                 1 mm                                  not mentioned                                  1 mm

          AnalyzeImage(7.5)                            not mentioned                                  MINC


                  TIV                                        TIV                                  not mentioned


                sagittal                                   sagittal                               not mentioned

  The inner table of the skull. For the
    inferior boundary of mid-sagittal
sections, a line is drawn connecting the                                                          not mentioned
anterior and the posterior margin of the
            foramen magnum

                5mm
                                                            6 mm                                  not mentioned
             28to32 slice
Bartzokis G, Altshuler LL, Greider T, et
 al. Reliability of medial temporal lobe
      volume measurements using
reformatted 3D images . Psychiatry Res
             1998; 82:11-24.


           General Electric
             1.5 Tesla

                coronal


           3D spoiled Grass

               256x192

    0.94x0.94x1.4         (=1.2mm3)

            Allegro system
    software integrated on the ISG
              workstation

coronal perpendiculr to the long axis of
    the left anterior hippocampus



                    no



                1.5 mm

                DICOM


            not mentioned


                coronal




            not mentioned




                1.5 mm
                                                   Bartzokis G, Altshuler LL, Greider T, et al.
                                                   Reliability of medial temporal lobe volume
                                                  measurements using reformatted 3D images .
                                                        Psychiatry Res 1998; 82:11-24.




                     Plane                                 axis of the left hippocampus

   Areas explicitly included (+)/excluded (-)
                  CA regions                                            +
                   subiculum                                            +
                 dentate gyrus
                    alveus                                               -
                    fimbria                                              -
         uncal portion of Hippocampus
                uncinate gyrus
                 ambient gyrus
         part of Fascicular gyrus (FG)
            parahippocampal gyrus                                        -
         isthmus of the cingulate gyrus
                     fornix
               enthorinal cortex                                         -
         choroid plexus of inferior horn
                   amygdala
                    pulvinar
               subsplenial gyrus
               tail of the caudate
         Andreas-Retzius gyrus (ARg)


                                                      level at which the alveus appears and
              Most anterior slice               distinguishes the amygdala from hippocampus. If
                                                alveus is not visible TH of the LV (Bartzokis 1993)




                                                Level where the inferior and superior culliculi are
             Most posterior slice
                                                                jointly visualized




                                                the subiculum has to be cut off from the cortex of
                        Medial border            the parahippocampal gyrus through a orizontal
                                                                      line




                        Lateral border                   adjacent WM of temporal stem

Head



                        Inferior border            white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus
Head




       Superior border     temporal horn of the lateral ventricle/alveus




                         the subiculum has to be cut off from the cortex of
       Medial border      the parahippocampal gyrus through a orizontal
                                               line




Body
       Lateral border             adjacent WM of temporal stem




       Inferior border      white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus




       Superior border     temporal horn of the lateral ventricle/fimbria




                         the subiculum has to be cut off from the cortex of
       Medial border      the parahippocampal gyrus through a orizontal
                                               line




Tail   Lateral border                      crus of fornix



       Inferior border      white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus




       Superior border           atrium of lateral ventricle/alveus
Convit A, De Leon MJ, Tarshish C,        Haller JW, Banerjee A, Christensen GE et al.
et al. Specific hippocampal volume            Three-dimensional hippocampal MR             Jack CR Jr. MRI-based hippocampal volume
reductions in individuals at risk for         morphometry with high-dimensional            measurements in epilepsy . Epilepsia 1994; 35
  Alzheimer's disease . Neurobiol          transformation of a neuroanatomic atlas.                      Suppl 6:S21-9.
        Aging 1997; 18:131-8                      Radiology 1997; 202:504-10



        axis of hippocampus                               AC-PC line                                axis of the left hippocampus

                                                               +
                                                               +                                                  +
                                                                                                                  +
                                                                                                                  +
                  +                                             -                                                 +
                  +                                             -                                                 +
                                                                                                                  +




                                                                                                                  -




                                                                                                                  -




     level at which the head of
                                    the separation of amygdala and hippocampal       level at which the head of hippocampus first
hippocampus first appears below the
                                    head was facilitated by sagittal and transverse appears below the amygdala as a transversely
amygdala as a transversely oriented
                                                         views                                  oriented oval structure
            oval structure



                                           slice where on avoid mass of gray matter         slice where the crura of the fornices on both
  slice where the crus of fornix was
                                         started to appear inferomedially to the trigone            sides are seen in full profile.
         visible in full profile
                                                      of the lateral ventricle


 1. WM of PG was used to separate
 the subiculum fron ERC with a line
                                                                                              CSF in the uncal and ambient cistern/the
following the same inclination of WM
                                                                                            subiculum has to be cut off from the cortex of
 of PG                             2.                   Gyrus ambiens
                                                                                           the parahippocampal gyrus through a orizontal
  vertical line drawn from the CA of
                                                                                                                line
  hippocamous of HC to the WM of
                   PG


                                         temporal horn of lateral ventricle/adjacent WM
temporal horn of the lateral ventricle                                                          temporal horn of the lateral ventricle
                                                       of temporal stem



white matter of the parahippocampal
                                            white matter of parahippocampal gyrus           white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus
                gyrus
Alveus/orizontal line connecting the                                                         Recognition of the wavelike contour of the pes
 middle of the medial border of the                                                          digitations/alveus/orizontal line connecting the
                                           temporal horn of the lateral ventricle/alveus
lateral ventricle to the surface of the                                                         middle of the medial border of the lateral
                 uncus                                                                             ventricle to the surface of the uncus



 1. WM of PG was used to separate
 the subiculum fron ERC with a line
                                                                                        CSF in the uncal and ambient cistern/the
following the same inclination of WM the subiculum has to be cut off from the cortex
                                                                                      subiculum has to be cut off from the cortex of
 of PG                             2.   of the parahippocampal gyrus through a
                                                                                     the parahippocampal gyrus through a orizontal
  vertical line drawn from the CA of                  orizontal line
                                                                                                          line
  hippocamous of HC to the WM of
                   PG



                                          temporal horn of lateral ventricle/adjacent WM
temporal horn of the lateral ventricle                                                            temporal horn of the lateral ventricle
                                                        of temporal stem




white matter of the parahippocampal
                                           white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus          white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus
                gyrus




           not mentioned                   temporal horn of the lateral ventricle/fimbria             CSF in the choroidal fissure


 1. WM of PG was used to separate
 the subiculum fron ERC with a line
                                                                                        CSF in the uncal and ambient cistern/the
following the same inclination of WM the subiculum has to be cut off from the cortex
                                                                                      subiculum has to be cut off from the cortex of
 of PG                             2.   of the parahippocampal gyrus through a
                                                                                     the parahippocampal gyrus through a orizontal
  vertical line drawn from the CA of                  orizontal line
                                                                                                          line
  hippocamous of HC to the WM of
                   PG



temporal horn of the lateral ventricle     atrium of the lateral ventricles/crus of fornix        temporal horn of the lateral ventricle



white matter of the parahippocampal
                                           white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus          white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus
                gyrus



                                           atrium of lateral ventricle/alveus/pulvinar of
           not mentioned                                                                                Atrium of lateral ventricle
                                                              thalamus
 Killiany RJ, Moss MB, Albert MS, et al.            Lehéricy S, Baulac M, Chiras J, et al.
   Temporal lobe regions on magnetic                  Amygdalohippocampal MR volume
 resonance imaging identify patients with       measurements in the early stages of Alzheimer
  early Alzheimer's disease . Arch Neurol       disease . AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1994;15:929-
             1993; 50:949-54.                                       37.



                AC-PC line                                   axis of hippocampus



                     +                                                  +
                     +                                                  +
                                                                        +
                      -                                                 +
                      -                                                 +




                                                                        -
                                                                        -



                      -
                      -




  level at which the alveus appears and          level at which the head of hippocampus first
     distinguishes the amygdala from            appears below the amygdala as a transversely
               hippocampus                                  oriented oval structure.




slice where the crus of fornix was visible in   slice where the crus of fornix was visible in full
                 full profile                                       profile




a line following the same inclination of WM
of PG connect the subiculum of the HB to            CSF of the perimesencephalic cystern.
          the quadrigeminal cistern




   temporal horn of the lateral ventricle            temporal horn of the lateral ventricle




white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus        white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus
                                                         temporal horn of lateral
                                              ventricle/alveus/orizontal line connecting the
   temporal horn of the lateral ventricle
                                                middle of the medial border of the lateral
                                                  ventricle to the surface of the uncus.




a line following the same inclination of WM
of PG connect the subiculum of the HB to        CSF of the perimesencephalic cystern.
          the quadrigeminal cistern




   temporal horn of the lateral ventricle         temporal horn of the lateral ventricle




white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus     white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus




   temporal horn of the lateral ventricle         temporal horn of the lateral ventricle




a line following the same inclination of WM
of PG connect the subiculum of the HB to         CSF of the perimesencephalic cistern.
          the quadrigeminal cistern




   temporal horn of the lateral ventricle              atrium of lateral ventricle.



white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus              isthmus of cingulate gyrus




   temporal horn of the lateral ventricle              atrium of lateral ventricle.
Malykhin NV, Bouchard TP, Ogilvie CJ, et al. Pantel J, O'Leary DS, Cretsinger K, et al.
  Three-dimensional volumetric analysis and     A new method for the in vivo volumetric
 reconstruction of amygdala and hippocampal measurement of the human hippocampus
head, body and tail . Psychiatry Res 2007; 155:  with high neuroanatomical accuracy .
                    155-65.                         Hippocampus 2000; 10:752-8.



                  AC-PC line                                        AC-PC line



                       +                                                  +
                       +                                                  +
                       +                                                  +
                       +                                                  +
                       +                                                  +


                       +
                                                                          +




                        -


                        -


                        -
                        -
                        -




      Along the antero - posterior axis of           level at which the head of hippocampus
        hippocampus, level where the                  first appears below the amygdala as a
parahippocampal white matter becomes visible            transversely oriented oval structure



                                                     slice where on avoid mass of gray matter
   slice where on avoid mass of gray matter
                                                       started to appear inferomedially to the
started to appear inferomedially to the trigone
                                                    trigone of the lateral ventricle (posterior to
 of the lateral ventricle (posterior to anterior)
                                                                      anterior)




alveus/ a line following the same inclination of      a line following the same inclination of
WM of PG connect the subiculum of the HB to          WM of PG connect the subiculum of the
           the quadrigeminal cistern                      HB to the quadrigeminal cistern




temporal horn of the lateral ventricle/adjacent
                                                       temporal horn of the lateral ventricle
           WM of temporal stem




  white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus         white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus
temporal horn of the lateral ventricle/alveus     temporal horn of the lateral ventricle/alveus




parahippocampal gyrus/ a line following the
same inclination of WM of PG connect the
                                                     CSF of ambient cistern/ crus cerebri
 subiculum of the HB to the quadrigeminal
                  cistern




temporal horn of the lateral ventricle/adjacent           temporal horn of the lateral
           WM of temporal stem                     ventricle/adjacent WM of temporal stem




 white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus        white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus




        quadrigeminal cistern/fimbria                                fimbria




        CSF of quadrigeminal cistern                     CSF of quadrigeminal cistern




                                                     atrium of the lateral ventricles/crus of
                crus of fornix
                                                                      fornix



 white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus        white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus




   crus of fornix/pulvinar of the thalamus                 pulvinar of the thalamus
    Puessner JC, Li LM, Serles W, et al.      Soininen HS, Partanen K, Pitkänen A, et
  Volumetry of hippocampus and amygdala          al. Volumetric MRI analysis of the
     with high-resolution MRI and three-         amygdala and the hippocampus in
dimensional analysis software: minimizing the  subjects with age-associated memory
 discrepancies between laboratories. Cereb impairment: correlation to visual and verbal
           Cortex 2000; 10:433-42.             memory . Neurology 1994; 44:1660-8.


 AC-PC line (normalization to the Talaraich
                                                            axis of hippocampus
                 space)


                      +                                               +
                      +                                               +
                      +                                               +
                      +                                               -
                      +                                               -
                                                                      +



                       -



                       -                                              -
                                                                      -




                       -


     slice where one of the following is           level at which the head of hippocampus
   visible:alveus, temporal horn of lateral         first appears below the amygdala as a
    ventricle (uncal recess) or amygdala              transversely oriented oval structure




  slice where on avoid mass of gray matter
                                                   slice where the crura of the fornices on
started to appear inferomedially to the trigone
                                                       both sides are seen in full profile
             of the lateral ventricle




 CSF of ambient cystern/ the subiculum was
divided from the entorhinal cortex by drawing     a line following the same inclination of WM
a 45° line starting from the most inferior part   of PG connect the subiculum of the HB to
of hippocampal body medially to the cistern.                the quadrigeminal cistern




    temporal horn of the lateral ventricle                      not mentioned




 white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus                      not mentioned
temporal horn of the lateral ventricle/alveus               uncal apex (included)




 CSF of ambient cystern/ the subiculum was
divided from the entorhinal cortex by drawing     a line following the same inclination of WM
a 45° line starting from the most inferior part   of PG connect the subiculum of the HB to
of hippocampal body medially to the cistern.                the quadrigeminal cistern




    temporal horn of the lateral ventricle                      not mentioned




 white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus                      not mentioned




            quadrigeminal cistern                               not mentioned




After the most posterior slice, discrimination
                                                  a line following the same inclination of WM
of HT from FG and ARG x through a vertical
                                                  of PG connect the subiculum of the HB to
    line from the medial end of the lateral
                                                            the quadrigeminal cistern
ventricle down to the parahippocampal gyrus




          atrium of lateral ventricle                           not mentioned



 white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus                      not mentioned


After the mosto posterior slice, discrimination
 of HT from crus of fornix using a horizontal
                                                                not mentioned
      line from the superior border of the
quadrigeminal cistern to the lateral ventricle

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:5
posted:8/17/2012
language:
pages:14