Ch. 26 (Climate) &
Ch.15 (Ice Ages)
• Climate: average
–ppt- Avg month & year
–Temp- Avg high and low
• Temp range
–Factors that influence climate:
• Latitude (Winds, Ocean Currents)
• Heat absorption and release
NO, you don’t have to memorize
• A: tropical
• B: deserts
• C: temperate
• D: severe
• E: polar
• H: highlands
• Upper case designates LATITUDE
• Temperature (lower case): a=hot, b=cool,
• Precipitation (lower case) s=summer
drought, w=winter drought, f=wet year
• Examples: Tropical Rainforest (Af)
– Tropical Monsoon (Am)
– Tropical Savanna (Aw)
– Dry Desert Climates (BW)
– Humid Continental- mild summer (Dfb)
• BUT..You do have to be able to read a
map and know the climate zones!!!
• Determines solar energy rec’d
• Sun is high all the time
– small Temp range
• No seasons of summer and winter (just wet
• Angle changes
• Time of exposure changes (day and night)
– Large temp range (30+)
– All light or all dark
– Daily temp range small, yearly range large.
• Latitude determines the wind belt, brings
– Winds affect humidity, ppt, temp, cloud cover
– Ocean currents
– Mountain ranges
• High and low pressures control rain too.
• Belts shift seasonally
Heat absorption and Release
• The way solar energy strikes earth and is
absorbed or released influences temp.
– Land vs. Water:
• Land warms faster (unmoving)
• Water warms slower (waves, currents keep mixing)
• Water takes more energy to warm 1 degree
• Water releases heat more slowly
• More water evaporates over water than over land
• Evaporation is a cooling process
Factors affecting surface temperature
Differential heating of land and water
No wind when land
temperatures Land and sea breezes:
*Land surface heat
more in daytime, cools
more at night
heating Results in
initiates diurnal reversal
upward in wind
n over ►
Cellular circulation becomes
develops and cooler than
strengthens during ocean
• Currents influence air that contacts it.
• Winds towards shore… away from shore...
– N.Europe: big influence, U.S. not much.
– Heat difference btwn land and water
• Summer: land heats faster and pulls
ocean air in
• Winter: land cools faster so ocean is
warmer and air over ocean rises, pulling in
• “Monsoon” seasonal wind
– Air moves from H to L pressure and brings
torrential rains, etc…
-A monsoon is a seasonal shift in the prevailing wind direction, that usually brings with it a different kind of
-The persistent wind flow is driven by a warm air mass with low pressure at the surface that forms over the
continent as it is warmed by the sun. Air from the relatively higher pressure air mass over the ocean flows
toward the low pressure over land. -Widespread torrential rains, and even severe thunderstorms, accompany
the "onset" of the monsoon.
-The Indian Ocean version of the hurricane, called a "cyclone", can also occur and move ashore in
association with the onset of the monsoon. These cyclones have at times killed thousands of people who live
in the low-lying areas along the eastern coast of India and Bangladesh.
- A weaker version of this monsoon occurs over the normally dry southwestern United States in the later
summer when more humid air, accompanied by thunderstorms, invades the region. www.weatherquestions.com
• Topography: shape of land
– Mountains change temp and moisture.
• Rising, cooling (adiabatic), raining
• Sinking, adiabatic warming, dry
– Chinook: Rockies
– Cold mountain winds: way cold, way high
• Often blow N to S.
1) How would you
You will note that
most of the eastern
third of Africa (from
south to north) is
2) List the ways
that altitude may
impact the way land
is used by people.
• Glaciers: masses of moving ice that can
• Snowline: the elevation above which ice
and snow remain thought the year.
• Snowfield: (or Ice field) motionless mass
of permanent snow and ice.
– Found near the poles, lower latitudes, tops of
Jakobshavn glacier, Greenland
• Accumulation of water: avg temp in polar
and high elevation is always near or below
freezing…so the snow accumulates.
• Firn: snow crystals change into sm. grains
of ice (due to melting & refreezing).
– Steel-blue “snow”: firn is compressed (due to
• Snow and ice accumulate to a great
• Ice starts to move downslope due to
– Balance betwn Lg. snowfalls and ice melting,
& cold temps.
Types of Glaciers
• Determined by SIZE & LOCATION.
– Formed in mountainous regions
– Long, narrow wedge-shaped
• Ex’s: Alaska, the Himalayas, the Andes, Alps
• Continental Ice Sheets
– Covers large land areas (millions of sq.
– Found only in Greenland an Antarctica
Movements of Glaciers
• Move about 100m/year to a few cm/yr to a
• BASAL SLIP: weight of ice eventually
exerts enough pressure to melt the ice in
contact w/ the ground. lubricant.
– Movement by melting and refreezing
• INTERNAL PLASTIC FLOW: Solid ice
crystals slip over each other slow
• Crevasses: large cracks
• Ice Sheets moving outward in continental
– Ex: Ice Ross Shelf (size of Texas)
• Icebergs: broken of pieces of ice sheets
that drift in the ocean.
– 90% of an iceberg is below water!!!
Alps: Taken 4/06 on the way to Italy.