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					                                                             Geography




                                                 Extended Essay
Title: Effects of roundabouts in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Research Question: To what extent is the roundabout at St.
Joseph Blvd. and Jeanne D’Arc Blvd. effective towards the
environment and the population?




                                                                     Candidate name: Nova Zhao

                                                             School: Colonel By Secondary School
                                                                                         (00953)

                                                                              Session: May 2012

                                                             Candidate number: 00953-

                                                                             Word Count: 3, 998
ABSTRACT

        This Extended Essay attempts to evaluate the degree to which the modern roundabout
situated at the intersection of St. Joseph Boulevard and Jeanne D’Arc Boulevard, which opened
in November of 2010, conforms to its expectations of improvement. The research question being
investigated is: “To what extent is the St. Joseph and Jeanne D’Arc roundabout effective towards
the environment and the population?” My hypothesis is that “according to the City of Ottawa’s
roundabout expectations and previous research, the roundabout is effective towards both, the
environment and the population.

        To truly evaluate how the roundabout affects the environment a series of field studies
were conducted where primary data was collected through timing vehicles at the St. Joseph and
Jeanne D’Arc roundabout and at the St. Joseph and Orleans Boulevard signalized intersection.
After collection, the data has been processed into tables and charts for better visual presentation
of the results. Averages were calculated and processed to obtain pollutant emissions for those
vehicles delays at both intersections.

        To assess how the roundabout affects the population, more primary results were obtained
by a public survey, asking specific questions about the roundabout’s effectiveness. The results of
the survey have also been input into charts to represent the public opinion on the performance
and safety of the roundabout. Furthermore, research was conducted to find operational and
maintenance advantages and disadvantages of the roundabout compared to the signalized
intersection.

       Based on the data collected and the research conducted, the said hypothesis is slightly
inaccurate; the roundabout at St. Joseph and Jeanne D’Arc Boulevards is effective towards the
environment, but much less towards the population.



[Abstract word count: 266]




                                                 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................... 4
GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND.................................................................................................. 5
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 8
   Research question ........................................................................................................................ 8
   Hypothesis ................................................................................................................................... 8
      Results from other studies: ....................................................................................................... 8
METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION ......................................................................................... 9
   Vehicle delays.............................................................................................................................. 9
   Environmental factors................................................................................................................ 11
   Traffic safety.............................................................................................................................. 12
   Pedestrian safety ........................................................................................................................ 12
   Operation and maintenance ....................................................................................................... 12
DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS.................................................................................... 13
   Vehicle delays............................................................................................................................ 13
   Environmental factors................................................................................................................ 15
   Traffic safety.............................................................................................................................. 20
   Pedestrian safety ........................................................................................................................ 22
   Operation and maintenance ....................................................................................................... 22
CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................. 24
REFERENCES/BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................................... 26
APPENDICES .............................................................................................................................. 27
   A- Vehicle time delay Data tables ............................................................................................. 27
   B- Calculations .......................................................................................................................... 42
   C- Survey ................................................................................................................................... 42




                                                                        3
OVERVIEW

        A roundabout is one of several types of circular intersections at which traffic is slowed
down and enters a one-way stream around a central island. (What is a Modern Roundabout?) A
modern roundabout has channelized approaches, yield control on all entries, counter clockwise
circulation of all vehicles around the central island (in North America), and appropriate
geometric curvature to encourage slow travel speeds through intersection. Roundabouts have
been classified into three basic categories according to size and number of lanes to facilitate
discussion of specific performance or design issues: mini-roundabouts, single-lane roundabouts,
and multi-lane roundabouts. These are summarized in Table 1. (Roundabouts)

                         Table 1: Roundabout Category Comparison
Design Element           Mini Roundabout      Single-Lane                   Multi-Lane
                                              Roundabout                    Roundabout
Desirable maximum        25 to 30 km/hr       30 to 40 km/hr                40 to 50 km/hr
entry speed
Max number of
entering lanes per                  1                         1                       2+
approach
Typical inscribed        13 to 27 m                  27 to 55 m             46 to 91 m
circle diameter
Central island           Fully traversable           Raised (may have       Raised (may have
treatment                                            traversable apron)     traversable apron)
Typical daily service    Up to 15 000 veh/day        Up to 25 000 veh/day   Up to 45 000 veh/day
volumes (veh/day)

        Roundabouts are sometimes called Modern Roundabouts, in order to emphasize the
distinction from older circular junction types which had different design characteristics and rules
of operation, commonly referred to as "rotaries" or "traffic circles". (What is a Modern
Roundabout?) Traffic circles or rotaries have high-speed entries, weaving in the circle, low
capacity, and many high-speed crashes. Sometimes motorists in the circle must yield to those
entering. They are large and fairly difficult to drive through compared to roundabouts.
Roundabouts are the opposite. They require motorists to yield on entry, there is no weaving,
speeds are low, capacity is high, and crashes are few and minor. They are comfortable to drive
through, and if designed well, much more appealing to the public.

        Below, Figure 1 shows a roundabout being constructed within the central island of a
large rotary in New York State. The roundabout is much smaller, yet will be safer and higher-
capacity.




                                                 4
            Figure 1: Rotary being converted to the modern roundabout in Kingston, NY


                                                                                         Large
                                                                                         rotary


      Central island
      of rotary
                                                                                         Much smaller
                                                                                         roundabout
                                                                                         within central
                                                                                         island of rotary


                                 Source: New York State Department of Transportation

           Signalized intersections have instead traffic lights directing the flow of traffic through the
   perpendicular and opposite flowing intersection. Roundabouts have no signal lights for traffic,
   but yield signs before the roundabout. Instead of signalized pedestrian walkways, roundabouts
   have no signals.

   GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

                       Figure 2: Locational map of Orleans, with respect to Ottawa, ON




                                                                                                            Orleans




Down-
town
Ottawa,
ON                                                                                                N



                                              Source: Google Maps 2011


          The roundabout studied in this investigation is at the intersection of St. Joseph Boulevard
   and Jeanne D’Arc Boulevard in Orleans, Canada. (See Figures 2 and 3) It has two lanes directing


                                                         5
traffic in a counter-clockwise motion around the central island. On the St. Joseph Boulevard legs
going East and West, there are three lanes approaching, one for driving straight through, one for
turning left or going straight, and one for turning right. Also on St. Joseph Boulevard there are
two lanes parting the roundabout going East and West. On Jeanne D’Arc Boulevard, the
roundabout has two lanes approaching from North and South, one for left turns and going
straight and the other for right turns and going straight. The side leaving the roundabout on
Jeanne D’Arc also has two lanes going North and South. Refer to Figure 4.

            Figure 3: Locational map of the intersections in this study, Orleans, ON


                                                                                        Orleans
                                                                                        Blvd. and St.
                                                                                        Joseph Blvd.
                                                                                        intersection.




  Jeanne D’Arc                                                                    N
  Blvd. and St.
  Joseph Blvd.
  intersection
                                       Source: Google Maps 2011



         In this study, the roundabout is compared to the intersection at St. Joseph Boulevard and
Orleans Boulevard. (See Figure 3) Similar to the roundabout, on the St. Joseph and Orleans
Boulevard legs, this intersection also has three lanes leading up to the intersection. The far left
lane is for left turns, the middle lane is from going straight and the far right lane is for going
straight and turning right. This intersection has two lanes leaving the intersection all four legs,
but also has an additional right lane on St. Joseph for the OC Transpo busses to stop without
interfering with the heavier traffic flow. Refer to Figure 5.




                                                 6
                 Figure 4: St. Joseph / Jeanne D’Arc Roundabout



                                                                    St. Joseph
                                                                    Blvd.

Roundabout


                                                                    Jeanne
                                                         N          D’Arc Blvd.

                              Source: Google Maps 2011


                    Figure 5: St. Joseph / Orleans Intersection




 Orleans Blvd.                                                    St. Joseph
                                                                  Blvd.

                     N




                              Source: Google Maps 2011




                                         7
INTRODUCTION

RESEARCH QUESTION

       To what extent is the St. Joseph and Jeanne D’Arc roundabout effective towards the
environment and the population?

HYPOTHESIS

        The roundabout at the St. Joseph and Jeanne D’Arc Boulevard intersection was
constructed with certain expectations of its performance and effectiveness. It is expected to have
lower overall vehicle delay than signalized intersections, improve traffic safety, improve
pedestrian safety, improve air quality by reducing pollutant emissions, and have lower operating
and maintenance costs. (Roundabouts) I agree with this statement, that the roundabout at St.
Joseph and Jeanne D’Arc will significantly improve the vehicle delays at this intersection, the air
quality and the operating and maintenance costs. However, I do not believe the traffic and
pedestrian safety will improve because the residents of Orleans are not familiar with the
operation of roundabouts and thus it will be a dangerous intersection until residents learn how to
drive through it.

RESULTS FROM OTHER STUDIES:

        Researchers have been investigating the performance and effectiveness of roundabouts
for a while now. In March 2000 a report was published by the Insurance Institute for Highway
Safety entitled A Study of Crash Reductions Following Installation of Roundabouts in the United
States. The study looked at changes in motor vehicle crashes after the conversion of 24
intersections from STOP sign or traffic signal control to roundabouts. It was done in a mix of
urban and rural locations, and involved single-lane and two-lane roundabouts. The study found
the following highly significant relationships between traffic signal controlled intersections to
roundabouts:

      A reduction in collisions of all types of 40%.
      A reduction in injury collisions of 75%.
      A reduction in fatal and incapacitating collisions of about 90%.

        The results are consistent with numerous international studies and suggest that
roundabout installation should be strongly promoted as an effective safety treatment for
intersections. This is given the large numbers of injury (700,000) and property damage
(1,300,000) crashes that occur each year at stop signs and traffic signals.



                                                 8
       Although the sample was too small to estimate effects on pedestrian crashes, none of the
multilane roundabouts have had a single pedestrian crash so far, even though there were two
crashes during the before period at these sites. (Roundabout Safety in North America)

        Studies by Kansas State University measured traffic flow at intersections before and after
conversion to roundabouts. In each case, installing a roundabout led to a 20 percent reduction in
delays. Additional studies found that roundabouts contributed to an 89 percent reduction in
delays and 56 percent reduction in vehicle stops. Thus with reduced delay, roundabouts lessen
noise, air pollution and fuel consumption. (Reduced Delay)

        When societal costs associated with crash incidence are accounted for, roundabouts are
often less expensive than other intersections. A high-capacity roundabout can reduce the need to
widen adjacent roads, a significant consideration with nearby underpasses or overpasses.
Increased safety means lower emergency response, health care and other societal costs.
Roundabouts do not specifically require periodic maintenance like traffic signals, and there is no
need to be concerned with power outages. (Why Install Roundabouts?)




METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION

        To validly compare the total effectiveness towards the environment and the population of
the roundabout in Orleans to the before signalized intersection, different areas that are affected
by the change must be assessed. To determine the effectiveness of the roundabout, the four areas
that are assessed are vehicle time delay, environmental factors, traffic safety, pedestrian safety,
and operation and maintenance.

VEHICLE DELAYS

        To assess how the roundabout affected the vehicle time delays, field studies were
conducted. I went to the St. Joseph Boulevard and Jeanne D’Arc Boulevard roundabout and
timed how long it took for vehicles to enter the roundabout. This consisted of starting the
stopwatch when a vehicle comes to a stop, and stopping the stopwatch when the vehicle’s rear
wheels just pass the curved dotted line at the end of that leg. (Refer to Figure 7) At the same
time, I also recorded the manoeuvre carried out by the timed vehicle, whether this vehicle was
driving in the direction of the rush hour, and the car line up, which was the amount of vehicles in
front of the timed vehicle.




                                                 9
   Figure 7: South Leg of St. Joseph Blvd and Jeanne D’Arc Blvd Roundabout




                                                                                      Curved dotted
                                                                                      line vehicles
                                                                                      must cross to
                                                                                      enter
                                                                                      roundabout




                       Source: Photo taken at 16:00 on July 25, 2011 in Orleans, ON


         I repeated this series of recordings also at the St. Joseph Boulevard and Orleans
Boulevard intersection. The only difference at this intersection is that the stopwatch was stopped
when the vehicle’s rear wheels passed the stopping line. Also, if a vehicle at this intersection
makes a left turn, it must approach up to the middle of the intersection and wait for a clearing in
the opposite-flowing traffic. Once these vehicles cross the middle of the intersection to complete
their left turn, I stopped the stopwatch. (Refer to Figure 8) The field studies were conducted in
the winter (January to March) and in the summer (July to August). Also, they were carried out
during the morning rush hour (7 to 9 am), the evening rush hour (3:30 to 5:30 pm), and during a
non-rush hour time period. Once all the data was collected, the average time delay was
calculated for each manoeuvre and compared between the intersections.




                                                   10
                 Figure 8: The St. Joseph Blvd and Orleans Blvd intersection




     Stopping line
     where                                                                            Middle of
     vehicles going                                                                   intersection
     straight or                                                                      where vehicles
     right must                                                                       making left
     cross.                                                                           turns must
                                                                                      cross.


                      Source: Photo taken at 16:20 on July 25, 2011 in Orleans, ON.

        The aspect of average time delay at these two intersections would help account for the
roundabout’s effectiveness towards the environment and the population. It would directly affect
the environment because longer time delays indicate that the vehicles are emitting more
emissions of pollutants; equally as shorter delays indicate fewer emissions. Time delay would
affect the population in that the drivers become impatient and frustrated when vehicle time
delays are extended.

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

       To determine how the roundabout affects the environment, research was conducted on
the average emission rate and fuel consumption for a passenger car. Once these values were
found in grams per mile, various calculations were carried through to determine the average
amount of different gases emitted by one vehicle in grams per second. These calculations are
depicted in Tables 1 and 2.

         Table 1: Total annual pollution emitted and fuel consumed calculations
 Component         Emission Rate      Average        Calculation        Total Annual
                      and Fuel          miles                              Pollution
                 Consumption (per       per                                Emitted
                        mile)           year
Hydrocarbons     2.80 g                         2.80 g/mi x 12 500 mi 35 000 g
Carbon           20.9 g                         20.9 g/mi x 12 500 mi 261 250 g
Monoxide
Oxides of        1.39 g                12 500 1.39 g/mi x 12 500 mi 17 375 g
Nitrogen
Carbon           415.5 g                        415.5 g/mi x 12 500   5 193 632.6 g
Dioxide                                         mi


                                                   11
           Table 2: Total pollution emitted and fuel consumed calculations
 Component     Total Annual                  Calculation              Total Pollution
                  Pollution                                          Emitted and Fuel
                Emitted and                                           Consumed (g/s)
              Fuel Consumed
Hydrocarbons 35 000 g                       35 000 g / (365 days x  0.0011
                                            24hrs x 60min x 60s)
Carbon        261 250 g           365 days 261 250 g / (365 days x 0.0083
Monoxide                             /yr    24hrs x 60min x 60s)
Oxides of     17 375 g           24hrs/day 17 375 g / (365 days x   0.0005
Nitrogen                          60min/hr 24hrs x 60min x 60s)
Carbon        5 193 632.6 g       60s/min 5 193 632.6 g / (365      0.1647
Dioxide                                     days x 24hrs x 60min x
                                            60s)

        The average time for each manoeuvre at each intersection was then used to calculate the
total pollution emitted at each intersection. The values are compared in Data Processing and
Analysis.

TRAFFIC SAFETY

        To determine how the roundabout affected the traffic safety, I conducted a survey, asking
200 residents of the Orleans for their general opinion on the roundabout and its effectiveness. A
sample of the survey is shown in Appendices. Also, to determine the safety of the roundabout, I
investigated reports and comments made by the public on the subject of the roundabout’s safety.
These reports and comments, in addition to the survey, are also taken into account when
assessing the effectiveness of the roundabout towards the population.

PEDESTRIAN SAFETY

        To determine how the roundabout is affecting the safety of the pedestrians, I examined
different reports of pedestrian accidents and collisions with vehicles at the roundabout and at the
Orleans and St. Joseph. Different reports and comments from the public about walking through
the roundabout were also studied. Pedestrian, as well as traffic, safety are taken into account
when assessing the effectiveness of the roundabout toward the population.

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

       The operation and maintenance of the St. Joseph and Jeanne D’Arc roundabout will be
compared to the St. Joseph and Orleans signalized intersection after profound research is
conducted as well as observation of the two intersections. Operation and maintenance helps in
considering how the roundabout is effective towards the population.




                                                12
DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS

VEHICLE DELAYS

         The following table and figures confirm that the St. Joseph and Jeanne D’Arc roundabout
has shorter vehicle time delays than the St. Joseph and Orleans signalized intersection. This
occurs for multiple reasons. Firstly, the traffic signals control all traffic flow at the signalized
intersection. Thus, vehicles must stop for red lights almost every minute. The red signal lights
create long time delays and very long queues (vehicle line up at the intersection). Instead of
traffic signal lights, the roundabout has only yield signs, telling approaching traffic to slow down
and yield for the traffic already inside the roundabout. This allows for shorter time delays and
diminishing queues. Vehicles making right turns have a noticeably smaller time delay because at
the signalized intersection, the vehicles turning right do not have to wait for the traffic signal to
change and at the roundabout, vehicles have less traffic to yield to before entering the
roundabout. A notable similarity between the two intersections is that in winter, the time delays
are generally longer than those in the summer. This is perhaps due to drivers being more careful
and driving slower, and hence accelerating and decelerating at slower rates in the winter than in
the summer. Thus, at both intersections, after coming to a full stop, vehicles take more time to
accelerate and enter the intersection. There is also a considerable difference in time delays
between rush hour and not rush hour. At both intersections and during both the winter and
summer, the time delays are longer when it is rush hour. There are more vehicles on the road and
therefore there is heavier and slower traffic, meaning the vehicle queues are longer and vehicle
acceleration is slower. The differences between the roundabout and the signalized intersection
(in the fourth column of the following tables) are larger during the non-rush hour time period
than during rush hour, meaning the roundabout is more effective when it is not rush hour.

                           Table 3: Average time delays during winter
           Manoeuvre                  Roundabout         Signalized                Difference
Left turn (rush hour)                      10.90 s            36.51 s                25.61 s
Straight (rush hour)                       13.24 s            44.75 s                31.51 s
Right turn (rush hour)                     7.99 s             20.22 s                12.23 s
Left turn (NOT rush hour)                  8.92 s             38.28 s                29.36 s
Straight (NOT rush hour)                   7.88 s             43.84 s                35.96 s
Right turn (NOT rush hour)                 7.37 s             17.11 s                 9.74 s

                         Table 4: Average time delays during summer
           Manoeuvre                 Roundabout         Signalized                 Difference
Left turn (rush hour)                      14.80 s            37.83 s                23.03 s
Straight (rush hour)                       11.53 s            38.74 s                27.21 s

                                                 13
Right turn (rush hour)       7.75 s    16.17 s   8.42 s
Left turn (NOT rush hour)    5.10 s    32.91 s   27.81 s
Straight (NOT rush hour)     6.52 s    34.47 s   27.95 s
Right turn (NOT rush hour)   5.31 s    12.93 s   7.62 s




                                  14
        In both graphs on the time delays and the number of vehicles (plotted above), we can
deduce that the roundabout has significantly lower time delays. However, it is notable that the
signalized intersection has a much wider range of time delays where the vehicles are
considerably spread out; whereas on the curve for the roundabout, there is a much smaller range
of time delays where many cars have the same time delay. Also, during rush hour, the peak time
delay for the signalized intersection is between 25.0 and 30.0 seconds, whilst during non-rush
hour the peak is between 5.0 and 25.0 seconds. Also, the peak during rush hour for the
roundabout is between 5.0 and 10.0 seconds while during non-rush hour is between 0 and 5.0
seconds. This occurs because the traffic flow is slower during rush hour due to the high density
of vehicles on the road.

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

        Using the average pollution emitted for each component from Table 1, the average
emission per vehicle per manoeuvre during rush hour is calculated for the roundabout. The
results are shown in Table 5. The same calculations are made for the time delays not during rush
hour, which are shown in Table 6. The average emissions per vehicle per manoeuvre during and
not during rush hour are also calculated for the signalized intersection, as shown in Tables 7 and
8. Continuing, the calculations are carried out for both winter and summer seasons. Table 9
through 12 demonstrate the same information and data for the summer. The general calculation
for the average pollution emitted per vehicle per manoeuvre is stated in the Appendices.

                                                15
   Table 5: Average emissions per vehicle per manoeuvre during rush hour in the winter
                                      (Roundabout)
 Component         Total        Average time delay for each   Average pollution emitted
                 pollution             manoeuvre (s)              per manoeuvre (g)
                emitted (g/s)    Left     Straight   Right     Left    Straigh    Right
                                 Turn                 turn     turn        t       turn
Hydrocarbons      0.0011                                      0.0119   0.0146 0.00879
Carbon
                  0.0083                                      0.0905    0.110     0.0663
monoxide
Oxides of                       10.90 s    13.24 s   7.99 s
                  0.0005                                     0.00545 0.00662 0.00399
nitrogen
Carbon
                  0.1647                                       1.80      2.18      1.32
Dioxide

 Table 6: Average emissions per vehicle per manoeuvre not during rush hour in the winter
                                       (Roundabout)
 Component         Total        Average time delay for each   Average pollution emitted
                 pollution              manoeuvre (s)             per manoeuvre (g)
                emitted (g/s)     Left    Straight    Right    Left    Straigh    Right
                                 Turn                  turn    turn       t        turn
Hydrocarbons       0.0011                                    0.00981 0.00867 0.00811
Carbon
                   0.0083                                     0.0740   0.0654     0.0612
monoxide
Oxides of                        8.92 s    7.88 s     7.37 s
                   0.0005                                    0.00446 0.00394 0.00369
nitrogen
Carbon
                   0.1647                                      1.47     1.30       1.21
Dioxide

   Table 7: Average emissions per vehicle per manoeuvre during rush hour in the winter
                                        (Signalized)
 Component         Total        Average time delay for each   Average pollution emitted
                 pollution             manoeuvre (s)               per manoeuvre (g)
                emitted (g/s)    Left      Straight   Right    Left     Straigh   Right
                                 Turn                 turn     turn         t      turn
Hydrocarbons      0.0011                                      0.0402    0.0492    0.0222
Carbon
                  0.0083                                       0.303     0.371     0.168
monoxide
Oxides of                       36.51 s     44.75 s  20.22 s
                  0.0005                                      0.0183    0.0224    0.0101
nitrogen
Carbon
                  0.1647                                        6.01      7.37      3.33
Dioxide

Table 8: Average emissions per vehicle per manoeuvre not during rush hour in the winter
                                      (Signalized)
Component         Total        Average time delay for each   Average pollution emitted
                pollution             manoeuvre (s)              per manoeuvre (g)

                                           16
               emitted (g/s)    Left     Straight   Right      Left    Straigh   Right
                                Turn                turn       turn       t       turn
Hydrocarbons      0.0011                                      0.0421   0.0482    0.0188
Carbon
                  0.0083                                      0.318     0.364     0.142
monoxide
Oxides of                      38.28 s   43.84 s    17.11 s
                  0.0005                                      0.0191   0.0219    0.00856
nitrogen
Carbon
                  0.1647                                       6.30     7.22      2.82
Dioxide

  Table 9: Average emissions per vehicle per manoeuvre during rush hour in the summer
                                      (Roundabout)
 Component         Total       Average time delay for each    Average pollution emitted
                 pollution             manoeuvre (s)               per manoeuvre (g)
               emitted (g/s)     Left     Straight   Right     Left     Straigh   Right
                                 Turn                 turn     turn        t       turn
Hydrocarbons       0.0011                                     0.0163    0.0127 0.00853
Carbon
                   0.0083                                      0.123    0.0957   0.0643
monoxide
Oxides of                       14.80 s    11.53 s   7.75 s
                   0.0005                                    0.00740 0.00577 0.00388
nitrogen
Carbon
                   0.1647                                       2.44     1.90      1.28
Dioxide

    Table 10: Average emissions per vehicle per manoeuvre during not rush hour in the
                                         summer
                                      (Roundabout)
 Component         Total        Average time delay for each   Average pollution emitted
                 pollution             manoeuvre (s)              per manoeuvre (g)
                emitted (g/s)    Left     Straight   Right     Left    Straigh    Right
                                 Turn                 turn     turn        t       turn
Hydrocarbons       0.0011                                    0.00561 0.00717 0.00584
Carbon
                   0.0083                                     0.0423    0.0541    0.0441
monoxide
Oxides of                       5.10 s     6.52 s    5.31 s
                   0.0005                                    0.00255 0.00326 0.00266
nitrogen
Carbon
                   0.1647                                      0.840     1.07      0.875
Dioxide

 Table 11: Average emissions per vehicle per manoeuvre during rush hour in the summer
                                       (Signalized)
Component         Total        Average time delay for each   Average pollution emitted
                 pollution            manoeuvre (s)              per manoeuvre (g)
               emitted (g/s)    Left      Straight   Right    Left    Straigh    Right
                                Turn                 turn     turn        t       turn
Hydrocarbons      0.0011       37.83 s     38.74 s  16.17 s  0.0416   0.0426     0.0178

                                           17
Carbon
                     0.0083                                           0.314      0.322      0.134
monoxide
Oxides of
                     0.0005                                          0.0189     0.0194     0.00809
nitrogen
Carbon
                     0.1647                                            6.23       6.38       2.66
Dioxide

    Table 12: Average emissions per vehicle per manoeuvre during not rush hour in the
                                          summer
                                        (Signalized)
 Component         Total        Average time delay for each   Average pollution emitted
                 pollution             manoeuvre (s)               per manoeuvre (g)
                emitted (g/s)    Left      Straight   Right    Left     Straigh   Right
                                 Turn                 turn     turn         t      turn
Hydrocarbons       0.0011                                     0.0362    0.0379    0.0142
Carbon
                   0.0083                                      0.273     0.286     0.107
monoxide
Oxides of                       32.91 s     34.47 s  12.93 s
                   0.0005                                     0.0165    0.0172 0.00647
nitrogen
Carbon
                   0.1647                                       5.42      5.68      2.13
Dioxide


To continue, Figures 11 to 14 illustrate the emissions from vehicles at the two intersections in
more visual means.




                                                18
19
         Roundabouts reduce vehicle delay and the number and duration of stops compared with
signalized intersections. This can reduce air quality impacts, and fuel consumption significantly
by reducing the number of acceleration/deceleration cycles and the time spent idling. As it is
clear in the tables above, hydrocarbons are one of the emissions from vehicles. They are formed
when fuel is burned in a vehicle and they can be described as burned or partially burned fuel.
Long term exposure to hydrocarbons has been shown to contribute to a range of health
conditions in humans, including cancer, asthma and liver disease. They are also harmful to the
Earth’s atmosphere. (Hydrocarbons) Another emission from vehicles is carbon monoxide (CO),
an odourless, colourless and tasteless gas which is highly toxic to humans. In cars, carbon
monoxide is produced as a result of incomplete combustion of the fuel. It is estimated that sixty
percent of carbon monoxide pollution is caused by road vehicles. (Carbon Monoxide) The third
emission from vehicles is nitrogen oxides. They are generated when nitrogen in the air reacts
with oxygen under the conditions of high temperature and pressure in the engine. Nitrogen
oxides are a precursor to smog and acid rain. (Nitrogen Oxides) The last gas emitted by vehicles
is carbon dioxide, the most abundantly emitted. These emissions form a significant part of the
man made contribution to the growth of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which is believed to
play a significant part in climate change. (Carbon Dioxide) Longer vehicle time delays and more
frequent stopping leads to more emissions being added to the atmosphere. Since the St. Joseph
and Orleans signalized intersection has longer delays and longer vehicle queues than the
roundabout, vehicles at the signalized intersection, as a result, emit more harmful pollutants into
the fragile atmosphere. Also, since delays are longer during rush hour, there are more emissions
at this time compared to non-rush hour time periods.

TRAFFIC SAFETY

       As stated in Methods, the traffic safety at the roundabout is determined by the survey
described in the Methods of Data Collection and the Appendices. The results of this survey are
shown in Figures 15, 16 and 17.




                                                20
        The results illustrate that the majority of the public (residences of the Orleans-Ottawa
area) believe that the roundabout is less safe than the standard signalized intersection in the past.
However, this is mainly based on the fact that many drivers are uneducated on the proper use of
the roundabout. A couple months before the roundabout was opened, pamphlets were distributed
to neighbourhoods within a 5-km radius of the roundabout, which informed the residents how to
correctly drive and manoeuvre through the roundabout. These pamphlets included crucial
information for the use of roundabouts, including instructions such as: be in the proper lane when
entering the roundabout, yield to all traffic already in the roundabout when entering the
roundabout, never change lanes within the roundabout, exit from proper lane. (St Joseph/Jeanne
d’Arc Boulevard Roundabout) Many residents did not read this pamphlet and therefore do not
have the same knowledge of those who have. If the residents of Orleans and Ottawa researched
about the safety of driving through the roundabout, perhaps the survey would show more people
perceiving it as safer. Another reason why the traffic safety is particularly low at this roundabout
is because it is one of the first modern roundabouts in Ottawa to consist of two lanes, and the
very first in the Orleans area. Thus, residents of Orleans are not familiar with the two-lane
roundabout which makes driving in it more dangerous. Lastly, new drivers are less experienced
and unfamiliar with roundabouts.


                                                 21
        According to a report done by the U.S. Department of Transportation, the roundabout is
supposed to be less dangerous than the signalized intersection because the physical shape of
roundabouts eliminates crossing conflicts that are present at conventional intersections, thus
reducing the total number of potential conflict points and the most severe of those.
(Roundabouts) In addition, when approaching a roundabout because drivers must turn right and
look left for oncoming traffic the tendency is to slow down before merging. It forces drivers to
be more conscious of traffic. Most traffic circles are also built with a slight bulge in the
approaching road which also forces drivers to slow down. (Sherwin, St. Joseph roundabout gets
mixed reviews at public open house)

PEDESTRIAN SAFETY

        At the roundabout, the reduction of vehicle speeds in and around the intersection should
help improve pedestrian crossing opportunities. (Roundabouts) However, when residents were
questioned about vehicle speeds through the roundabout (as seen in Table 19 in Appendices),
although the majority said that vehicle speeds within and around the roundabout have been
reduced, many disagree. See Figure 17. This is mainly due to drivers who do not slow down
enough to yield for pedestrians. Additionally, the splitter island refuge area provides the ability
for pedestrians to focus on one traffic stream at a time while crossing. However, pedestrians with
visual impairments may not receive the same level of information at a roundabout as at a typical
signalized intersection and may require additional treatments.

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

        This section discusses the operational and maintenance-linked situations, and compares
the St. Joseph and Jeanne D’Arc roundabout to the Orleans signalized intersection. First is the
need of electricity. Signalized intersections are just that - signalized - meaning they require an
electrical system of traffic control signals to control the traffic flow. On the other hand,
roundabouts are yield-controlled intersections and thus do not require electricity. Furthermore,
the use of electricity entails difficulties at signalized intersections that are absent or much less
prominent at roundabouts. Firstly, as the cost of electricity continues to rise, the City of Ottawa
continues to spend more and more money towards electricity use. Roundabouts therefore cut
down the use of electricity and the spending of the City of Ottawa. Also, at the Orleans
signalized intersection, electricity is used every day. When a natural event such as a storm affects
the area, the source of electricity may be cut from the receiving traffic control signals, cutting the
supply of electricity and halting the performance of the traffic control signals. At the roundabout,
if such a storm or other event occurs, the roundabout’s performance would not be affected. In
Figure 18 a power outage had affected the Orleans area. As seen in the image, the traffic control
signal lights are not working and a police officer directs the traffic.




                                                 22
        Figure 18: St. Joseph and Orleans signalized intersection during a power outage.
          (During which the St. Joseph and Jeanne D’Arc roundabout remained unaffected)

                                                                                        Traffic signal
     Police                                                                             light does not
     officer must                                                                       work during
     direct traffic.                                                                    power outage.



                                                                                        Dangerous
                                                                                        conditions for
                                                                                        cyclists and
   Stationed
                                                                                        pedestrians.
   electrical
   service truck
   adds to
   confusion.                                                                           Many
                                                                                        drivers are
                                                                                        confused.


                       Source: Photo taken at 16:45 on August 9, 2011 in Orleans, ON.


        Although the main operational and maintenance advantage of the roundabout is the lack
of a need of electricity, there are also disadvantages in these areas. For example, the central
island needs a constant water supply to feed the plants that have been planted there. Also, when
an accident occurs at the roundabout, it is more difficult to control the traffic because of the
individually-controlled entrances. Therefore more police officers (4 instead of 1) would be
needed to direct traffic around the roundabout in such a situation. To continue, roundabouts do
not provide priority to specific users such as transit or emergency vehicles. Bus drivers complain
of delays and having to go on the curb when driving into the roundabout. (Sherwin, OC Transpo
operators voice concerns over roundabout)




                                                  23
CONCLUSION

         In the beginning of this study, the goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of the St. Joseph
and Jeanne D’Arc Boulevard roundabout towards the environment and the population. Based on
the expectations of roundabouts, stated in Hypothesis, it is reasonable to evaluate the roundabout
as very effective towards the environment, however only to a certain extent towards the
population. To assess how the roundabout is affecting the environment the vehicles were timed
during field studies, as explained in Methods. These timed measurements are very similar to
idling time. The longer the time, the more harmful it is for the environment as cars emit more air
pollutants over time. In the study, it was proven that the roundabout has much shorter vehicle
delays than the signalized intersection, implying that it is much less harmful towards the
environment because the vehicles emit less pollutants. A minor setback in the effectiveness
towards the environment is that it uses water to feed vegetation on the central island. This use of
water adds to the depletion of fresh water on our planet, which is a growing conflict.

        Shorter delays means the drivers of vehicles are pleased with the performance of the
roundabout. In the survey, 78% of those questioned agreed that the roundabout is more efficient.
Another way to determine if the roundabout is effective towards the population is the traffic and
pedestrian safety. In the same survey, 73% thought the vehicle speeds in and around the
roundabout are slower, which in turn would reduce the amount and severity of vehicle and
pedestrian accidents. However, only 38% thought the roundabout is safer. Lastly, the operation
and maintenance of the roundabout contributes to the assessment of its effectiveness towards the
population. At the roundabout, the lack of a need of electricity benefits the population in that it
costs the city less money. However disadvantages that cost the city more money are the use of
water for the central island vegetation and the use of more police officers (4 instead of 1) to
control traffic when necessary. Finally, several types of transportation have difficulties entering
and manoeuvring through the roundabout safely.

        Thus, taking into account all of the previously mentioned factors, the roundabout is
effective towards the environment and effective to an extent towards the population.

        The methods of data collection allowed me to fully evaluate the effectiveness of the
roundabout towards the environment; however, not as successfully for the population. The
survey is one of the only methods used to assess this. Although the survey was successful in
determining how the population felt about the roundabout, it did not take into account the fact
that the roundabout is very new and the residents of Orleans may not yet be familiar with it. To
improve this, I would return to the roundabout and the comparative intersection one year later to
redo the data collection and the survey, to assess how the residents have adapted to the
roundabout. Also, the traffic safety would have perhaps been better evaluated if I had attained
accident records of the intersections from the City of Ottawa. I would have been able to compare

                                                 24
the number of accidents at both intersections.




                                                 25
REFERENCES/BIBLIOGRAPHY

"Carbon Dioxide." 2011. Car Emissions Explained. 21 August 2011 <http://www.car-emissions-
explained.co.uk/2011/01/carbon-dioxide.html>.

"Carbon Monoxide." 2011. Car Emissions Explained. 21 August 2011 <http://www.car-emissions-
explained.co.uk/2011/01/carbon-monoxide.html>.

"Hydrocarbons." 2011. Car Emissions Explained. 21 August 2011 <http://www.car-emissions-
explained.co.uk/2011/01/hydrocarbons.html>.

"Nitrogen Oxides." 2011. Car Emissions Explained. 21 August 2011 <http://www.car-emissions-
explained.co.uk/2011/01/nitrogen-oxides.html>.

"Reduced Delay." 2003. Ourston Roundabout Engineering. 1 August 2011
<http://www.ourston.com/resources/roundabouts/why/delay.html>.

"Roundabout Safety in North America." Ourston Roundabout e.

"Roundabout Safety in North America." 2003. Ourston Roundabout Engineering. 1 August 2011
<http://www.ourston.com/resources/roundabouts/why/safety.html>.

"Roundabouts." Technical Summary. n.d.

Sherwin, Fred. "OC Transpo operators voice concerns over roundabout." 27 November 2010. Orleans Online. 28
August 2011 <http://www.orleansonline.ca/pages/N2010112702.htm>.

—. "St. Joseph roundabout gets mixed reviews at public open house." 15 October 2010. Orleans Online. 28 August
2011 <http://www.orleansonline.ca/pages/N2010011502.htm>.

SIDRA Solutions. SIDRA INTERSECTION User Guide. Greythorn: Akcelik & Associates Pty Ltd , 2011.

"St Joseph/Jeanne d’Arc Boulevard Roundabout." City of Ottawa. 28 August 2011
<http://www.ottawa.ca/residents/onthemove/driving/traffic/roundabout/st_joseph_en.html>.

"What is a Modern Roundabout?" 2003. Ourston Roundabout Engineering. 14 August 2011
<http://www.ourston.com/resources/roundabouts/what.html>.

"Why Install Roundabouts?" 2003. Ourston Roundabout Engineering. 1 August 2011
<http://www.ourston.com/index.php?id=48>.




                                                      26
APPENDICES

A- VEHICLE TIME DELAY DATA TABLES
                  Table 13: St. Joseph-Jeanne D’Arc Roundabout - Winter
                        Tempe
                                  Manoeuvre                      With or
                            -                   Vehicle time                  Car line
 Date        Time                 (Left/right/                 against rush
                        raptur                     delay                        up
                                    straight)                     hour?
                         e (˚C)
Feb. 24       7:36         -6           L          13.96            W            1
           (MORNIN                      L           2.38            W            0
            G RUSH                      L           5.09            W            1
            HOUR)                       L           1.43            W            0
                                        L           7.90            W            1
                                        L           4.09            W            0
                                        L          35.95            W            1
                                        L           4.86            W            1
                                        L          10.86            W            2
                                        L           7.80            W            1
                                        L             7             W            1
                                        L             7             W            1
                                        L             5             W            2
                                        L             6             W            2
                                        L            24             W           10
                                        S             5             W            1
                                        S             4             W            1
                                        S             7             W            1
                                        S             7             W            1
                                        S             7             W            1
                                        S             7             W            2
                                        S             2             W            0
                                        S            21             W            6
                                        S            40             W            4
                                        S            16             W            2
                                        S            14             W            3
Mar. 8       16:45         -2           L           7.10           VS            2
          (EVENING                      L          18.66            W            4
             RUSH                       L          11.00            W            3
            HOUR)                       R           7.05            W            2
                                        R           3.59           VS            1
                                        R           2.58           VS            0
                                        R          13.90            W            3


                                           27
                        R        14.03    W    4
                        S         5.96    W    0
                        S         1.59   VS    0
                        S        23.32    W    0
                        S         0.76   VS    0
                        S         3.93    W    1
                        S         1.33   VS    0
                        S        12.32   VS    0
                        S        30.06    W    2
                        S        48.49    W    6
                        S        27.30    W    5
                        S         6.00   VS    2
Mar.   14:00 (NOT   5   L           8    N/A   1
 20      RUSH           L           6          1
         HOUR)          L           5          1
                        L        19.25         1
                        L         4.10         1
                        L         4.47         1
                        L        10.97         1
                        L         8.76         0
                        L        13.75         0
                        R         3.10         0
                        R         8.09         1
                        R         4.74         0
                        R         6.55         1
                        R         4.72         1
                        R         6.74         1
                        R         9.17         2
                        R          12          2
                        R           9          1
                        R           4          0
                        R          13          2
                        S         3.12         0
                        S        13.91         0
                        S         1.31         0
                        S         3.54         0
                        S         7.43         0
                        S         3.68         0
                        S         3.95         0
                        S        15.72         2
                        S         2.53         0
                        S         1.11         0
                        S         2.88         0
                        S         2.24         0

                            28
                                    S            11.89                          2
                                    S             4.67                          0
                                    S            10.97                          0
                                    S             8.65                          0
                                    S              23                           3
                                    S               9                           2
                                    S               6                           1
                                    S              19                           2
                                    S              10                           2
                                    S               8                           1
                                    S              10                           1
                                    S               5                           0
                                    S               5                           0
                                    S              10                           1
                                    S               5                           0
                                    S              13                           1

                Table 14: St. Joseph-Jeanne D’Arc Roundabout - Summer
                       Tempe
                                 Manoeuvre                      With or
                          -                   Vehicle time                   Car line
Date        Time                 (Left/right/                 against rush
                       raptur                     delay                        up
                                  straight)                      hour?
                       e (˚C)
Jul. 19      8:05        19           L            8.52            A            0
          (MORNIN                     L            6.33            A            0
           G RUSH                     L           14.76            W            2
           HOUR)                      L           28.36            A            2
                                      L           15.80            W            5
                                      L           16.75            A            0
                                      L            8.56            W            0
                                      L           38.29            A            2
                                      L            32.9            A            4
                                      L           19.22            A            0
                                      S           19.59            A            0
                                      S            1.46            W            0
                                      S            3.33            W            0
                                      S            1.21            W            0
                                      S            3.37            W            0
                                      S            4.10            A            0
                                      S            2.67            W            0
                                      S           16.87            W            3
                                      S            7.11            W            1
                                      S            5.11            W            1
                                      S            6.23            A            0
                                      S           17.39            W            1

                                          29
                         S        15.69   W   2
                         S         6.99   A   0
                         S        10.36   W   0
                         S         6.31   W   0
                         S        12.12   W   3
                         S        14.79   W   2
                         R        10.34   A   2
                         R         5.46   W   1
                         R        11.57   A   1
                         R        11.65   A   0
                         R         1.25   A   0
                         R         2.83   W   0
                         R        10.99   W   0
                         R         1.74   W   0
                         R         5.12   W   0
                         R        37.94   W   0
                         R         1.25   A   0
                         R         7.31   A   1
                         R         6.24   W   1
Jul. 20      9:00   19   L        11.58   A   2
          (MORNIN        L        12.93   A   1
           G RUSH        L         9.00   W   0
           HOUR)         L         3.72   W   0
                         L        15.82   W   0
                         L         2.87   A   0
                         L        15.20   W   0
                         L        19.26   A   4
                         L         4.13   W   0
                         L        16.21   A   1
                         L         5.15   W   0
                         S        24.02   A   4
                         S         6.10   W   0
                         S        14.93   A   1
                         S         3.03   W   0
                         S         3.59   W   1
                         S         9.34   W   0
                         S         1.61   W   0
                         S         6.11   W   0
                         S         1.61   A   0
                         S         6.11   W   0
                         S         1.81   A   0
                         S         3.09   W   0
                         S         4.76   A   0
                         S         6.61   W   1

                             30
                          S        13.66   W   0
                          S         9.12   W   0
                          S         5.76   W   0
                          S         3.68   W   0
                          S         4.19   W   0
                          S        13.08   W   2
                          S         2.10   A   0
                          S         6.79   A   0
                          S         3.87   W   1
                          S        16.32   A   0
                          S         6.33   W   0
                          S         7.26   W   0
                          S        13.47   W   2
                          S         6.97   A   0
                          S         8.52   W   1
                          R         2.33   W   0
                          R         6.03   A   2
                          R         4.77   W   0
                          R         3.31   W   0
                          R         6.04   W   0
                          R         3.64   A   0
                          R         1.60   W   0
                          R         4.24   A   0
                          R        10.57   A   3
                          R         3.81   W   0
                          R        25.30   A   0
                          R         5.79   W   0
                          R        10.39   W   0
Jul. 19      17:20   27   L        16.35   A   0
          (EVENING        L        10.56   A   1
            RUSH          L        64.99   A   2
            HOUR)         L         7.04   A   1
                          S        13.64   W   0
                          S         7.70   A   0
                          S         5.84   W   2
                          S        29.00   W   5
                          S        31.45   W   2
                          S         1.79   A   0
                          S         4.55   A   0
                          S         3.21   W   0
                          S         8.65   A   0
                          S        14.98   W   3
                          S         3.56   A   1
                          S         7.54   W   0

                              31
                          S        10.09   A   2
                          S         3.04   A   0
                          S         9.85   A   1
                          S         7.75   W   0
                          R        18.79   W   2
                          R         2.00   W   0
                          R        10.46   W   1
                          R         2.45   A   0
                          R         1.82   W   0
                          R         4.13   W   0
                          R         7.99   W   1
                          R         5.18   W   0
                          R         2.80   W   0
Jul. 26      17:00   23   L         3.84   W   1
          (EVENING        L         3.45   A   0
            RUSH          L         2.19   A   0
            HOUR)         L        27.69   A   3
                          L        31.68   W   5
                          L        13.48   A   0
                          L         6.29   A   0
                          L        23.64   W   5
                          S        09.51   W   1
                          S        15.50   W   1
                          S         3.22   A   0
                          S         2.76   W   0
                          S         2.32   A   0
                          S         2.72   W   0
                          S         5.85   A   1
                          S        38.77   A   3
                          S         6.27   W   0
                          S         2.65   A   0
                          S        10.43   A   0
                          R         5.03   W   0
                          R         9.32   W   0
                          R        24.05   W   3
                          R         3.88   W   0
                          R        15.84   A   2
                          R         3.61   W   0
                          R        12.44   W   0
                          R        13.88   W   1
                          R        10.64   A   0
Jul. 28     16:00    28   L         4.03   A   0
          (EVENING        L         3.29   W   0
            RUSH          L         8.39   W   0

                              32
          HOUR)            L        39.83    W    3
                           L         9.17    A    0
                           L         8.00    A    0
                           L         4.68    W    0
                           L        12.62    A    1
                           S         8.09    A    0
                           S        15.96    W    2
                           S         7.62    A    1
                           S         4.11    A    0
                           S         8.84    W    0
                           S         5.05    A    0
                           S         6.59    W    1
                           S         7.77    W    3
                           S         4.73    W    0
                           S        17.98    A    2
                           S         7.10    W    0
                           S        13.67    W    1
                           S         2.14    A    0
                           S        23.94    A    3
                           S         7.87    A    0
                           S         8.39    W    0
                           S        10.15    W    3
                           S        10.81    A    0
                           S         5.72    W    1
                           S        10.31    W    1
                           S         3.22    W    0
                           S         7.48    A    1
                           S         6.82    W    2
                           S         3.80    A    1
                           R         2.67    W    0
                           R         6.91    A    1
                           R         7.07    W    0
                           R        11.18    A    1
                           R        12.90    W    2
                           R        15.33    W    1
                           R        31.22    W    5
                           R        16.22    A    1
                           R         4.65    A    0
Aug. 9   10:22 (NOT   21   L         1.99   N/A   0
           RUSH            L        10.98         0
           HOUR)           L         3.87         0
                           L         5.01         0
                           L         2.85         0
                           L        11.85         1

                               33
                                    L             5.17                           0
                                    L             2.10                           0
                                    S             2.42                           0
                                    S            12.62                           0
                                    S             3.39                           0
                                    S             9.36                           0
                                    S             3.70                           0
                                    S            16.28                           1
                                    S            23.09                           0
                                    S            18.24                           1
                                    S             5.46                           0
                                    S             4.67                           0
                                    S             7.79                           1
                                    S             3.72                           0
                                    S             5.86                           2
                                    S             5.10                           0
                                    S             4.92                           1
                                    S             5.17                           0
                                    S             6.00                           0
                                    S             4.03                           0
                                    S             4.03                           0
                                    S             4.49                           0
                                    R             4.25                           0
                                    R            10.60                           0
                                    R             6.84                           1
                                    R             4.51                           0
                                    R             6.53                           0
                                    R             4.13                           0
                                    R             2.30                           0

                  Table 15: St. Joseph-Orleans Intersection - Winter
                    Tempe
                               Manoeuvre                         With or
                        -                    Vehicle time                     Car line
 Date       Time               (Left/right/                    against rush
                    raptur                       delay                          up
                                 straight)                        hour?
                     e (˚C)
Feb. 24      8:00      -6            S            9.69              W            1
          (MORNIN                    S           10.34              W            4
           G RUSH                    S           26.65              W            1
           HOUR)                     S           27.22              W            0
                                     S           36.81              W            2
                                     S           23.95              W            1
                                     S           47.23              W            0
                                     S           28.98              W            2
                                     S           32.68              W            0

                                           34
S        29.71   W    0
S        27.33   W    4
S        35.85   VS   1
S        36.74   VS   0
S        22.44   W    4
S        39.79   W    4
S        21.87   W    0
S         19     W    2
S         30     W    0
S         38     W    2
S         28     W    3
S         18     W    5
S         34     W    2
S         42     W    2
S         56     W    7
S         38     W    6
S         27     W    1
S         27     W    1
S         26     W    0
S         50     W    0
S         42     W    3
S         29     W    0
S         82     W    0
S         33     W    4
L        30.93   W    2
L        34.62   W    0
L        44.41   VS   3
L        29.96   W    1
L        70.92   W    0
L        41.62   VS   0
L        22.97   W    2
L        17.72   W    2
L        28.82   W    1
L        31.62   W    1
L        26.84   W    1
L         45     W    7
L         38     W    1
L         34     W    1
L         52     W    0
L         22     W    6
L         29     W    7
L         35     W    3
L         76     W    3
L         40     W    6

    35
                           L          47     W     0
                           L          35     W     0
                           L          35     W     3
                           L          51     W     4
                           L          10     W     1
                           R         4.13    W     0
                           R         3.21    W     0
                           R        10.62    W     0
                           R         1.74    W     0
                           R        11.49   VS     0
                           R         6.80    W     1
                           R          38     W     1
                           R          36     W     4
Mar. 8      16:30     -2   L        25.96   VS     2
         (EVENING          L         8.32   VS    00
           RUSH            L        73.69   VS     3
           HOUR)           L        50.81    W     0
                           L        20.37    W    10
                           R         6.14   VS     1
                           R        31.65   VS     4
                           R        51.16   VS     2
                           R        28.25   VS     7
                           R        14.95   VS     1
                           S        32.41    W    10
                           S        45.23    W     8
                           S        59.81    W     1
                           S        65.78   VS     0
                           S        53.93    W     5
                           S        58.44    W     4
                           S        90.34    W     0
                           S        49.04    W     4
Mar.     13:25 (NOT   5    L        65.28   N/A    1
 20        RUSH            L        25.60          1
           HOUR)           L        62.63          2
                           L        14.34          2
                           L        40.40          4
                           L        68.17          4
                           L        18.39          0
                           L        56.09          1
                           L        26.14          5
                           L        67.00          2
                           L         9.13          0
                           L        51.51          0
                           L        12.15          7

                               36
                                     L            10.03                           0
                                     L            32.01                           7
                                     L              61                            4
                                     L              31                            3
                                     R             6.36                           2
                                     R             6.70                           0
                                     R            20.16                           0
                                     R            20.13                           0
                                     R            29.98                           0
                                     R            18.40                           1
                                     R             9.43                           0
                                     R            14.93                           3
                                     R               6                            0
                                     R              39                            3
                                     S            36.22                           5
                                     S            28.67                           0
                                     S            53.68                           1
                                     S            42.87                           4
                                     S            24.21                           3
                                     S            59.78                           1
                                     S             8.38                           3
                                     S            16.78                           8
                                     S            54.44                           3
                                     S            73.37                           2
                                     S            57.34                           3
                                     S            26.18                           9
                                     S            24.06                           7
                                     S              68                            0
                                     S              42                            2
                                     S              64                            5
                                     S              40                            0
                                     S              61                            5
                                     S              52                            0

                  Table 16: St. Joseph-Orleans Intersection - Summer
                     Tempe
                                Manoeuvre                         With or
                         -                    Vehicle time                     Car line
Date        Time                (Left/right/                    against rush
                     raptur                       delay                          up
                                 straight)                         hour?
                      e (˚C)
Jul. 19      7:08       18           L            38.83              A            2
          (MORNIN                    L            70.67              W            0
           G RUSH                    L            52.79              A            0
           HOUR)                     L            23.95              W            1
                                     L            42.87              W            1

                                           37
                         L        26.84   W   0
                         L        43.26   A   0
                         L        18.82   W   2
                         L        53.05   W   0
                         L        20.30   W   0
                         L        50.19   W   1
                         S        61.46   A   0
                         S        49.45   W   0
                         S        32.72   W   1
                         S        30.60   W   6
                         S        15.84   W   6
                         S        23.22   A   2
                         S        53.34   A   3
                         S        53.54   A   1
                         S        32.11   W   5
                         S        40.14   W   5
                         S        63.89   A   0
                         S         7.52   W   4
                         S        22.84   W   0
                         S        15.02   A   0
                         S        30.55   A   1
                         S        36.46   W   4
                         S        25.01   W   1
                         S        52.26   A   1
                         S        43.14   W   4
                         S        23.85   A   1
                         R         6.38   W   0
                         R         4.72   A   1
                         R        17.44   A   0
                         R         1.48   W   0
                         R         6.63   A   1
                         R         3.26   W   0
                         R         3.15   A   0
                         R         5.95   W   0
                         R        11.56   A   0
                         R         2.78   A   0
Jul. 20      8:00   19   L        37.09   W   1
          (MORNIN        L        29.39   A   4
           G RUSH        L        26.40   A   1
           HOUR)         L        30.79   A   0
                         L         9.76   W   0
                         L        10.59   W   1
                         L        10.60   W   3
                         L        19.98   W   4

                             38
                          L        71.44   A   0
                          L        26.92   W   2
                          L        52.34   W   0
                          L        57.81   W   1
                          L        28.88   W   2
                          L        17.92   W   3
                          L        29.56   W   4
                          L        19.45   W   2
                          L        45.39   W   3
                          S        39.76   A   0
                          S        13.90   A   3
                          S        47.86   A   1
                          S        55.81   A   1
                          S        22.12   W   2
                          S        39.29   W   1
                          S        44.09   A   3
                          S        43.52   A   0
                          S        23.37   A   1
                          S        29.57   A   3
                          S        31.39   W   1
                          S        24.50   A   0
                          S        67.09   A   2
                          S        43.67   W   2
                          S        59.27   A   1
                          S        53.76   A   2
                          S        49.46   A   4
                          S        34.41   A   6
                          S        32.35   W   5
                          S        45.26   A   3
                          R        14.95   A   0
                          R         1.81   W   0
                          R         7.16   A   0
                          R         4.29   A   0
                          R         3.43   A   0
                          R         9.66   A   0
                          R         1.14   A   0
                          R         1.41   W   0
                          R         8.49   W   1
                          R         1.85   A   0
                          R        56.94   A   1
Jul. 25      16:35   23   L        27.35   A   2
          (EVENING        L        79.45   A   2
            RUSH          L        42.72   A   4
            HOUR)         L        74.71   A   8

                              39
                         S         71.24   W    4
                         S         49.24   W    1
                         S         78.08   W    5
                         S         29.16   W    8
                         S         58.58   A    5
                         S         57.22   W    4
                         S         39.30   W    7
                         S         57.33   A    3
                         R         51.05   A    1
                         R         43.68   W    7
                         R         11.66   A    1
                         R         22.39   A    9
Aug. 9      16:33   22   L         53.96   A    2
         (EVENING        L         68.50   W    1
           RUSH          L        135.81   A   14
           HOUR)         L         19.41   A    2
                         L         26.88   W    2
                         L         18.41   A    2
                         L         63.05   A    0
                         L         23.52   A    8
                         L        114.44   A    8
                         L         56.40   W    1
                         L        121.60   A    7
                         L         28.21   W    1
                         L         33.82   W    2
                         L         19.25   W    4
                         L         18.15   A    2
                         L         77.74   A    2
                         S         68.20   A    1
                         S         64.72   W    0
                         S         28.94   W    1
                         S         23.13   W    4
                         S         55.25   W    2
                         S         18.83   A    6
                         S         38.09   W    3
                         S         23.91   A    0
                         S         49.19   W    8
                         S         29.92   W    1
                         S         38.39   W    5
                         S         38.59   W    2
                         S         27.60   W    5
                         S         37.06   W    6
                         S         17.42   A    0
                         S         83.28   A    3

                             40
                           S        18.59    A     4
                           S        46.87    W     1
                           S        10.44    A     0
                           S        14.01    W     6
                           S        35.18    A     1
                           R        20.29    W     7
                           R        11.49    A     0
                           R         4.63    A     1
                           R         6.21    A     0
                           R         9.54    A     1
                           R         6.61    A     0
                           R        38.51    A     3
                           R        10.60    A     2
                           R        38.28    A    11
                           R        29.38    A     4
                           R        32.54    A     1
                           R        55.31    A     1
                           R        26.96    A     1
                           R         3.37    A     0
                           R        36.79    A     7
                           R        21.38    A     3
Aug. 9   11:00 (NOT   23   L        48.60   N/A    0
           RUSH            L        38.58          0
           HOUR)           L        31.96          0
                           L        56.19          0
                           L         9.59          2
                           L        22.49          3
                           L        21.43          2
                           L         6.60          0
                           L        15.78          2
                           L        37.62          1
                           L        17.82          1
                           L        28.22          4
                           S        41.79          1
                           S        13.21          3
                           S        27.33          0
                           S        29.15          2
                           S        45.54          0
                           S        64.73          4
                           S        11.41          1
                           S        56.93          5
                           S        32.12          5
                           S        20.49          2
                           S        35.48          1

                               41
                                       S             31.28                               2
                                       S             24.33                               4
                                       S             48.30                               0
                                       S             35.00                               5
                                       R             23.12                               0
                                       R              5.72                               0
                                       R             21.14                               1
                                       R             17.04                               2
                                       R              1.47                               0
                                       R              9.11                               3


B- CALCULATIONS
      Table 17: Calculation for average pollution emitted per vehicle per manoeuvre
   Component        Total pollution emitted (g/s) Calculation
Hydrocarbons                   0.0011
                                                   [Total pollution emitted (g/s) x Vehicle
Carbon monoxide                0.0083
                                                   time delay (s)] = Total pollution emitted
Oxides of nitrogen             0.0005
                                                   per vehicle (g)
Carbon Dioxide                 0.1647


C- SURVEY
                             Table 18: Sample of Survey
                  Drive          Walk                                        Reduced
                                               More
#    M or F     frequency     frequency                        Safer?        vehicles
                                            efficient?
                (per week)    (per week)                                     speeds?
1       F            2             0             Y                N             Y




                                              42

				
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