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Pellet binders are used primarily for their ability to improve pellet quality but they often contribute nutrients as well. For example, lignin sulfonate may contain metabolizable carbohydrate (AAFCO, Morrison) and ureaformaldehyde may be a source of slow-release nitrogen for ruminants (Gribbins). In contrast, wheat and whey are used primarily for their nutrient value but are also known to have a positive binding effect. The nutrient contribution of a binder should be recognised and included in the formulation, but the real reason for using these ingredients is because of the impact physical form of the pellet has on animal performance.
Digital Re-print - July | August 2012 Nutritional impact of pellet binders Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2010 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872 www.gfmt.co.uk FEATURE Figure 1: Segregation that occurs when pellets containing 20 percent fines are transferred. Nutritional impact of pellet binders by Thomas S. Winowiski, Technical Application Manager, LignoTech, USA P ellet binders are used primarily for feed with CV of 12.1 percent their ability to improve pellet quality (McCoy). It stands to reason that but they often contribute nutrients unmixing could have a similar nega- as well. For example, lignin sulfonate tive impact. may contain metabolizable carbohydrate Figure 1 shows how fines seg- (AAFCO, Morrison) and ureaformaldehyde regate when they are transferred. may be a source of slow-release nitrogen for (In this case a small amount of ruminants (Gribbins). In contrast, wheat and carbon black was added to a corn/ whey are used primarily for their nutrient soya mix prior to pelleting so that value but are also known to have a positive the pellets would contrast with binding effect. The nutrient contribu- the undarkened fines.) This occurs tion of a binder should be recognised every time bulk pellets are dropped and included in the formulation, but the into a cooler, truck, or silo. Fines real reason for using these ingredients is don’t roll as easily as pellets and because of the impact physical form of the stop in the first space they fall into. pellet has on animal performance. These fines typically contain higher Figure 2: Segregation of fines exiting a levels of mineral and fat; mineral farm silo because pieces are likely to break Fine segregation out of the pellet and fat because it Good pellet quality is necessary to pre- is more likely to be associated with vent segregation of ingredients. The impor- poor binding. This is even more tance of uniform mixing is well documented critical when fat is applied after the (Table 1). Broilers fed poorly mixed feed pellet press. with a CV of 40.5 percent had poorer per- When fines fill the spaces formance than those fed adequately mixed between pellets they may hinder flow. Figure 2 shows how fines Table 1: Impact of poor mixing on 28 day remained in a silo allowing the growth assay pellets to flow out first. In this test Salt CV, % 40.5 12.1 a bulk truck unloaded two ship- ments of Turkey Grower pellets into similar farm silos. The feed ADG, g 23.6 30.0 was then removed and sacked off. Feed/Grain 1.82 1.72 Figure 3: Shift in pellet durability Every tenth bag was screened to measured by two different methods Mortality, % 12.0 0.0 measure fines. Inclusion of a binder 12 | July - august 2012 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy FEATURE Table 2: Effect of process changes on pellet Can method (Kansas State University) and durability the New Holmen method (Borregaard Production Factor Pellet Durability LignoTech) are both effective tools for meas- uring durability and predicting the amount of Batch X1 X2 X3 New KSU DDGs LS Binder Temp, °C Holmen Tumbler fines that will be delivered to the farm. Their ability to measure quality changes in a corn/ soya pellet was tested in a 2 x 2 x 2 facto- 1 0 0 79.1 85.1 92.0 rial experiment (Winowiski). The changes 2 10% 0 78.8 82.7 90.9 were: adding 10 percent DDGS; adding one percent lignin sulfonate (LS Binder); and 3 0 1% 79.0 90.5 94.1 increasing conditioning temperature by 5ºC 4 10% 1% 77.7 89.6 93.8 (Table 2 and Figure 3). 5 0 0 82.8 86.8 92.3 Each of these changes was expected to 6 10% 0 85.2 85.2 92.2 cause a change in pellet durability. The point of this test was to measure the relative impact 7 0 1% 91.7 91.7 94.8 of each factor and the ability of the two meth- 8 10% 1% 91.3 91.3 94.5 ods to clearly show the response. There was good agreement between the two methods, reduced delivered fines from 21.3 percent to fed good quality pellets have been shown to but the effect on pellet quality was easier to 9.7 percent and was a positive step toward have significantly increased gain while those observe with the New Holmen method. reducing segregation (Winowiski). fed low durability pellets performed the Most pellet binders can make some same as those fed unpelleted diets (Lemme). nutrient claims. However, the main reason Binding benefits Shifting 10 units of fines into pellets has for using a commercial binder is to secure Quality pellets reduce segregation and been shown to increase the effective caloric the benefits associated with good pellet increase productive energy. It has been value (ECV) of the feed by 18.7 kcal/kg quality. The choice to use a particular clearly demonstrated that fast-growing birds (McKinney). This is simply the result of birds product should be made first based on its fed pellets spend less time eating and more spending less of their energy eating. binding performance. This is its purpose and time resting (Skinner-Noble). Just like us, Suppose adding 0.5 percent pellet binder this is where its real value lies. It should be this behavior helps them to pack on the could cause a 10 unit shift in fines at the possible to measure a binder’s performance pounds. By reducing the energy required for feeder. That would mean that 5 kg of binder directly at the feed plant by use of a pellet prehension of their food they shift calories effectively contributed 18,700 kcal per metric durability test. A positive response should from maintenance to production. Broilers ton of feed; each kilo of binder therefore then be confirmed with field samples. Only effectively after a product has been selected based on contributed its performance is it time to consider the 3,740 kcal to nutrients it may contribute. the diet. Are pellet Bibliography: binders really AAFCO - Association of American Feed Control Officials. that effective? 2010. Official Feed Definitions 87.2 Lignin Sulfonate That remains and 87.19 Urea Formaldehyde Condensation Polymer. to be meas- Gribbins, M. F. 1954. Ruminant Feed Composition. ured, and the U.S. Patent No. 2,687,354. type of seg- Lemme, A., P. J. A. Wijtten, J. van Wichen, A. Petri, and regation that D. J. Langhout. 2006. Responses of male growing is illustrated broilers to increasing levels of balanced protein in Figure 2 offered as coarse mash or pellets of varying quality. makes it obvi- Poultry Science 85:721-730. ous that sim- McCoy, R. A., K. C. Behnke, J. D. Hancock, and R. R. ply collecting McEllhiney. 1994. Effect of mixing uniformity on a few samples broiler chick performance. Poultry Sci. 73:443-451. might give a McKinney, L. J., and R. G. Teeter. 2004. Prediction misleading effective caloric value of nonnutritive factors: I. Pellet result. Pellet quality and II. Prediction of Consequential Formulation durability Dead Zones. Poultry Science 83:1165-1174. testers can be Morrison, H. L., P. W. Waldroup, D. E. Green, useful for and E. L. Stephenson. 1968. Determination of testing bind- the Metabolizable Energy and Feeding Value ers, as well as of a Lignin Sulfonate Pellet Binder. Poultry Sci. determining 47:592-597. the impact Skinner-Noble, D. O., L. J. McKinney, and R. G. of other fac- Teeter. 2005. Predicting effective caloric value of tors such as nonnutritive factors: III. Feed form affects broiler adding dis- performance by modifying behavior patterns. tiller’s grains Poultry Science 84:403-411. or increasing Winowiski, Thomas. 1988. Wheat and pellet quality. conditioning Feed International, July, pp. 43-44. temperature. Winowiski, Thomas, and E. J. Bernal. 2011. The Comparison of pellet durability methods. LignoTech Tumbling USA, 29 September, 2011. 14 | July - august 2012 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy Quality pellets make a difference Do the animals get all the costly feed ingredients you have carefully chosen for them - or is some of your pelleted feed lost as fines during production, storage or transport? Improve your pellet quality and pelleting efficiency with our high performance pellet binders and lubricating aids, suitable for all feeds! For more information about our pelleting aids and other feed additives, visit our website or contact us! r we bsite: Vi sit ouotechfeed.com .li gn www Further information is available from Borregaard LignoTech: E-mail: email@example.com This digital Re-print is part of the July | August 2012 edition of Grain & Feed Milling Technology magazine. 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