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Nutritional impact of pellet binders

VIEWS: 52 PAGES: 6

Pellet binders are used primarily for their ability to improve pellet quality but they often contribute nutrients as well. For example, lignin sulfonate may contain metabolizable carbohydrate (AAFCO, Morrison) and ureaformaldehyde may be a source of slow-release nitrogen for ruminants (Gribbins). In contrast, wheat and whey are used primarily for their nutrient value but are also known to have a positive binding effect. The nutrient contribution of a binder should be recognised and included in the formulation, but the real reason for using these ingredients is because of the impact physical form of the pellet has on animal performance.

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									Digital Re-print - July | August 2012
          Nutritional impact of pellet binders



 Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom.
 All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,
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 or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872




                         www.gfmt.co.uk
     FEATURE




                                                                                                                                     Figure 1: Segregation that occurs when pellets
                                                                                                                                        containing 20 percent fines are transferred.
             Nutritional impact of pellet
                       binders
                            by Thomas S. Winowiski, Technical Application Manager, LignoTech, USA




P
      ellet binders are used primarily for      feed with CV of 12.1 percent
      their ability to improve pellet quality   (McCoy). It stands to reason that
      but they often contribute nutrients       unmixing could have a similar nega-
as well. For example, lignin sulfonate          tive impact.
may contain metabolizable carbohydrate              Figure 1 shows how fines seg-
(AAFCO, Morrison) and ureaformaldehyde          regate when they are transferred.
may be a source of slow-release nitrogen for    (In this case a small amount of
ruminants (Gribbins). In contrast, wheat and    carbon black was added to a corn/
whey are used primarily for their nutrient      soya mix prior to pelleting so that
value but are also known to have a positive     the pellets would contrast with
binding effect. The nutrient contribu-          the undarkened fines.) This occurs
tion of a binder should be recognised           every time bulk pellets are dropped
and included in the formulation, but the        into a cooler, truck, or silo. Fines
real reason for using these ingredients is      don’t roll as easily as pellets and
because of the impact physical form of the      stop in the first space they fall into.
pellet has on animal performance.               These fines typically contain higher      Figure 2: Segregation of fines exiting a
                                                levels of mineral and fat; mineral                                       farm silo
                                                because pieces are likely to break
Fine segregation                                out of the pellet and fat because it
   Good pellet quality is necessary to pre-     is more likely to be associated with
vent segregation of ingredients. The impor-     poor binding. This is even more
tance of uniform mixing is well documented      critical when fat is applied after the
(Table 1). Broilers fed poorly mixed feed       pellet press.
with a CV of 40.5 percent had poorer per-           When fines fill the spaces
formance than those fed adequately mixed        between pellets they may hinder
                                                flow. Figure 2 shows how fines
 Table 1: Impact of poor mixing on 28 day       remained in a silo allowing the
 growth assay                                   pellets to flow out first. In this test
     Salt CV, %       40.5           12.1       a bulk truck unloaded two ship-
                                                ments of Turkey Grower pellets
                                                into similar farm silos. The feed
       ADG, g         23.6           30.0
                                                was then removed and sacked off.
    Feed/Grain            1.82        1.72                                                    Figure 3: Shift in pellet durability
                                                Every tenth bag was screened to
                                                                                            measured by two different methods
   Mortality, %       12.0             0.0      measure fines. Inclusion of a binder

12 | July - august 2012                                                                           Grain &feed millinG technoloGy
     FEATURE


 Table 2: Effect of process changes on pellet                                                        Can method (Kansas State University) and
 durability                                                                                          the New Holmen method (Borregaard
                     Production Factor                               Pellet Durability               LignoTech) are both effective tools for meas-
                                                                                                     uring durability and predicting the amount of
          Batch         X1                X2          X3              New                  KSU
                       DDGs            LS Binder    Temp, °C         Holmen              Tumbler
                                                                                                     fines that will be delivered to the farm. Their
                                                                                                     ability to measure quality changes in a corn/
                                                                                                     soya pellet was tested in a 2 x 2 x 2 facto-
              1            0               0           79.1            85.1               92.0       rial experiment (Winowiski). The changes
              2           10%              0           78.8            82.7               90.9       were: adding 10 percent DDGS; adding one
                                                                                                     percent lignin sulfonate (LS Binder); and
              3            0              1%           79.0            90.5               94.1
                                                                                                     increasing conditioning temperature by 5ºC
              4           10%             1%           77.7            89.6               93.8       (Table 2 and Figure 3).
              5            0               0           82.8            86.8               92.3           Each of these changes was expected to
              6           10%              0           85.2            85.2               92.2       cause a change in pellet durability. The point
                                                                                                     of this test was to measure the relative impact
              7            0              1%           91.7            91.7               94.8
                                                                                                     of each factor and the ability of the two meth-
              8           10%             1%           91.3            91.3               94.5       ods to clearly show the response. There was
                                                                                                     good agreement between the two methods,
reduced delivered fines from 21.3 percent to       fed good quality pellets have been shown to       but the effect on pellet quality was easier to
9.7 percent and was a positive step toward         have significantly increased gain while those     observe with the New Holmen method.
reducing segregation (Winowiski).                  fed low durability pellets performed the              Most pellet binders can make some
                                                   same as those fed unpelleted diets (Lemme).       nutrient claims. However, the main reason
Binding benefits                                   Shifting 10 units of fines into pellets has       for using a commercial binder is to secure
    Quality pellets reduce segregation and         been shown to increase the effective caloric      the benefits associated with good pellet
increase productive energy. It has been            value (ECV) of the feed by 18.7 kcal/kg           quality. The choice to use a particular
clearly demonstrated that fast-growing birds       (McKinney). This is simply the result of birds    product should be made first based on its
fed pellets spend less time eating and more        spending less of their energy eating.             binding performance. This is its purpose and
time resting (Skinner-Noble). Just like us,            Suppose adding 0.5 percent pellet binder      this is where its real value lies. It should be
this behavior helps them to pack on the            could cause a 10 unit shift in fines at the       possible to measure a binder’s performance
pounds. By reducing the energy required for        feeder. That would mean that 5 kg of binder       directly at the feed plant by use of a pellet
prehension of their food they shift calories       effectively contributed 18,700 kcal per metric    durability test. A positive response should
from maintenance to production. Broilers           ton of feed; each kilo of binder therefore        then be confirmed with field samples. Only
                                                                                   effectively       after a product has been selected based on
                                                                                   contributed       its performance is it time to consider the
                                                                                   3,740 kcal to     nutrients it may contribute.
                                                                                   the diet.
                                                                                        Are pellet   Bibliography:
                                                                                   binders really    AAFCO - Association of American Feed Control Officials.
                                                                                   that effective?     2010. Official Feed Definitions 87.2 Lignin Sulfonate
                                                                                   That remains        and 87.19 Urea Formaldehyde Condensation Polymer.
                                                                                   to be meas-       Gribbins, M. F. 1954. Ruminant Feed Composition.
                                                                                   ured, and the       U.S. Patent No. 2,687,354.
                                                                                   type of seg-      Lemme, A., P. J. A. Wijtten, J. van Wichen, A. Petri, and
                                                                                   regation that       D. J. Langhout. 2006. Responses of male growing
                                                                                   is illustrated      broilers to increasing levels of balanced protein
                                                                                   in Figure 2         offered as coarse mash or pellets of varying quality.
                                                                                   makes it obvi-      Poultry Science 85:721-730.
                                                                                   ous that sim-     McCoy, R. A., K. C. Behnke, J. D. Hancock, and R. R.
                                                                                   ply collecting      McEllhiney. 1994. Effect of mixing uniformity on
                                                                                   a few samples       broiler chick performance. Poultry Sci. 73:443-451.
                                                                                   might give a      McKinney, L. J., and R. G. Teeter. 2004. Prediction
                                                                                   misleading          effective caloric value of nonnutritive factors: I. Pellet
                                                                                   result. Pellet      quality and II. Prediction of Consequential Formulation
                                                                                   durability          Dead Zones. Poultry Science 83:1165-1174.
                                                                                   testers can be    Morrison, H. L., P. W. Waldroup, D. E. Green,
                                                                                   useful      for     and E. L. Stephenson. 1968. Determination of
                                                                                   testing bind-       the Metabolizable Energy and Feeding Value
                                                                                   ers, as well as     of a Lignin Sulfonate Pellet Binder. Poultry Sci.
                                                                                   determining         47:592-597.
                                                                                   the impact        Skinner-Noble, D. O., L. J. McKinney, and R. G.
                                                                                   of other fac-       Teeter. 2005. Predicting effective caloric value of
                                                                                   tors such as        nonnutritive factors: III. Feed form affects broiler
                                                                                   adding dis-         performance by modifying behavior patterns.
                                                                                   tiller’s grains     Poultry Science 84:403-411.
                                                                                   or increasing     Winowiski, Thomas. 1988. Wheat and pellet quality.
                                                                                   conditioning        Feed International, July, pp. 43-44.
                                                                                   temperature.      Winowiski, Thomas, and E. J. Bernal. 2011.
                                                                                        The            Comparison of pellet durability methods. LignoTech
                                                                                   Tumbling            USA, 29 September, 2011.


14 | July - august 2012                                                                                           Grain   &feed millinG technoloGy
 Quality pellets
 make a difference
 Do the animals get all the costly feed
 ingredients you have carefully chosen
 for them - or is some of your pelleted
 feed lost as fines during production,
 storage or transport?

 Improve your pellet quality and pelleting
 efficiency with our high performance pellet
 binders and lubricating aids, suitable for
 all feeds!

 For more information about our pelleting
 aids and other feed additives, visit our
 website or contact us!



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            .li    gn
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