Behavioralism _review_ by hcj

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									Behavioralism (review)

        Founders:
   Watson (Little Albert)
   Skinner (Skinner box)
                          Behavioralsim
        -       Focus on behaviors (actions)
  -         Alter behavior through conditioning

    For example, let’s say Billy is really
   depressed. The depression causes Billy
   to stop sleeping and eating. Billy is also
      drinking tequila as his only liquids.
How would each of the following treat Billy?
           a.     A psychoanalyst?
            b.     A trait theorist?
               c.   A humanist?

      A behavioralist would approach Billy’s
             problems very differently.
                            Behavioralism
   A behaviorist would only look at Billy's
    behaviors, not his depression itself.
   They would examine his lack of
    sleeping and eating and drinking of
    alcohol as Billy's true problems.
   Then they would use
    conditioning/learning strategies to
    change Billy's behaviors.
        They may give Billy $20 for every bowl
         of Cinnamon Toast Crunch he eats.
        They may put diarrhea medicine in
         Billy's tequila.
   These techniques will stop Billy's
    behaviors around depression, but will
    they rid Billy of his depression? You
    may think not, but to a behaviorist, if
    the behaviors are no longer
    maladaptive, then where's the
    problem?
The Social-Cognitive
    Perspective

     Of Personality
                    Bandura is Back
Do  you remember Albert Bandura and
his Bobo doll experiment?
Bandura was a behavioralist who
demonstrated that children will model the
behaviors of others.
This may not seem like a big deal to you
and me, but it was to the behavioralists.
You see, behavioralists studied
observable behaviors only, and said that it
was unscientific to study thinking because
it can’t be measured or quantified.
However, if kids can learn by watching
others being rewarded or punished, then
thinking is necessary to explain the
behaviors (something to the effect of, “I
bet it would be fun to do that”).
Thus, Bandura began the social-cognitive
movement.
        Social Cognitive Theory
   Focus on how we INTERPRET and RESPOND TO
    external events. Cognitive therapy attempts to
    change the way to THINK about things.
Reciprocal Determinism: the
interacting influences between
personality and environmental
factors.
          Reciprocal Determinism
   The type of person you were made you
    choose to come to RCHS. Attending
    RCHS has probably shaped your
    personality in some ways.
   Anxious people are more attuned to
    threatening events. They will perceive
    the world as more threatening, which in
    turn, may make them more anxious.
   If you are easy-going, you make other
    people feel comfortable. This in turn,
    causes them to treat you nicely. This
    may affect how you view other people.
   Think of an example of reciprocal
    determinism from your own life and
    share it with your partner.
   If some of these examples sound like
    self-fulfilling prophecies, that’s because
    they are. Self-fulfilling prophecies are
    perfect examples of reciprocal
    determinism.
        Personal Control
 Oursense of controlling our
 environment rather than the
 environment controlling us.
       External Locus of Control

   The perception that chance or outside
    forces beyond one’s personal control
    determine one’s fate.
       Internal Locus of Control

   The perception that one controls one’s
    own fate.
Identify each statement below as being indicative
 of either an internal locus of control (ILC) or an
          external locus of control (ELC):

   I’ll never be a good writer.
   I have to practice so I can get better.
   I probably could have prevented that.
   It’s not my fault.
   It’s fate!
 Those with ILC tend to do better in school, act more
    independently, enjoy better health, feel less
    depressed, and cope better with stress. Why?
 Under what circumstances might an ILC be bad for
    mental health?
           Learned Helplessness
    Martin Seligman (father of “positive
                psychology”)
   The hopelessness and passive
    resignation an animal or human
    learns when unable to avoid
    repeated aversive events.
   Who can tell us about Seligman’s
    research?
   Can you think of examples of
    people who stop trying to help
    themselves?
        Battered wives
        Prisoners
        You when you get really far
         behind in a class
   Are these analogous to Seligman’s
    dogs?
Seligman did not anticipate how the dogs
would respond and was saddened by it.
After his initial experiments, he vowed
never to do such studies on dogs again—he
switched to rats!
                            Self-efficacy
  According to Bandura, the belief that you are
    likely to be successful at something is called
       self-efficacy, and it can be a powerful
          determinant of success or failure.

If I believe I am likely to be successful in math, I
     may choose to take more math classes, and
        actually become a better math student.

             Share with your partner:
  1)    Something for which you have high self-
                       efficacy.
   2)   Something for which you have low self-
                       efficacy.
           Self-efficacy continued

   Self-efficacy is a powerful determinant of
    future success, but…
   …be wary of overconfidence.
       It can lead students to perform lower (“I don’t
        need to study”) and may encourage unwise
        risks (“I can drive on ice.”)
                    Criticisms
Some believe that S-C
  perspective focuses
  TOO much on the
  SITUATION and not
  enough on inner
  traits.

Also, it is really hard to
  change people’s
  attitudes.
              Homework

Dress appropriately for the field trip.
We need to LEAVE at 9 am prompt. We will
 leave you if you are late. Meet in the cul-
 de-sac by the music house at 8:50 am.
The test is Thursday. Complete the review
 sheet tonight in preparation!

								
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