Behavioralism (review) Founders: Watson (Little Albert) Skinner (Skinner box) Behavioralsim - Focus on behaviors (actions) - Alter behavior through conditioning For example, let’s say Billy is really depressed. The depression causes Billy to stop sleeping and eating. Billy is also drinking tequila as his only liquids. How would each of the following treat Billy? a. A psychoanalyst? b. A trait theorist? c. A humanist? A behavioralist would approach Billy’s problems very differently. Behavioralism A behaviorist would only look at Billy's behaviors, not his depression itself. They would examine his lack of sleeping and eating and drinking of alcohol as Billy's true problems. Then they would use conditioning/learning strategies to change Billy's behaviors. They may give Billy $20 for every bowl of Cinnamon Toast Crunch he eats. They may put diarrhea medicine in Billy's tequila. These techniques will stop Billy's behaviors around depression, but will they rid Billy of his depression? You may think not, but to a behaviorist, if the behaviors are no longer maladaptive, then where's the problem? The Social-Cognitive Perspective Of Personality Bandura is Back Do you remember Albert Bandura and his Bobo doll experiment? Bandura was a behavioralist who demonstrated that children will model the behaviors of others. This may not seem like a big deal to you and me, but it was to the behavioralists. You see, behavioralists studied observable behaviors only, and said that it was unscientific to study thinking because it can’t be measured or quantified. However, if kids can learn by watching others being rewarded or punished, then thinking is necessary to explain the behaviors (something to the effect of, “I bet it would be fun to do that”). Thus, Bandura began the social-cognitive movement. Social Cognitive Theory Focus on how we INTERPRET and RESPOND TO external events. Cognitive therapy attempts to change the way to THINK about things. Reciprocal Determinism: the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors. Reciprocal Determinism The type of person you were made you choose to come to RCHS. Attending RCHS has probably shaped your personality in some ways. Anxious people are more attuned to threatening events. They will perceive the world as more threatening, which in turn, may make them more anxious. If you are easy-going, you make other people feel comfortable. This in turn, causes them to treat you nicely. This may affect how you view other people. Think of an example of reciprocal determinism from your own life and share it with your partner. If some of these examples sound like self-fulfilling prophecies, that’s because they are. Self-fulfilling prophecies are perfect examples of reciprocal determinism. Personal Control Oursense of controlling our environment rather than the environment controlling us. External Locus of Control The perception that chance or outside forces beyond one’s personal control determine one’s fate. Internal Locus of Control The perception that one controls one’s own fate. Identify each statement below as being indicative of either an internal locus of control (ILC) or an external locus of control (ELC): I’ll never be a good writer. I have to practice so I can get better. I probably could have prevented that. It’s not my fault. It’s fate! Those with ILC tend to do better in school, act more independently, enjoy better health, feel less depressed, and cope better with stress. Why? Under what circumstances might an ILC be bad for mental health? Learned Helplessness Martin Seligman (father of “positive psychology”) The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events. Who can tell us about Seligman’s research? Can you think of examples of people who stop trying to help themselves? Battered wives Prisoners You when you get really far behind in a class Are these analogous to Seligman’s dogs? Seligman did not anticipate how the dogs would respond and was saddened by it. After his initial experiments, he vowed never to do such studies on dogs again—he switched to rats! Self-efficacy According to Bandura, the belief that you are likely to be successful at something is called self-efficacy, and it can be a powerful determinant of success or failure. If I believe I am likely to be successful in math, I may choose to take more math classes, and actually become a better math student. Share with your partner: 1) Something for which you have high self- efficacy. 2) Something for which you have low self- efficacy. Self-efficacy continued Self-efficacy is a powerful determinant of future success, but… …be wary of overconfidence. It can lead students to perform lower (“I don’t need to study”) and may encourage unwise risks (“I can drive on ice.”) Criticisms Some believe that S-C perspective focuses TOO much on the SITUATION and not enough on inner traits. Also, it is really hard to change people’s attitudes. Homework Dress appropriately for the field trip. We need to LEAVE at 9 am prompt. We will leave you if you are late. Meet in the cul- de-sac by the music house at 8:50 am. The test is Thursday. Complete the review sheet tonight in preparation!
Pages to are hidden for
"Behavioralism _review_"Please download to view full document