MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) If a splinter penetrated the skin into the second epidermal layer of the sole of the foot, which cells 1)
would be damaged?
A) spinosum B) granulosum C) lucidum D) basale
2) Which of the following statements indicates the way in which the body's natural defenses protect 2)
the skin from the effects of UV damage?
A) The skin is protected by increasing the number of Langerhans' cells, which help to activate the
B) Carotene, which accumulates in the stratum corneum and hypodermal adipose tissue, is
synthesized in large amounts in the presence of sunlight.
C) Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural
D) The skin is protected by the synthesis of three pigments that contribute to the skin's color.
3) Which of the following statements best describes what fingernails actually are? 3)
A) Fingernails are extensions of the carpal bones.
B) Fingernails are a separate tissue from the skin, formed from a different embryonic layer.
C) Fingernails are derived from osseous tissue.
D) Fingernails are a modification of the epidermis.
4) Changes in the color of skin are often an indication of a homeostatic imbalance. Which of the 4)
following changes would suggest that a patient is suffering from Addison's disease?
A) The skin appears to have an abnormal, yellowish tint.
B) It is impossible to suggest Addison's disease from an inspection of a person's skin.
C) The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance.
D) Black-and-blue marks become evident for no apparent cause.
5) Which muscles attached to the hair follicles cause goose bumps? 5)
A) arrector folliculi B) levator folliculi
C) arrector integument D) arrector pili
6) Although the integument is a covering, it is by no means simple, and some of its functions include 6)
A) the dermis providing the major mechanical barrier to chemicals, water, and other external
B) cooling the body by increasing the action of sebaceous glands during high-temperature
C) resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present
them to the immune system
D) epidermal blood vessels serving as a blood reservoir
7) The epidermis consists of five layers of cells, each layer with a distinct role to play in the health, 7)
well-being, and functioning of the skin. Which of the following layers is responsible for cell
division and replacement?
A) stratum lucidum B) stratum corneum
C) stratum basale D) stratum granulosum
8) The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. The 8)
secretion of sebum is stimulated ________.
A) by hormones, especially androgens
B) by high temperatures
C) as a protective coating when one is swimming
D) when the air temperature drops
9) Select the most correct statement concerning skin cancer. 9)
A) Squamous cell carcinomas arise from the stratum corneum.
B) Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.
C) Basal cell carcinomas are the least common but most malignant.
D) Most tumors that arise on the skin are malignant.
10) Sudoriferous glands vary in distribution over the surface of the body. Which of the following is 10)
A) Eccrine are the most numerous, being found primarily in the axillary regions.
B) Apocrine glands are larger than eccrine, and empty secretions directly to the surface of the
C) Mammary glands are not considered a modified sweat gland.
D) Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, which is thought to deter insects.
11) A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order? 11)
A) basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum
B) corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale
C) basale, spinosum, granulosum, corneum
D) granulosum, basale, spinosum, corneum
12) Nutrients reach the surface of the skin (epidermis) through the process of ________. 12)
A) absorbing materials applied to the surface layer of the skin
B) diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis
D) utilizing the products of merocrine glands to nourish the epidermis
13) The function of the root hair plexus is to ________. 13)
A) serve as a source for new epidermal cells for hair growth after the resting stage has passed
B) allow the hair to assist in touch sensation
C) cause apocrine gland secretion into the hair follicle
D) bind the hair root to the dermis
14) The most important factors influencing hair growth are ________. 14)
A) the size and number of hair follicles B) sex and hormones
C) age and glandular products D) nutrition and hormones
15) Which statement correctly explains why hair appears the way it does? 15)
A) Perfectly round hair shafts result in wavy hair.
B) Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts.
C) Air bubbles in the hair shaft cause straight hair.
D) Gray hair is the result of hormonal action altering the chemical composition of melanin.
16) The dermis ________. 16)
A) lacks sensory corpuscles and glands B) has two layers
C) is where melanocytes are found D) is an avascular connective tissue layer
17) The composition of the secretions of the eccrine glands is ________. 17)
A) fatty substances, proteins, antibodies, and trace amounts of minerals and vitamins
B) 99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C
C) primarily uric acid
D) metabolic wastes
18) Male pattern baldness has a genetic switch that turns on in response to ________. 18)
A) weight B) size C) male hormones D) age
19) The epidermis is responsible for protecting the body against invasion of bacteria and other foreign 19)
agents primarily because it is composed of ________.
A) four different cell shapes found in five distinct layers, each cell shape with a special function
B) stratified columnar epithelium
C) three layers of keratinized cells only
D) a tough layer of connective tissue
20) The dermis is a strong, flexible connective tissue layer. Which of the following cell types are likely 20)
to be found in the dermis?
A) osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and epithelial cells
B) monocytes, reticulocytes, and osteocytes
C) fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells
D) goblet cells, parietal cells, and Kupffer cells
21) In addition to protection (physical and chemical barrier), the skin serves other functions. Which of 21)
the following is another vital function of the skin?
A) It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium
B) It absorbs vitamin C so that the skin will not be subject to diseases.
C) The cells of the epidermis store glucose as glycogen for energy.
D) It aids in the transport of materials throughout the body.
22) The papillary layer of the dermis is connective tissue heavily invested with blood vessels. The 22)
superficial surface has structures called:
A) reticular papillae. B) ceruminous glands.
C) hair follicles. D) dermal papillae.
23) The ________ gland is a modified sudoriferous gland that secretes wax. 23)
A) mammary B) eccrine C) ceruminous D) apocrine
24) The major regions of a hair shaft include all of the following except ________. 24)
A) external root sheath B) medulla
C) cortex D) cuticle
25) Apocrine glands, which begin to function at puberty under hormonal influence, seem to play little 25)
role in thermoregulation. Where would we find these glands in the human body?
A) in the axillary and anogenital area
B) in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet
C) in all body regions and buried deep in the dermis
D) beneath the flexure lines in the body
26) Acne is a disorder associated with ________. 26)
A) sweat glands B) Meibomian glands
C) ceruminous glands D) sebaceous glands
27) Burns are devastating and debilitating because of loss of fluids and electrolytes from the body. 27)
How do physicians estimate the extent of burn damage associated with such dangerous fluid loss?
A) by using the "rule of nines"
B) through blood analysis
C) by observing the tissues that are usually moist
D) by measuring urinary output and fluid intake
28) A Langerhans' cell is a ________. 28)
A) specialized phagocytic cell B) specialized nerve cell
C) specialized squamous epithelial cell D) specialized melanocyte
29) Melanocytes ________. 29)
A) are involved in the immune system
B) work their way up to the surface just like the keratinocytes
C) are involved with the nervous system
D) are spidery-shaped cells in contact with cells in the stratum basale
30) Melanocytes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage when 30)
A) maintain the appropriate pH in order for the melanocyte to synthesize melanin granules
B) provide the melanocyte with a protective shield against abrasion
C) maintain the appropriate temperature so the product of the melanocyte will not denature
D) accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking
31) Eyebrow hairs are always shorter than hairs on your head because ________. 31)
A) they grow much slower
B) hormones in the eyebrow follicle switch the growth off after it has reached a predetermined
C) the vascular supply of the eyebrow follicle is one-tenth that of the head hair follicle
D) eyebrow follicles are only active for a few months
32) Despite its apparent durability, the dermis is subject to tearing. How might a person know that the 32)
dermis has been stretched and/or torn?
A) The blood vessels in the dermis rupture and the blood passes through the tissue, causing
"black and blue marks."
B) The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.
C) The stretching causes the tension lines to disappear.
D) Because the pain is acute due to the large number of Meissner's corpuscles.
33) The design of a person's epidermal ridges is determined by the manner in which the papillae rest 33)
upon the dermal ridges to produce the specific pattern known as handprints, footprints, and
fingerprints. Which of the following statements is true regarding these prints or ridges?
A) Identical twins do not have the same pattern of ridges.
B) They are genetically determined, therefore unique to each person.
C) Every human being has the same pattern of ridges.
D) Because we are constantly shedding epithelial cells, these ridges are changing daily.
34) The dermis has two major layers; which of the following constitutes 80% of the dermis and is 34)
responsible for the tension lines in the skin?
A) the hypodermal layer B) the subcutaneous layer
C) the reticular layer D) the papillary layer
35) Water loss through the epidermis could cause a serious threat to health and well-being. Which of 35)
the following protects us against excessive water loss through the skin?
A) Lamellated granules of the cells of the stratum granulosum, a glycolipid that is secreted into
B) The size and shape of the cells that make up the stratum spinosum, as well as the thick
bundles of intermediate filaments.
C) Fat associated with skin prevents water loss.
D) The dermis is the thickest portion of the skin and water cannot pass through it.
36) Which of the following cutaneous receptors is specialized for the reception of touch or light 36)
A) free nerve endings B) Pacinian corpuscles
C) Meissner's corpuscles D) Krause's end bulbs
37) The reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber is that ________. 37)
A) the cells that make up the hypodermis secrete a protective mucus
B) the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber
C) it is located just below the epidermis and protects the dermis from shock
D) it has no delicate nerve endings and can therefore absorb more shock
38) The integumentary system is protected by the action of cells that arise from bone marrow and 38)
migrate to the epidermis. Which of the following cells serve this function?
A) keratinocytes, because they are so versatile
B) Merkel cells
C) macrophages called Langerhans' cells
D) cells found in the stratum spinosum
39) Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are categorized as two distinct types. Which of the following are the 39)
two types of sweat glands?
A) sebaceous and merocrine B) holocrine and mammary
C) eccrine and apocrine D) mammary and ceruminous
40) Keratinocytes are an important epidermal cell because ________. 40)
A) they are able to transform from living cells to plasma membranes and still function
B) they produce a fibrous protein that gives the skin much of its protective properties
C) they are able to reproduce sporadically as needed
D) they are a powerful defense against damaging UV rays
41) What is the first threat to life from a massive third-degree burn? 41)
A) unbearable pain B) loss of immune function
C) catastrophic fluid loss D) infection
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
42) Joe just burned himself on a hot pot. A blister forms and the burn is painful. Joe's burn would best 42)
be described as a third-degree burn.
43) The skin is not able to receive stimuli because the cells of the epidermis are not living and therefore 43)
there are no sensory receptors in the skin.
44) Destruction of the matrix of the hair bulb would result in its inability to produce oil. 44)
45) The hypodermis is composed of adipose and dense connective tissue. 45)
46) The outermost sheath of a hair follicle is the connective tissue root sheath. 46)
47) The most dangerous skin cancer is cancer of the melanocytes. 47)
48) Hair growth and density are influenced by hormones, nutrition, and, in some cases, lifestyle. 48)
49) The protein found in large amounts in the outermost layer of epidermal cells is collagen. 49)
50) The dermis has a connective tissue and adipose layer that loosely binds the body together. 50)
51) Skin surface markings that reflect points of tight dermal attachment to underlying tissues are called 51)
52) When a patient is said to have "third-degree burns," this indicates that the patient has burns that 52)
cover approximately one-third of the body.
53) The stratum corneum (outermost layer of skin) is a zone of approximately four layers of viable cells 53)
that are able to synthesize proteins that keep the outer layer of skin smooth and soft.
54) The apocrine sweat glands are fairly unimportant in thermoregulation. 54)
55) The dermis is rich in blood vessels and nerve fibers. 55)
56) During the resting phase of hair growth, the matrix is inactive and the follicle atrophies. 56)
57) The dense fibrous connective tissue portion of the skin is located in the reticular region of the 57)
58) A physician is often able to detect homeostatic imbalances in the body by observing changes in the 58)
59) Regardless of race, all human beings have about the same number of melanocytes. 59)
60) When an individual is exposed to extremely low air temperatures, the dermal blood vessels will 60)
dilate so that blood and heat will be dissipated.
61) The reason that the nail bed appears pink is the presence of a large number of melanocytes in the 61)
62) Sweat glands continuously produce small amounts of sweat, even in cooler temperatures. 62)
63) The pinkish hue of individuals with fair skin is the result of the crimson color of oxygenated 63)
hemoglobin (contained in red blood cells) circulating in the dermal capillaries and reflecting
through the epidermis.
64) The hyponychium is commonly called the cuticle. 64)
65) Ceruminous glands are modified merocrine glands. 65)
66) Incisions should be made across rather than parallel to cleavage lines produced by collagen fiber 66)