Pointer of Ritual and Taboo Terms Universal by MuhamadZen


									     Taboo terms universal
• Involuntary use - lower brain centers -
  locus of animal communication
  – Like laughing, sobbing, cries of pain
  – Coprolalia and coprographia in Tourette’s
  – Some aphasics have only swear words left
  – closely tied to involuntary emotions
• Magical quality - cultural marker -
  connection to biological reflex - animal
   Functions of Taboo Terms
• Express disapproval by the culture
  – Sex
  – excrement
  – racial
• define the supernatural
• safety valve for harmless rebellion
  –compare incest to swearing
•Know about the usage of and attitudes
towards gender and profanity
•Know what makes a euphemism different
from a taboo term though they refer to the
same thing.
•Know what function taboo terms serve in a
•Know the common categories of taboo terms
and some examples
      Verbal Abuse (Name calling)
• Edmund Leach “Animal Categories and Verbal
  – can involve sex, excretion(body functions),
    religious terms or animals
  – animals not taboo but names insulting
  – son of a bitch, son of a mare, swine, polar
    bear, sow, hippopotamus
• Insults in general involve :
  –physical feature
  –name converted
  –social relationship
  –mental feature
• Listed in order of strength
             Humor and Taboo
• Taboo topics evoke laughter because they
  deal with anxieties
• Humor reveals tensions in a culture -
  often taboo topics
• Puns -special kind of humor involving
  taboo words
  – veneer of innocence over a taboo topic
                       Ritual Insults
• Labov - sounding, signifying , dozens
  – competitive
  – excluding device
  – entertaining
  – mock fighting - ritual - not taken seriously
    •   A: Shut up (to the group)
    •   B:(leader) Hey! You tellin me?
    •   A: Yeah
    •   B: Come closer and say that.
    •   A: Your mother’s a duck
    •   B then backs off
                   Prison Lingo
• Euphemisms
  – prison - residence facility with limited access in a
    supervised environment
  – prisoners - residents of the correctional residence
• Lingo
  – “Pop a clutch man you’re dippin” - space
    maintaining device averting open conflict
  – Like ritual insults this use of jargon serves
    as a safe outlet for aggression
• Jabo man, long coat, jody - terms for
  someone having sex with the inmates wife
  while he is in prison
• merchant - dominant partner in a
  homosexual relation
• Most terms involve sexual
  behavior but actually power
  relationships among the prisoners
    Ritual or Secret languages

• Pig Latin and Ubba Dubba ,
• Function of secret languages and
  rituals like sounding
  – a game, fun in itself
  – a competition - an audience is
  – establishes group identity - exclusive
          Walbiri - Tjiliwiri
• Initiation ritual - exclusive
• fun - just a game
• competitive
• Antonymy (opposites) differ minimally
• heavy/light, strong/weak, cat /dog,
• Stand up and leave = sit down and stay
 Jalnguy - Mother-in-law language
• Dyirbal linguistic marker of avoidance
• Lexical - all nouns, verbs, adjectives –
  same grammar and phonology
  – Guwal        Jalnguy
  – dirra      ngunyangi            teeth
  – miyandanyu yirrgunjinyu          laugh
• Dixon and Hale - giving credit to native
Chloe Grant
          Tut language
• Secret language of African slaves
  to teach reading
b /bub/    t /tut/       for vowels use the
c /kut/     v /vuv/      name of vowel
d /dud/    w /waks/
f /fuf/     x /Eks/
g /jug/     y /yak/
h /hash/    z /zuz/
j /jag/
k /kak/
l /lul/           i-fuf # yak-o-u # kak-a-nun#
m /mum/           rut-e-a-dud#
n /nun/            tut-hash -i- suss #
p /pup/            hash-a–sus–hash # i-nun # yak-o-u-rut#
q /kwak/            #nun-a-mum-e# fuf–o-rut# e-Eks-tut-rut-a#
r /rut/              kut-rut-e-dud-i-tut#
s /sus/
• Know how humor interacts with
• Know about Tjiliwiri and Jalnguy
  and Tut Language
• Know what makes a name insulting
• Know the function of ritual insults
• Know what can be learned from
  taboo terms

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