Influence of advertising on youth

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					Influence of advertising on youth




             By Trishi Rastogi.
                   PGDPRA
 Department of journalism & Mass Communication
             University of Lucknow.
                      ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

A great many people have contributed to the production of my dissertation on
“Influence of Advertising on Youth”. I owe my gratitude to all those people who
have made this dissertation possible and because of whom my Post Graduation
experience has been one that I will cherish forever.

My deepest gratitude is to my Professor, Dr. A. Seth. who is one of the best
teachers that I have had in my life. He sets high standards for his students. I have
been amazingly fortunate to have an advisor who gave me the freedom to explore
on my own and at the same time the guidance to recover when my steps faltered.
He taught me how to question thoughts and express ideas. His patience and
support helped me overcome many crisis situations and finish this dissertation.

My co-advisor, Mr. Ritesh Chaudhary, has been always there to listen and give
advice. I am deeply grateful to him for the long discussions that helped me sort out
the technical details of my work. I am also thankful to him for encouraging me in
doing this dissertation well and for carefully reading and commenting on countless
revisions of this manuscript. His insightful comments and constructive criticisms
at different stages of my research were thought-provoking and they helped me
focus my ideas. I am grateful to him for holding me to a high research standard
and enforcing strict validations for each research result, and thus teaching me how
to do research.

I am also indebted to all my friends and class mates to have been a part of my
survey and have helped me every time I needed their support. I greatly value their
friendship and I deeply appreciate their belief in me.
Finally, most importantly, none of this would have been possible without the love
and patience of my family.




                                                              Trishi Rastogi


                                                               (P.G.D.P.R.A)

                                Introduction


In a cultural landscape of hyper reality, branded lifestyles and 15-minute fame,
one's subconscious receives thousands of advertisements a day. It is through this
daily diet of propaganda that we shape our minds as we grow up. The desire we
feel to make a mark on this world leads us to exciting new innovations on many
fields, particularly in art and design.

Advertising has come a long way from the archaic methods of attraction. Long
gone are the times of fact-based advertising. Instead we have moved on to the
aesthetisation of commodities, and consequently a world in which the promise
made by the seller, of love, eternal youth and a fantastic bottom turns people into
neurotic obsessive-compulsive consumers with a penchant for instant gratification
and a 5-second attention span. The advertisements sell a way of life, not a product;
in fact the ad itself becomes the object of aesthetisation.

It is a form of communication intended to persuade its viewers, readers or listeners
to take some action. It usually includes the name of a product or service and how
that product or service could benefit the consumer, to persuade potential customers
to purchase or to consume that particular brand. Modern advertising developed
with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

 Gradually, over the decades, fertile creative minds have gravitated towards the
advertising industry, realizing that in advertising lies an art of communication, and
that it can generate 'big bucks', rivaling the bohemian-type artist mode of creation.
It has given otherwise disenfranchised artists a chance at making money out of
their craft. Ads become much more than just ads; they incorporate art of all kinds
to appeal to all tastes, using strong cultural signifiers that evoke certain emotions
in the viewer. They are like an exact science; they employ psychologists,
behaviorists, and all kinds of experts from different fields to pinpoint the moment
when a mind will be ready to respond to all these messages.

There are two kinds of advertising noncommercial and commercial advertising.
Noncommercial advertising would be the various ads from government agencies,
NGOs, organizations and societies to citizens. Whereas, Commercial advertising
includes prestige advertising and industrial advertising. Prestige advertising is
usually used by companies to publish annual profit reports and various other news
in Sunday newspapers and is mainly full of factual information. Even though this
information will eventually reach the shareholders by mail anyway, it is
considered to be a good tool for creating "long term goodwill with the public
rather than at an immediate increase in sales" as outlined by Vestergaard.
Industrial advertising, on the other hand, is aimed at other companies; that is to say
there is equality between the buyer and the seller as both are professional, as
opposed to commercial consumer advertising aimed at amateur buyers, or the
individual consumer. Commercial consumer advertising is the one that makes the
most impact and generates the most profit, and it is the more ubiquitous of the
aforementioned types. Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased
consumption of their products or services through branding, which involves the
repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities
with the brand in the minds of consumers. Different types of media can be used to
deliver these messages, including traditional media such as newspapers,
magazines, television, radio, outdoor or direct mail. Advertising may be placed by
an advertising agency on behalf of a company or other organization.

Organizations that spend money on advertising promoting items other than a
consumer product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious
organizations and governmental agencies. Nonprofit organizations may rely on
free modes of persuasion, such as a public service announcement.

When talking about advertising it is important to note the presence of the word
'brand ' in relevant literature, as it is a word that has changed the way companies
operate in their totality. Some early branding took place as early as the end of the
19th Century, where in a sea of new products, all of which were identical, a
company had to give itself a name, an image, a logo. "The first task of branding
was to bestow proper names on generic goods such as sugar, flour, soap and
cereal, which had previously been scooped out of barrels by local shopkeepers. In
the 1880s, corporate logos were introduced to mass-produced products like
Maggie, Heinz pickles and Quaker Oats cereal". This type of branding differs from
the type of branding associated with the 1990s branding mania, in that it was a
method to just stand out amongst a plethora of products with no names or history.
Advertising is like propaganda, because it makes it self ubiquitous, while the
message it carries is one that has been born out of ulterior motives by people who
want to make money and maintain the status quo. Alongside the news, advertising
is a tool that shapes public opinion.

Advertising, as it was known many years before, plays a central role in society,
not simply just as a way for companies to sell products but also as a way to
disseminate ideas and concepts. It's the tool that the dominant elite employ to
promote agendas and maintain the status quo. To keep things how they want to.

Understandably, this specialized group has to divert and 'inform' public opinion
about issues that are too complicated for the average man to comprehend, because
the average man follows not reason but the heart and blind faith. It is a logical
step, and has been since the first power structures of the cavemen and tribesmen.
Noam Chomsky argues that propaganda is to a democracy what violence is to a
dictatorship. Propaganda, however, is more than that. It is through propaganda that
a capitalist economy can survive. By setting up a structure that depends on people
perpetually consuming, an economy can flourish. And propaganda, one might
argue, is now thought of as advertising. Antonio Gramsci, the Italian thinker,
referred to this as the negotiation of consent. This consent is manufactured through
the use of ideological state apparatuses such as newspapers, religion and the media
as well as advertising, which serve as mouthpieces for the dominant elite's agenda.
It is through advertising that youth culture has manifested its more creative side in
the form of subcultures such as the Punks, Mods, Rockers and of course graffiti
art. It is also through advertising that we see the beauty myth and the celebrity
culture at its highest. It is through this that the dominant elite can engineer the
'manufacture of consent' from the 'masses' and keep the capitalist machine going,
according to Walter Lipman. By diverting the public's attention from matters that
are touchy, the government selects what news will be consumed.

Young children are usually the target group most swayed by advertising with the
'nag' factor increasing consumer spending. Ad agencies now try to 'get' young
children from a young age to instill brand loyalty, and ads for children now have
reached such levels of unashamed covert and overt persuasion techniques that
some countries have refused to screen ads for children at certain times while
stricter measures have been implemented. The youth market takes the lion's share
in                                                                         profits.

Identity plays a central role in modern times, and ad agencies, as we know, sell
lifestyles and identities in the form of popular culture.

"One of the assumptions underlying their strategic work is that advertisements
should work on each reader's need for an identity, on the individual's need to
expose himself/herself to lifestyles and values which confirm the validity of
his/her own lifestyle and values, thereby making sense of the world and his/her
place in it. What we are faced with here is a signification process whereby a
certain commodity is made the expression of a certain content (the lifestyle and
values)."

In this case the commodity is the spray can, and even though that commodity itself
is not the bearer of great wealth, the association it has with elements of
rebelliousness      and      beauty       makes       it    very      marketable.

If a tag or a logo can be reproduced enough times and it becomes recognizable by
a large section of the community then it becomes part of the social and natural
landscape and it is referenced, it becomes instantly embedded into the mind. Artist
Shepard Fairey came up with the original idea of turning Andre, a Russian
wrestler into Andre the Giant and adding the Obey caption, which is meant to play
with people's perception of reality. Originally done as a stencil in his
neighborhood, it was a jibe at a local group of skateboarders from his area, and the
caption read: 'Andre has a posse".

Advertising effects youth drastically as promotions are a commonly used
marketing method for reaching children and adolescents and include cross-selling,
tie-ins, premiums, and sweepstakes prizes. Cross-selling and tie-ins combine
promotional efforts to sell a product. In the US, the food industry has forged
promotional links with Hollywood and Network studios, toy companies, and
sports leagues. Burger King has formed a linkage with Nickelodeon, and
McDonald's with the Fox Kids Network. Burger King has sold chicken nuggets
shaped like Teletubbies. Disney has launched cross-selling campaigns and tie-ins
worth millions of dollars to promote its films and characters. In 1996, Disney
signed a ten-year global marketing agreement with McDonald's. In 2001, Coca-
Cola and Disney partnered to build Disney character-branded children's beverages.
Kellogg's also has an agreement with Disney to extend the Disney characters to
cereals, Keebler cookies and Eggo waffles. McDonald's has formed partnerships
with the National Basketball Association. Pizza Hut, Taco Bell and Wendy's have
linked with the National Collegiate Athletic Association.

Premiums and sweepstakes prizes have increased recently and are often used to
appeal to children's and adolescent's tastes and desires. Premiums provide
something free with a purchase, whereas sweepstakes and contests promise
opportunities to win free products. Fast food restaurants typically use premiums in
children's meals, giving away simple toys. Sweetened cereals also commonly give
premiums in the form of toys, cards or games. Premiums can increase short-term
sales since children may desire the item over the food, but they also can help
elevate the image of that brand in children's minds. In one study in which
preschool and school-age children and parents were unobtrusively observed while
grocery shopping, almost half of the children who made cereal purchase requests
were influenced by premium offers.




                              Times Gone By
                                 World History

“Advertising, a form of commercial mass communication designed to promote the sale
of a product or service, or a message on behalf of an institution, organization, or
candidate for political office.”

Advertising can be looked at from various perspectives. As the quote above states, its
purpose is to increase the number of articles or products sold. These are not only things
we can buy in different stores, for example clothing or supplies for our daily life, but
also such simple things as a message placed by an institution or organization asking for
attention of the public to raise money or to make them aware of a problem, such as anti-
smoking ads. Even political parties use advertisements and commercials to state the
opinion of their candidate. I think we have all experienced that quite extensively during
the presidential campaign in the United States.

Advertising became big business in the 20th century, offering many different jobs in
advertising agencies and the marketing section. The use of the media, like newspapers,
television, direct mail, radio, magazines, outdoor signs and of course the Internet made
this growth possible. It is a form of transporting information to the consumer, but which
does not only have positive sides. There are many critical aspects about it, like
persuading people to doing unhealthy things, like smoking, or producing special
stereotypes everybody tries to follow. Nevertheless, advertising has become
international, since producers and companies try to sell their products on a globalized
market in almost every corner of the world. It is therefore not surprising to see a big
sign for Coca Cola in third world countries.
We would like to look at different aspects of advertising a little closer in our team work,
including its history and development as well as new approaches, the methods used and
the impact it can have in certain areas.

In the 19th century new technologies were developed and brand-new methods invented.
As a result a surplus of production was formed. Warehouses of many factories were
overflowing. In this way it was necessary to create useful advertisements, which would
cover all large spaces, utilizing a large variety of mass media sources. The first
advertising agent who created such a network was Volney Palmer. In 1841 he
proclaimed himself as an advertising agent in Philadelphia and then created similar
offices in Boston and New York. About 20% of the commission for media brokers was
paid to the publishers. Texts of ads were offered by the head of the company or its
representative. People who wanted to put their ads in the newspaper paid him a
commission. Such activities became very popular during the second part of 19th century
in all European countries.

Significant advances in advertising development were made by American brokers. In
the early 1850’s, John Wanamaker caused a revolution in the retail trade. He created a
price lists for a variety of goods and returned the money if the commodity was not of
the promised quality. As a result, he gained a lot of profit by using this strategy and he
then opened a network of consumer goods shops. The reason of such great success was
professional advertising.

In 1880 businessmen employed the best creator of advertising texts – D. E. Powers.
Powers started to develop advertisements using brand-new information. This strategy
had become very popular in American trade circles and by the 20th century advertising
had become a form of science.

“In the 1880s a new era of advertising began: New methods of manufacturing led
to greatly increased output and decreased the costs for the producers of consumer
goods. The products now could be packaged at the plant. Moreover the telegraph
network was in place and the continent has been crisscrossed by a network of
railroads….” All these were assumptions that now allowed nation-wide
distribution and nation-wide advertising. This state supported the growth of
advertising agencies and dictated their activities.

The most widely advertised consumer products at this time had been patent
medicines.

In 1893 more than half of over a hundred firms spending more than fifty thousand
dollars annually on advertising were patent medicine manufacturers. But only 20
years later, most of these firms were no patent medicine manufacturers anymore
but manufacturers of food, soap, cosmetics and automobiles. These firms began to
market their packaged goods under brand names. Some of the first brands were
firms like Ivory, Colgate, Wrigley and Coca Cola.

During 19th century the majority of advertisements were published in the
newspapers and advertising leaflets. Although newspapers were a prerogative of
well-off class of community but the situation began to change in the early 1860’s
when people got the opportunity of receiving publications by post. First magazine
advertisements appeared in The Southern Messenger. For a few years the editor of
this magazine was Edgar Po. Many of the magazines that began to publish
advertisements as the separate charter in the 19th century have continued doing it
nowadays. Such editions are Cosmopolitan, Ladies’ Home Journal, Readers
Digest and some others.

Despite of the popular brands of newspapers the majority of information in the
advertisements was unreliable and apocryphal. Moreover advertisements sometimes
were immoral and absurd. For example in the countryside of one American city
advertisement was placed in the monument of a non-existent person and it stated: “This
person killed him with the handgun with Colt system”. Then “publishers” enumerated
the value of this handgun. As the result of such inhuman actions people stopped trusting
advertisements and began to consider advertising as something negative.



The situation radically changed in the 20th century, the heyday of legal regulations in
advertising, a process that the U.S.A. was very influential in. We have to mention that
the most successful American advertisers were those who domesticated meaning and
advertising methods. All of them were the heads of advertising agencies. We can say
that these people created a contemporary advertising process:

Albert Lasker (Lord & Thomas). His firm created advertisements for many large
companies such as General Electric, Quaker Oats, RCA, and Lucky Strike.

Stanley Resor (J. Walter Thomas)

Raymond Rubicam (Young and Rubicam)

Leo Burnett (Founder of Chicago School of Advertising)

Claude C. Hopkins (employed by Lord & Thomas, earned about $ 185,000 a year)

Bill Bernbach (Doyle Dane Bernbach)

David Ogilvy (Ogilvy & Mather)
Advertising agencies today are highly specialized companies which employ a large
number of people in a variety of business and creative skills, including advertising and
marketing specialists, designers, copy writers, artists, economists, psychologists,
researchers, media analysts, product testers, librarians, accountants, bookkeepers, and
mathematicians. This business sector makes billions of dollars each year, depending on
the economical growth and development of a country but also enhancing exactly this.

The agencies make money in different ways, buying time for an ad on radio or
television for a customer or space for an ad in a newspaper of magazine. They always
keep up to 15% of the cost as a commission, which has become a standard in the
advertising industry and covers a huge part of the agency’s income. Of course, the range
of offers of an agency is much bigger than simply providing space or time for ads on
TV, radio, newspapers or magazines. They offer their customers whole packages of
approaches for a specific population group.

The first radio-advertisement was broadcast in 1922 in New York on the WEAF radio
station.

Thus in the 1920s advertisers and their agents had come to realize radio's possibilities.
With its drama and immediacy, radio could convey their message directly to the
consumer who would not need to purchase a publication or even need to be literate.

In the 1950s television was introduced and quickly developed into the advertising-
media. In the 1950’s common income from the advertising industry rose to $ 10 billion
a year. In 1980’s this index was $ 100 billion! Now advertisers could demonstrate the
use of their products and present well-known figures to praise it. They could also affect
emotions through television.

Today advertisers spend millions of dollars for their campaigns, although they don't
always know how effective their advertising dollars really are.

Edo period advertising flyer from 1806 for a traditional medicine called Kinseitan

Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial
messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii
and ancient Arabia. Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in
Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial
advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is
present to this day in many parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. The tradition
of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to
4000 BC. History tells us that Out-of-home advertising and Billboards are the
oldest forms of advertising.
As the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, and the general
populace was unable to read, signs that today would say cobbler, miller, tailor or
blacksmith would use an image associated with their trade such as a boot, a suit, a
hat, a clock, a diamond, a horse shoe, a candle or even a bag of flour. Fruits and
vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and
their proprietors used street callers (town criers) to announce their whereabouts for
the convenience of the customers.

As education became an apparent need and reading, as well as printing, developed
advertising expanded to include handbills. In the 17th century advertisements
started to appear in weekly newspapers in England. These early print
advertisements were used mainly to promote books and newspapers, which
became increasingly affordable with advances in the printing press; and
medicines, which were increasingly sought after as disease ravaged Europe.
However, false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a
problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content.

As the economy expanded during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In
the United States, the success of this advertising format eventually led to the
growth of mail-order advertising.

In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising
in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its
profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles. Around 1840, Volney
Palmer established a predecessor to advertising agencies in Boston.[5] Around the
same time, in France, Charles-Louis Havas extended the services of his news
agency, Havas to include advertisement brokerage, making it the first French
group to organize. At first, agencies were brokers for advertisement space in
newspapers. N. W. Ayer & Son was the first full-service agency to assume
responsibility for advertising content. N.W. Ayer opened in 1869, and was located
in Philadelphia.

An 1895 advertisement for a weight gain product.

At the turn of the century, there were few career choices for women in business;
however, advertising was one of the few. Since women were responsible for most
of the purchasing done in their household, advertisers and agencies recognized the
value of women's insight during the creative process. In fact, the first American
advertising to use a sexual sell was created by a woman – for a soap product.
Although tame by today's standards, the advertisement featured a couple with the
message "The skin you love to touch".
In the early 1920s, the first radio stations were established by radio equipment
manufacturers and retailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to
consumers. As time passed, many non-profit organizations followed suit in setting
up their own radio stations, and included: schools, clubs and civic groups.[7] When
the practice of sponsoring programs was popularised, each individual radio
program was usually sponsored by a single business in exchange for a brief
mention of the business' name at the beginning and end of the sponsored shows.
However, radio station owners soon realised they could earn more money by
selling sponsorship rights in small time allocations to multiple businesses
throughout their radio station's broadcasts, rather than selling the sponsorship
rights to single businesses per show.

This practice was carried over to television in the late 1940s and early 1950s. A
fierce battle was fought between those seeking to commercialize the radio and
people who argued that the radio spectrum should be considered a part of the
commons – to be used only non-commercially and for the public good. The United
Kingdom pursued a public funding model for the BBC, originally a private
company, the British Broadcasting Company, but incorporated as a public body by
Royal Charter in 1927. In Canada, advocates like Graham Spry were likewise able
to persuade the federal government to adopt a public funding model, creating the
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. However, in the United States, the capitalist
model prevailed with the passage of the Communications Act of 1934 which
created the Federal Communications Commission. To placate the socialists, the
U.S. Congress did require commercial broadcasters to operate in the "public
interest, convenience, and necessity".[8] Public broadcasting now exists in the
United States due to the 1967 Public Broadcasting Act which led to the Public
Broadcasting Service and National Public Radio.

In the early 1950s, the DuMont Television Network began the modern trend of
selling advertisement time to multiple sponsors. Previously, DuMont had trouble
finding sponsors for many of their programs and compensated by selling smaller
blocks of advertising time to several businesses. This eventually became the
standard for the commercial television industry in the United States. However, it
was still a common practice to have single sponsor shows, such as The United
States Steel Hour. In some instances the sponsors exercised great control over the
content of the show - up to and including having one's advertising agency actually
writing the show. The single sponsor model is much less prevalent now, a notable
exception being the Hallmark Hall of Fame.

The 1960s saw advertising transform into a modern approach in which creativity
was allowed to shine, producing unexpected messages that made advertisements
more tempting to consumers' eyes. The Volkswagen ad campaign—featuring such
headlines as "Think Small" and "Lemon" (which were used to describe the
appearance of the car)—ushered in the era of modern advertising by promoting a
"position" or "unique selling proposition" designed to associate each brand with a
specific idea in the reader or viewer's mind. This period of American advertising is
called the Creative Revolution and its archetype was William Bernbach who
helped create the revolutionary Volkswagen ads among others. Some of the most
creative and long-standing American advertising dates to this period.

The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the introduction of cable television and
particularly MTV. Pioneering the concept of the music video, MTV ushered in a
new type of advertising: the consumer tunes in for the advertising message, rather
than it being a by-product or afterthought. As cable and satellite television became
increasingly prevalent, specialty channels emerged, including channels entirely
devoted to advertising, such as QVC, Home Shopping Network, and Shop TV
Canada.

Marketing through the Internet opened new frontiers for advertisers and
contributed to the "dot-com" boom of the 1990s. Entire corporations operated
solely on advertising revenue, offering everything from coupons to free Internet
access. At the turn of the 21st century, a number of websites including the search
engine Google, started a change in online advertising by emphasizing contextually
relevant, unobtrusive ads intended to help, rather than inundate, users. This has led
to a plethora of similar efforts and an increasing trend of interactive advertising.

The share of advertising spending relative to GDP has changed little across large
changes in media. For example, in the U.S. in 1925, the main advertising media
were newspapers, magazines, signs on streetcars, and outdoor posters. Advertising
spending as a share of GDP was about 2.9 percent. By 1998, television and radio
had become major advertising media. Nonetheless, advertising spending as a share
of GDP was slightly lower—about 2.4 percent.

A recent advertising innovation is "guerrilla marketing", which involve unusual
approaches such as staged encounters in public places, giveaways of products such
as cars that are covered with brand messages, and interactive advertising where the
viewer can respond to become part of the advertising message. Guerrilla
advertising is becoming increasing more popular with a lot of companies. This
type of advertising is unpredictable and innovative, which causes consumers to
buy the product or idea. This reflects an increasing trend of interactive and
"embedded" ads, such as via product placement, having consumers vote through
text messages, and various innovations utilizing social network services such as
MySpace.

Contemporary Advertising
With the changing media used by advertisers, advertisement itself changed quite a bit.
So far the ads tried to present a product and make the consumer believe in the big
advantages of it. Today, advertisers try to create certain images around their products,
which draw a greater attention to the customers and make them stick this specific
product. This so-called “creative revolution” had its origin in the 1950s and 1960s
when prominent advertising agencies stated that good advertising has to begin with the
respect for the public’s intelligence and therefore have to be understated, sophisticated
and witty.

This statement is even more important for today’s commercials on TV, since the
technology has made it possible for the viewer to use the remote control to change the
channel while the commercials are on. If it is not interesting to the viewer he will
simply flip to another channel avoiding the commercial. New digital devices make it
even possible to edit out commercials in order to watch a “commercial free” movie or
show.

History of Indian Advertising
There has been a long tradition of advertising in India since the first newspapers
published in India in the 19th Century carried advertising. The first advertising
agency was established in 1905, B. Datram and Company, followed by The India-
Advertising Company in 1907, the Calcutta Advertising agency in 1909, S.H.
Bensen in 1928, J. Walter Thompson Associates through its Indian associate,
Hindustan Thompson Associates in 1929, Lintas (Lever international Advertising
Services) in 1939 and McCann Erikson in 1956. Advertising expenditure in the
1950s was estimated at $US 300,000. Under the more socialist political
environment of the 1960s and 1970s there was little incentive for companies to
advertise because advertising was not tax deductible. In the 1970s there was a 58%
growth in the number of registered agencies from 106 in 1969 to 168 in 1979, and
this included a growth in Indian agencies. The first advertising appeared on state
television                                 in                                 1976.
With the opening of the economy in the 1980s there was a growth in the number
of alliances with multinational agencies and an expansion in advertising though
foreign network participation in agency ownership was limited. In 1987 Hindustan
Thompson was affiliated to J. Walter Thompson. Lintas, the 2nd ranking agency,
held only 4% of its subsidiary, as did Ogilvie and Mather. Saatchi and
Saatchi/Compton had minority interests in Compton as did Lintas. A study done in
1984 of the largest companies in India found that the ratio of advertising
expenditure to sales had risen from .64 in 1976, to .71 in 1980 to .74 in 1984.
Foreign controlled corporations had the dominant share of total advertising
expenditure, and 80% of these were in the consumer goods sectors. Advertising
was very concentrated with the top 50 advertisers accounting for 80% of the
advertising spending and the top 10 advertisers made up 40% of that figure, 32%
of the total. The largest advertiser throughout the period was Hindustan Lever
which was nearly 10% of the advertising budget of the corporate sector
companies. Pharmaceutical companies were also significant advertisers at this
time.

Indian Advertising starts with the hawkers calling out their wares right from
the days when cities and markets first began

Shop front signage

From         street        side       sellers        to        press      ads
the  first   trademarks    Handbills distributed separately from the products

18th Century
Concrete advertising history begins with classified advertising. Ads appear for the
first time in print in Hickey's Bengal Gazette, India's first newspaper (weekly).
Studios mark the beginning of advertising created in India (as opposed to imported
from England) Studios set up for bold type, ornate fonts, more fancy, larger ads
Newspaper studios train the first generation of visualizes & illustrators
Major advertisers: Retailers like Spencer's, Army & Navy and Whiteaway &
Laidlaw
Marketing promotions: Retailers' catalogues provided early example
Ads appear in newspapers in the form of lists of the latest merchandise from
England
Patent medicines: The first brand as we know them today were a category of
advertisers
Horlicks becomes the first 'malted milk' to be patented on 5th June 1883 (No.
278967). 1931- National Advertising Service Pr. Ltd. Bombay set up
1936- Indian Broadcasting Company becomes All India Radio (AIR)
1978             -First             television          commercial             seen
1990-Marks         the      beginning         of    new        medium      Internet
1991- First India-targeted satellite channel, Zee TV starts broadcast
INFLUENCE OF ADVERTISING ON YOUTH


1. What is Advertising?
Advertising today, plays a very important role in all our lives and influences us
drastically. But before paying attention on its Influence on Youths, we must know
clearly what exactly advertising means, in order to justify this study precisely?

Advertising has been described as a mode of communication designed with the
attempt to convince people to begin or increase the use of a product or service. A
picturesque way of putting it is to call it business imagination, an imagination that
sees in product, possibilities which can be realized only by appealing to the public
in new ways to create a desire where none existed before. It is a very broad word,
an omnibus word conveying different ideas to different people. Nothing can
possibly define Advertising in exact words, as it rapidly updates itself everyday.
The advertising of yesterday is not the advertising of today. Men not so very old
have witnessed its entire development from an untrustworthy instrument of quacks
to its place as an engine in the conduct and expansion of business.

Every attempt to secure the sale of a product or service is advertising. The wares
of the primitive merchant displayed invitingly in front of his booth are advertising.
A want ad, to secure a job or an employee, is advertising. An inscription on a wall,
the barker in front of a side show, the promises of an internet marketer, the
announcement of a new online technology, membership in an affiliate program,
wearing a peculiar shirt or distinctive sticker in your car - all these are forms of
advertising in that they seek to attract attention to a product or a service that is for
sale. For a product or a service of general use, rich and poor, high and low, men,
women and even children, must be appealed to. Whatever the appropriate
definition of advertisement is, one thing is to conclude, and it is because it has
been. And every succeeding year since the beginning of the human
entrepreneurship it has left its precious deposit of new ideas, better methods, larger
and swifter efficiency, and the promise of an even greater growth.

American marketing Association describes it as, “the non personal communication
of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products,
services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media." Now let’s
study this definition in detail to make things clear.




1.1 NON PERSONAL

There are two basic ways to sell anything, personally and non personally. Personal
selling requires the seller and the buyer to get together. The seller gets time with
the buyer and can demonstrate the pros and cons of the product in detail. The
buyer can examine the product before buying it. In personal selling, the seller can
also have an advantage to easily locate the potential buyers and persuade him to
buy the product. For example, if you go in a cosmetic store to buy the product you
have been using and the storekeeper shows you another product with same
features and is comparatively cheaper, then there are chances for you to buy that
new product or at least give it a try. But on the other hand, this style of selling
expensive, since it is labor-intensive and deals with only one buyer at a time. It is
also time-consuming. Nonetheless, although personal selling results in more
rejections than sales, and can be nerve-racking, frustrating and ego destroying for
the salesperson when the salesperson is good it is more directed and successful
than advertising.

From the above, it appears that personal selling is much better than advertising,
which is non personal. This is true. Advertising has none of the advantages of
personal selling: there is very little time in which to present the sales message,
there is no way to know just who the customer is or how he is responding to the
message, the message cannot be changed in mid-course to suit the customer's
reactions. Then why bother with advertising? Because its advantages exactly
replace the disadvantages of personal selling and can emulate some of the
advantages. First let's look at the latter.

First, advertising has, comparatively speaking, all the time in the world. Unlike
personal selling, the sales message and its presentation does not have to be created
on the spot with the customer watching. It can be created in as many ways as the
writer can conceive, be rewritten, tested, modified, injected with every trick and
appeal known to affect consumers.

Second, although advertisers may not see the individual customer, nor be able to
modify the sales message according to that individual's reactions at the time, it
does have research about customers. The research can identify potential
customers, find what message elements might influence them, and figure out how
best to get that message to them. Although the research is meaningless when
applied to any particular individual, it is effective when applied to large groups of
customers.

Third, and perhaps of most importance, advertising can be far cheaper per
potential customer than personal selling. Personal selling is extremely labor-
intensive, dealing with one customer at a time. Advertising deals with hundreds,
thousands, or millions of customers at a time, reducing the cost per customer to
mere pennies. In fact, advertising costs are determined in part using a formula to
determine, not cost per potential customer, but cost per thousand potential
customers.

Thus, it appears that advertising is a good idea as a sales tool. For small ticket
items, such as chewing gum and guitar picks, advertising is cost effective to do the
entire selling job. For large ticket items, such as cars and computers, advertising
can do a large part of the selling job, and personal selling is used to complete and
close the sale.

Advertising is non personal, but effective.

1.2 COMMUNICATION

Communication means not only speech or pictures, but any way one person can
pass information, ideas or feelings to another. Thus communication uses all of the
senses: smell, touch, taste, sound and sight. Of the five, only two are really useful
in advertising, sound and sight. So let’s talk about these two only:

Sound

Sound is extremely useful for advertising. It can be used in a variety of media,
from radio and television to the new technology of binding micro-sound chips in
magazines to present 20-second sales messages. It is also capable of presenting
words and "theatre of the mind."
Words, the method by which humans communicate their ideas and feelings, are
presented by sound, by speaking aloud. Through the use of words it is possible to
deliver logical arguments, discuss pros and cons, and evoke emotions.

More, through the use of sound it is possible to create what is called "the theatre of
the mind." What this means is that sound can conjure in the listener's mind images
and actions that don't necessarily exist. For example, if you want to create before
the mind's eye the image of a party, you need merely use the sound effects of
people talking and laughing, the tinkle of glasses and ice, perhaps music in the
background. Even easier, tape record a party and play it back. To evoke images of
a soft spring day the sounds of a breeze rustling leaves, the chirrup of insects, the
soft call of birds is sufficient. The listener's mind will take those sounds, combine
them, make sense of them, and create an image suited to their individual taste. For
example, a beer commercial may play the sounds of a bar in the background, and
the listener may imagine themselves in their own favorite bar, and perhaps
ordering that brand of beer.

Thus sound, in the forms of words and effects, are quite useful to the advertiser in
affecting a listener.

Sight

Sight is arguably the most useful of the communication channels available to the
advertiser. Through sight it is possible to use both words and images effectively.

Words do not have to be spoken to be understood. They can be printed, as well.
Although it is difficult to put in written words the emotional impact possible in
spoken words, with their inflections and subtle sound cues, nevertheless written
words are unsurpassed for getting across and explaining complex ideas or
arguments.

There is an additional factor in sight that makes it excellent for advertising. The
old cliché, "A picture is worth a thousand words," is correct. Think how long it
takes to describe something as opposed to showing a picture of it. No matter how
many words you use, some details will be left out that are visible at a glance. Thus
sight can quickly and concisely show a customer what the advertiser wants him to
see, be it a product or how buying the product can benefit him.

In addition, the mind does not have to consciously recognize what the eye sees for
it to have an effect on the subconscious. An advertiser can put many
inconspicuous details into a picture that will affect a customer on the subconscious
level. For example, a drop of water on a rose petal may not consciously register ("I
see there's a drop of water on this rose"), but will unconsciously leave an
impression of freshness and delicacy. A small child looking upward into the
camera, unsmiling and eyes wide, gives an impression of sadness and
vulnerability, not shortness.

Therefore, we can say these forms of human communication can be used to send
any message to potential customers effectively.

1.3 INFORMATION

Information is defined as knowledge, facts or news. However, you should bear in
mind that one person's information is another person's scam, particularly when
advertisers talk about their products.

Information comes in many forms. It can be complete or incomplete. It can be
biased or deceptive. Complete information is telling someone everything there is
to know about something: what it is, what it looks like, how it works, what its
benefits and drawbacks are. However, to provide complete information about
anything is time consuming and difficult. For example, to tell all about a car would
require its appearance, manufacture and manufacturer, what percentage of parts
are made in which countries, cost of upkeep, mileage (city and highway), cost
(basic and with any and all combination of options), sales and excise taxes per
state, preparation costs, insurance costs per state and locale, ride characteristics
(noise by db interior and exterior, ergs required for steering and braking, relative
comfort of seats, length of reach required to use controls, degrees of lean when
cornering), acceleration, braking distance at many different speeds, etc.. All of this
would require a documentary, not a commercial. Complete information is
impossible to provide in an ad.

Thus, for advertising, information must of necessity be incomplete; not discussing
everything there is to know about the subject. In advertising, what appears is
everything the writer thinks the customer needs to know about the product in order
to make a decision about the product. That information will generally be about
how the product can benefit the customer. Lewis A. Engman, FTC Chair in 1974,
said:

"Sometimes the consumer is provided not with information he wants but only with
the information the seller wants him to have. Sellers, for instance, are not inclined
to advertise negative aspects their products even though those aspects may be of
primary concern to the consumer, particularly if they involve considerations of
health or safety . . .”

1.4 PAID FOR
". . . paid for . . . " is pretty straightforward. If an ad is created and placed in the
media, the costs of creation and time or space in the media must be paid for. This
is a major area in which advertising departs from public relations. Time or space is
bought in the media; the ads (as long as they follow the guidelines set down for
good taste, legal products and services, etc.) will appear. The drawback is that ads
are clearly designed to extol the virtues of products and companies, and any ad is
perceived by consumers as at least partly puffery.

1.5 PERSUASIVE

"Persuasive" stands to reason as part of the definition of advertising. The basic
purpose of advertising is to identify and differentiate one product from another in
order to persuade the consumer to buy that product in preference to another. The
purpose of this book is to discuss some basic elements of persuasion.



1.6 PRODUCTS, SERVICES OR IDEAS

Products, services or ideas are the things that advertisers want consumers to buy.
However, there is more involved in products or services than simply items for
purchase. A product is not merely its function. It is actually a bundle of values,
what the product means to the consumer. That bundle may contain the product's
function, but also the social, psychological, economic or whatever other values are
important to the consumer.

For example, let's look at a car. If the function of a car, transportation, is all that is
important, then manufacturers would need only build motorized boxes on wheels,
and consumers would be happy with them. Such is obviously not the case: the
number of models and types of cars is huge, and if consumers didn't demand the
variety it wouldn't exist. Consumers must find factors other than mere
transportation just as, if not more important.

Perhaps the value is social. The type of car a person drives is often indicative of
that person's social status. A clunker shows a lower status than a Rolls Royce. A
sports car shows that a person is (or wishes to be perceived as) more socially
active and fun-loving than a person in a sedan or station wagon. The type of car
can even indicate which social grouping a person wants to be considered a part of:
in the 1980s Volvos and BMWs were the car for Yuppies.

Perhaps the value is psychological. Some cars may make a person feel safer, or
sexier, or give them self-esteem or enjoyment. Since the purpose of this book is to
discuss psychological values and how to appeal to them, I'll go no further at this
point.

Perhaps the value is economic. Some cars may be cheaper to run, give better
mileage, and carry more people or cargo, cause less damage to the environment.

The above four values, functional, social, psychological and economic, can stand
alone. Companies, through research, try to determine what values consumers want
in their products, and then advertise to show how their product satisfies the
customers' bundle of values better than competitors' products. To do this, the
company must differentiate their product from competitors. There are three basic
differentiations: perceptible, imperceptible, and induced.

1.7 Perceptible

Perceptible differences are those that actually exist that make one product
obviously different from others of the same kind. The difference may in color or
size or shape or brand name or some other way.

1.8 Imperceptible

Imperceptible differences are those that actually exist between one product and
others, but are not obvious. For example, there are imperceptible but profound
differences between CP/M, MS-DOS and Apple and MacIntosh computers. You
can't simply look at a computer and tell which it is; machines can and usually do
look alike. And yet buying either precludes being able to use software designed for
the other.

1.9 Induced

For many products, there is no actual substantive difference between one and
another. For many brands of cigarettes, beer, cleansers and soaps, rice, over-the-
counter health products, etc.ad nauseam, there is essentially no difference between
one brand and another. These products are called parity products. For these
products, the only way to differentiate one from another is to induce that
difference, to persuade people that there actually is some difference, and that
difference is important to them. These differences are created through advertising,
not through any inherent difference in the products. For example: Marlboro is
rugged male, Virginia Slims is independent female, Benson & Hedges is
intellectual, and Camel is cool and sophisticated. That there is no real difference
between one brand of cigarette and another is beside the point.

1.10 IDENTIFIED SPONSORS
Identified sponsors mean whoever is putting out the ad tells the audience who they
are. There are two reasons for this: first, it's a legal requirement, and second, it
makes good sense. Legally, a sponsor must identify himself as the sponsor of an
ad. This prevents the audience from getting a misleading idea about the ad or its
contents. Second, it makes good sense for a sponsor to identify himself in the ad.
If the sponsor doesn't, it is possible for the audience to believe the ad is for a
competitor's product, thus wasting all the time, creativity and money that went into
making and placing the ad.




VARIOUS MEDIA

Now lets make you familiar with various media of the non-personal channels of
communication that people have invented, used and will continue to use. These
include newspapers, magazines, radio, television, billboards, skywriting and
posters etc. anything that aids communicating in non-personal way ideas from one
person or group to another person or group.



2. Types of advertising

Virtually any medium can be used for advertising. Commercial advertising media
can include wall paintings, billboards, printed flyers and rack cards, radio, cinema
and television adverts, web banners, mobile telephone screens, shopping carts,
web popups, skywriting, bus stop benches, human billboards, magazines,
newspapers, town criers, sides of buses, banners attached to or sides of airplanes,
in-flight advertisements on seatback tray tables or overhead storage bins, taxicab
doors, roof mounts and passenger screens, musical stage shows, subway platforms
and trains, elastic bands on disposable diapers, doors of bathroom stalls, stickers
on apples in supermarkets, shopping cart handles ,the opening section of streaming
audio and video, posters, and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts.
Any place an "identified" sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium
is advertising. Some of the main channels of advertising are described below:
2.1 Television

The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market
advertising format, as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for
commercial airtime during popular TV events.

Majority of television commercials feature a song or jingle that listeners soon
relate to the product.

Virtual advertisements may be inserted into regular television programming
through computer graphics. It is typically inserted into otherwise blank backdrops
or used to replace local billboards that are not relevant to the remote broadcast
audience. More controversially, virtual billboards may be inserted into the
background where none exist in real-life. Virtual product placement is also
possible.

A television advertisement or television commercial or ad-film (India) – is a span
of television programming produced and paid for by an organization that conveys
a message. Advertisement revenue provides a significant portion of the funding for
most privately owned television networks. The vast majority of television
advertisements today consist of brief advertising spots, ranging in length from a
few seconds to several minutes (as well as program-length infomercials).
Advertisements of this sort have been used to sell every product imaginable over
the years, from household products to goods and services, to political campaigns.

The effect of television advertisements upon the viewing public has been so
successful and so pervasive that it is difficult for even a Politician to wage a
successful election campaign without the purchase of television advertising.
English-language advertising in India is among the most creative in the world. TV
advertising (especially in the Hindi language) has made major headway in the past
10 years, especially with the advent of satellite TV. It is considered as most
influential medium of advertising in Modern World as it has both audio as well as
video combined together, which captures consumers attention and is long lasting.

2.2 Infomercials

An infomercial is a long-format television commercial, typically five minutes or
longer. The word "infomercial" is a portmanteau of the words "information" and
"commercial". The main objective in an infomercial is to create an impulse
purchase, so that the consumer sees the presentation and then immediately buys
the product through the advertised toll-free telephone number or website.
Infomercials describe, display, and often demonstrate products and their features,
and commonly have testimonials from consumers and industry professionals.
Infomercials are long-format television commercials, typically five minutes or
longer. Infomercials are also known as paid programming. This phenomenon
started in the United States where infomercials were typically shown overnight,
outside of peak hours. In India, it is especially broadcasted at night even today, for
example, ads for Home Shoppe 18 and Teleshopping.

2.3 Radio advertising

Radio advertising is a form of advertising via the medium of radio.

Radio advertisements are broadcasted as radio waves to the air from a transmitter
to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. Airtime is purchased from a station
or network in exchange for airing the commercials. While radio has the obvious
limitation of being restricted to sound, proponents of radio advertising often cite
this as an advantage.

Commercial radio stations make most of their revenue selling “airtime” to
advertisers. Of total media expenditures, radio accounts for 6.9%. Radio
advertisements or “spots” are available when a business or service provides
valuable consideration, usually cash, in exchange for the station airing their spot or
mentioning them on air. The Federal Communications Commission, or FCC,
established under the Communications Act of 1934, Federal Communications
Commission regulates commercial broadcasting, and the laws regarding radio
advertisements remain relatively unchanged from the original Radio Act of 1927,
enacted to deal with increasing problems of signal interference as more and more
stations sprung up around the country.

2.4 Print advertising

Print advertising describes advertising in a printed medium such as a newspaper,
magazine, or trade journal. This encompasses everything from media with a very
broad readership base, such as a major national newspaper or magazine, to more
narrowly targeted media such as local newspapers and trade journals on very
specialized topics. A form of print advertising is classified advertising, which
allows private individuals or companies to purchase a small, narrowly targeted ad
for a low fee advertising a product or service.

The two most common print media are newspapers and magazines, but print
media also include outdoor billboards, transit posters, the yellow pages and direct
mail. Print media is important because it can reach such a large audience and the
great number of specialized publications enables businesses to focus in on a target
audience with a specific set of characteristics. Print media are allowed to advertise
most anything, such as cigarettes, liquor, and contraceptives; however, many
publications will not accept controversial ads.

Types of Print Media

A) NEWSPAPERS - When deciding upon a newspaper in which to advertise,
there are three physical criteria to consider: distribution, size, and audience.
Newspapers are either daily or weekly, come in a standard or tabloid size, and
reach nearly all of the reading public, which is estimated to be around 85-90
percent of the population. Because of the broad demographic reach of most
newspapers it is difficult to target a specific audience; however, newspapers are
effective in increasing awareness of a business' products and services in a specific
geographical area.

Types of ads placed in newspapers include: display ads, classified ads, public
notes, and preprinted inserts. Newspaper ads have some flexibility in their size.
For instance, some are small boxes that take up only a small portion of a page,
while others might span one or two full pages. Regardless of this flexibility,
newspaper ads can only use limited special effects, such as font size and color.
These limitations lead to advertising "clutter" in newspapers because all the ads
look very similar. Therefore, advertisers must use original copy and headings to
differentiate their ads from their competitors. The quick turnover of newspapers
also allows the advertiser to adjust ads to meet new market conditions; however,
this turnover means that the same ad may need to be inserted over a significant
period of time in order to reach its target audience.

B) MAGAZINES - With magazines an advertiser can focus in on a specific target
audience. As the Small Business Administration pointed out in "Advertising Your
Business": "Audiences can be reached by placing ads in magazines which have
well-defined geographic, demographic, or lifestyle focus." An attractive option for
many small businesses may be placing an ad in the localized edition of a national
magazine. But magazine advertisements often have a lag time of a couple months
between the purchase of ad space and the publication of the issue in question.
Magazines, then, are sometimes not the optimum option for businesses seeking to
target fast-changing market trends.

In addition to the above factors, it is also important to consider the nature of the
magazine ad copy. Magazines allow elaborate graphics and colors, which give
advertisers more creative options than do newspapers. Also, recent surveys have
indicated that informative ads are the most persuasive. Therefore, it is important to
include copy and art work that is direct and presents important product
information to the consumer, such as how the product works, how it benefits the
consumer, and where it can be purchased.
C) DIRECTMAIL - Many consultants feel that direct mail is the best way for
small businesses to begin developing awareness in their target consumers. Mailing
lists can be generated (even though they are often difficult to maintain) with the
names of those people most likely to purchase the advertiser's products or services.
However, direct mail is not always cost effective. According to James W. Taylor,
author of Marketing Planning: a Step by Step Guide, a direct mailing campaign
can cost as much as $1,000 to reach 1,000 people, whereas television can reach a
similar number of potential customers at a fraction of that cost. But business
experts indicate that direct mail does tend to generate more purchasing responses
than does television, and they observe that the products of many small businesses
are often more suited to a direct mailing campaign than to indirect, image
advertising.

D) YELLOW PAGES -The Small Business Administration stated in "Advertising
Your Business" that a yellow page ad is often used to "complement or extend the
effects of advertising placed in other media." Such an ad has permanence and can
be used to target a specific geographic area or community. Essentially, a yellow
page ad gives the consumer information needed to make a purchase. Therefore the
key information to include in such an ad includes: the products and services
available; location; phone number; business hours; special features, such as the
acceptable kinds of payment (i.e. credit cards, checks); parking availability;
discounts; and delivery policies and emergency services. The best way to arrange
this information is in a list, so that the consumer will be able to scan the ad for the
desired information.

A major consideration with a yellow page ad is where to place it, which primarily
depends on the directory (or category) under which businesses choose to locate
their ads. Central to this choice are the products or services that the company
wishes to emphasize. The ad copy should compliment the directory, indicating the
main products and services for sale, so that the ad will emerge from the similar
looking ads that surround it.

E) OUTDOOR ADVERTISING - Outdoor advertising usually comes in two
forms: billboards and transit posters. Like yellow page ads, outdoor advertising is
usually used to support advertisements placed in other media. Since the
prospective consumer often has only fleeting exposure to billboards and transit
posters, the advertising copy written for these media needs to be brief with the
ability to communicate ideas at a glance; this, of course, requires efficient use of
graphics and headings.

2.5 Online advertising
Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide
Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract
customers. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads that appear on
search engine results pages, banner ads, in text ads, Rich Media Ads, Social
network advertising, online classified advertising, advertising networks and e-mail
marketing, including e-mail spam.

2.6 Billboard advertising

A billboard is a large outdoor advertising structure (a billing board); typically
found in high traffic areas such as alongside busy roads. Billboards present large
advertisements to passing pedestrians and drivers. Typically showing large,
ostensibly witty slogans, and distinctive visuals, billboards are highly visible in the
top designated market areas. Bulletins are the largest, most impactful standard-size
billboards. Located primarily on major highways, expressways or principal
arterials, they command high-density consumer exposure (mostly to vehicular
traffic). Bulletins afford greatest visibility due not only to their size, but because
they allow creative "customizing" through extensions and embellishments.
Billboards are a great place to advertise business because rather than you having to
find your customers, your customers will find your advertising.

Posters are the other common form of billboard advertising, located chiefly in
commercial and industrial areas on primary and secondary arterial roads. Posters
are a smaller format than bulletins and are viewed principally by residents and
commuter traffic, with some pedestrian exposure.

2.7 Mobile billboard advertising

Mobile billboards are truck- or blimp-mounted billboards or digital screens. These
can be dedicated vehicles built solely for carrying advertisements along routes
preselected by clients, or they can be specially-equipped cargo trucks. The
billboards are often lighted; some being backlit, and others employing spotlights.
Some billboard displays are static, while others change; for example, continuously
or periodically rotating among a set of advertisements. A mobile billboard is the
marketing practice of advertising on the side of a truck or trailer that is typically
mobile. Mobile billboards are a form of Out-Of-Home (OOH) Advertising. Radio,
static billboards, and mall/airport advertising fall into the same category. Using a
mobile billboard for advertising is an advertising niche called mobile outdoor
advertising.

2.8 In-store advertising
In-store advertising is any advertisement placed in a retail store. It includes
placement of a product in visible locations in a store, such as at eye level, at the
ends of aisles and near checkout counters, eye-catching displays promoting a
specific product, and advertisements in such places as shopping carts and in-store
video displays. A common strategy among retailers is to first release sufficient
(though not high-budget) marketing and advertising in order to draw people to
their place of business and then to advertise and promote heavily inside of their
business. The theory is that people come into a retail establishment with one or a
few key items in mind; the goal is to entice these shoppers to buy more with well-
planned advertising and marketing within the store.

2.9 Celebrities

This type of advertising focuses upon using celebrity power, fame, money,
popularity to gain recognition for their products and promote specific stores or
products. Advertisers often advertise their products, for example, when celebrities
share their favorite products or wear clothes by specific brands or designers,
Aishwarya Rai Bachchan endorses for several brands like L’oreal hair color, Lux
beauty bar etc. Celebrities are often involved in advertising campaigns such as
television or print adverts to advertise specific or general products.

The use of celebrities to endorse a brand can have its downsides, however. One
mistake by a celebrity can be detrimental to the public relations of a brand. For
example, following his performance of eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympic
Games in Beijing, China, swimmer Michael Phelps' contract with Kellogg's was
terminated, as Kellogg's did not want to associate with him after he was
photographed smoking marijuana.

Advertisers have attempted to quantify and qualify the use of celebrities in their
marketing campaigns by evaluating their awareness, appeal, and relevance to a
brand's image and the celebrity's influence on consumer buying behavior.

3. Most effective media

3.1 Television Advertising: Sights, Sounds & Sales!

Advertising in India, has been on an upswing ever since the satellite boom in
1993. The sudden spurt in the number of private channels, gave an incredible
amount of T.V advertising space to advertising agencies and media houses. T.V
advertising, as most of you may know is the most profitable and the most
influential of all other advertising mediums. Advertising on T.V enabled a number
of organizations gain an incredible amount instant leverage. Helping them in the
process is a number of ad agencies that have used their creativity to capture the
imagination of the people. Heading the list of best advertising agency India, is of
course Ogilvy and Mather. Started by David Ogilvy, the father of modern day
advertising, O&M is an international ad agency that is based in several countries
around the globe. In India, the advertising agency is headed by the mustachioed
maverick Piyush Pandey.

O&M India has created some amazing commercials. Let’s take the example of a
utilitarian product like Fevicol. Popularizing a generic white adhesive is definitely
a difficult task, but humorous ads created by O&M, reportedly increased its sales
by 35%. Closely following the footsteps of O&M is McCann Erickson. Headed by
the Prasoon Joshi the agency hit the jackpot with the Coca Cola commercials, "Pio
sir utha ke, "that captured the imagination of the small town consumers. Apart
from these two, there are several other advertising agencies India, like
Rediffusion, Mudra, Leo Burnet and Lintas that have frequently enthralled the
audience with their creativity, wit and poignant presentation of information.

Ever since the advent of modern communication technology that has allowed
people around the world to communicate ever so easily, the world itself seems like
a smaller space. Broadcasting is an especially effective manner through which
millions of people are able to become unified on the basis that they are common
recipients of a particular message. One of the most powerful transmitters of these
messages is of course the television; programs of which can be seen around the
world to serve many purposes. In most contemporary societies, television is a
highly influential medium of popular culture and plays an important role in the
social construction of reality. The effects of television should therefore be
recognized as having the ability to alter social, economic and political situations in
its places of propagation and beyond. India has undergone a grand cultural shift in
part due to the rapid growth of satellite television in the 1990’s and its
programming.

Television is unlike any other medium of mass communication in that its social
effects are prominent, and able to prompt substantial change. The strong cultural
influence of television on developing nations can therefore be linked to the
following factors as outlined in the book “Media and Social Changes: the
modernizing influences of television in rural India.” First, television programming
is easily accessible and inexpensive, which is mainly due to the fact that American
television is sold inexpensively around the world after profits in its home market
have already been made. Television’s potency is also a result of its broad scope
and diversity of programs which therefore makes it appealing to almost anybody.
Yet another reason for television’s mass appeal is its benign presence, which
allows viewers to be in control of what they watch, how much they watch and
when to watch it. Ultimately, it is these factors that propel the reliance on the
medium which has the power to inflict many societal changes in developing
nations such as India. Through the examination of diverse groups in India such as
rural villagers, youth, women and the middle class, I intend to illustrate the vast
social and cultural changes taking place in a culturally rich country, in large part
due to the relatively recent popularity of television throughout the country.
According to statistics the population in India was:

In         2000,        it        was           1,003          million         people.
In         2001,        it        was           1,019          million         people.
In         2002,        it        was           1,050          million         people.
In         2003,        it        was           1,060          million         people.
In         2004,        it        was           1,080          million         people.
In         2005,        it        was           1,094          million         people.
In 2006, it was 1,110 million people.

While almost 75 percent of India’s one billion people live in villages, their
thoughts and actions consequently have a large influence on the country’s social,
political and economic state. One of the most prolific changes in village life which
can be linked directly to the influence of television is rise of consumerism in rural
India. Just as we are enveloped with advertisements and endorsements which
propel us to purchase that which we deem necessary, the same is true in rural India
in which such things as blue jeans and hand cream have become necessities.
Villagers       themselves         acknowledge         this       growing      need:
“I want many things that my parents never had. I want a motorcycle and a nice
color TV; I want to eat mutton once a week instead of three times a year”

Through this illustration, it is evident that needs are certainly growing and it is due
to television and advertisements that the economically dependent third world is
now being internally pressured to make shifts that may not be financially possible
yet incredibly desirable.

Another growing desire of the rural Indian population is to become urbanized,
leading to a shift in behavior and relationships. Not only do these villagers want to
mimic the representations of their urban counterparts by changing their attire and
consumer goods, their attitudes are also altered as a result. Such phenomenon can
be seen as a positive shift which allows modern attitudes to flourish, through
which more sensitivity and emotion are finding their ways into the rigid caste
system and competition, therefore adding sentimental value to various
relationships. In the case of rural parts of developing nations, mediation may also
be useful as a way of educating villagers about their own country. The programs
that are seen by the villagers are those which are produced in India yet reflect a
Western undercurrent of values and lifestyles. The rural audience is therefore able
to learn about other parts of their own country, which is useful due to the fact that
many do not venture far from their village for touring purposes.

Although touring the country may not be prioritized, with the glamorization of
urban life through the media, many villagers are moving to urban centers in search
for a better life. (Johnson 2001) The implications of such a shift are obvious in that
the villages that are being abandoned are at a disadvantage, yet the urban cities
have nothing to gain other than more overcrowding.

Although the middle class in India is generally more urbanized and therefore more
in touch with the globalizing effects of media, they resemble the villagers in terms
of the effects of television on their daily lives. While villagers are enticed with
what is outside their village, the urban middle class is able to see the correlation
between the foreign and national trademarks.

“Multinational companies consistently attempt to associate their products with
signifiers of the Indian nation, for instance through sponsorship of the Indian
Olympic team in the 1996 Olympics or through more subtle references to
specifically Indian conditions such as the monsoon season”

While conglomerates such as Pepsi and Coke are striving to merge the Indian
identity with their brands by sponsoring sporting events and relying on Indian
celebrity endorsements, the Indian audience fails to see that what they see as
sponsorship for India’s pride is actually a mere scheme to boost consumerism. It is
therefore evident that just as the rural class is becoming increasingly
commoditized, the middle class urban population is no different. Although many
televised advertisements tug on the nationalized heartstrings, many direct
correlations are also made between Indian cities and North American or European
ones. In this sense, the existence of the Indian city dwellers is being justified on
the basis of their city’s comparison to Western cities. It is through these processes
that Indian’s are made to feel that they are being recognized, but the concern is
whether this recognition is strong if it is formulated through comparison. While
many of these discrete messages are being transmitted through television and
advertisements, they are transforming into ideals; and, just as the rural population
is in search for an urban setting, the urban dwellers are looking towards Western
societies for opportunity.

According to static’s result India spends so much for their TV advertisements.

In   2002    US     $718 million       was    spent    out   of    US    $    37,682.
In   2003    US     $848 million       was    spent    out   of    US    $    44,413.
In   2004    US     $ 899million       was    spent    out   of    US    $    51,812.
In 2005 US $1,034 million was spent out                     of   US     $   61,478.
In 2006 US $1,189 million was spent out of US $ 67,672.

The effects of commercialism cannot be underestimated. Today’s children are
besieged by manipulative commercial messages day in and day out, on TV, and
even at school. Companies hire psychologists to help them target children and
manipulate them; this is called the "art of whine-making." The bombardment of
commercial messages has created a sense of chronic dissatisfaction in children
and, many psychologists think that is has contributed to the increase in teen
depression.

In terms of programming, television shows are either American or Indian
imitations of them.

“Programs targeted specifically at the middle class are often characterized by a
hybridized language which combines Hindi and English. This mixture, termed
‘Hinglish’ by the popular media, combines Hindi and English in different
television shows”

Through this very example it is evident that Westernized ideals are seeping into
Indian mainstream media through the use of television. Moreover, an important
shift to consider is that while English is becoming increasingly predominant, the
non-English speakers are being marginalized and degraded in their own home
country. Secondly, the predominance of Hindi as the main language on television
weakens the diverse languages spoken in India which have contributed to its
cultural heritage for centuries.

One of the most prominent examples of the hybrid of Indian and American culture
is through the phenomenon of MTV and youth culture in India.

“The two main foreign-owned music television channels operating in India, News
Corporation’s Channel [V] and Viacom’s MTV have followed a market strategy
of aggressive “Indianization.” This has taken the form of programs featuring
Indian                                                                       film
songs                    and                    music                  videos…”
Although it may hold true that television which is geared towards youth may
support Indian entertainment, these channels directly model the American versions
of them; therefore, enforcing a global Americanized culture upon middle-class
Indian youth.

Consumerism is extremely prominent among this group due to the cultural icons
represented through music videos and advertisements, along with their parent’s
willingness to support such spending. This seems to hold true as a characteristic of
youth culture across the globe, which raises the question of whether this global
identity was created to homogenize this particular group.

Yet another concern that satellite television and its growing Western influence has
brought about is the generational reformation of these viewers.

“… graduate students of classical dance and mainly Telugu Channel [V] viewers
and say that they have frequently experienced discomfort (and so have their
parents)because of the growing trend of obscenity in Telugu film songs (including
nudity, suggestive body movements, and “double-meaning” lyrics).”

Families were once able to enjoy programs without any discrepancy among
parents and children, the ever growing influence of Western ideology that ‘sex
sells’ in the media has transgressed into the Indian market, and led to reformation
of the family unit, creating obvious distinctions between tastes. The new trends in
television broadcasting may therefore effectively deconstruct the family unit as the
Western ideals transgressing through Indian television are slowly creating gaps
within the home.

Some young viewers of these provocative music videos seem to think that due to
their promiscuous nature, that these television programs are also being aired in the
West;

However, it is this misconception that demonstrates the young Indian’s desire to
be recognized by its American counterparts. This ideal requires placing cultural
regulations on the backburner, meeting and enjoying Westernized standards and
masking them with an overarching Indian identity, all in a subconscious attempt to
escape that very identity.

Study has shown Television viewing occupied 10.9% of an adolescent time that is
about 12 hours per week. 90% of this viewing occurred at home, 73% was done
with other family members including 7% with grandparents, uncles, or aunts. This
indicates that TV viewing is a typical family activity.

Adolescents’ rates of viewing were correlated with mothers’ rates of viewing, with
rates for both higher when mothers were unemployed. Adolescents’ TV rates were
also correlated with fathers’ rates and with fathers’ type of unemployment. Study
has prove, during TV viewing adolescents reported lower than average challenge,
worry, and paying attention and higher than average choice, clam and relaxation.
In short TV viewing of the middle class Indian youth is a relaxed antidote to the
stress of the day that they share with their families.
Television has a major impact on toddlers it influences their viewing habits
throughout their lives. Since toddlers have a strong preference for cartoons and
other programs that have characters that move fast, there is considerable likelihood
that they will be exposed to large amounts of violence. Children do not become
full-fledged "viewers" until around the age of two-and-a-half. As toddlers, they
begin to pay more attention to the television set when it is on. They develop a
limited ability to extract meaning from television content.

At the age of eight, children are more likely to be sensitive to important
moderating influences of television content, and will not become more aggressive
themselves if the violence they see is portrayed as evil, as causing human
suffering, or as resulting in punishment or disapproval. However, they are
especially likely to show increased aggression from watching violent television if
they believe the violence reflects real life, if they identify with a violent hero, or if
they engage in aggressive fantasies.

One major group which television watching has effected is the age group between
5-13 years of age. Television violence is accompanied by vivid production
features; preschoolers are predisposed to seek out and pay attention to violence—
particularly cartoon violence. It is not the violence itself that makes the cartoons
attractive to preschoolers, but the accompanying vivid production features. With
this preference for cartoons, preschoolers are being exposed to a large number of
violent acts in their viewing day. Moreover, they are unlikely to be able to put the
violence in context, since they are likely to miss any subtlety conveyed mitigating
information concerning motivation and consequences. Preschoolers behave more
aggressively than usual in their play after watching any high-action exciting
television content, but mostly after watching violent television.

Another important group that has faced major identity transformations, sparked by
the engagement in television is women. In recent years, viewers of Indian film and
television have witnessed a shift from portrayals of females as innocent and
subordinate in nature, into independent sexual beings. While India’s strong
traditional heritage has always been significantly characterized by the traditional
roles of women as homemakers and mothers, the portrayal of women on television
has challenged this ideal, and therefore cultivated a new perception of womanhood
for the Indian woman.

“In the 1990s, the Indian ideal of female beauty changed to become more aligned
with the Western concept of ‘thin is beautiful’. This change can be unhealthy
because the average female Indian body type generally includes large hips.”

It is therefore evident that the increasing popularity of Western norms through
television can be equated with the changing attitudes of Indian females and their
bodies. The concern here is obviously the potential damage these ideals may
inflict upon the health and self esteem of women exposed to such figures.

One particular article which examined the portrayal of women in Indian television
states,
“Although many of the programs continued to relegate women to the role of either
the glamorous host or the traditional housewife, there were many examples of
non-traditional                  roles                  for                 women.”
Whereas traditional roles are still portrayed, and certain qualities are equated with
feminism, the diversity in female roles can be viewed as an indication that women
now have choices to fit into those roles that appeal to them. Through television, a
range of options are presented, therefore reflecting the potential flexibility of
women’s lives. The concern that arises in this case is the harsh reality of Indian
culture that is caught between two contradictory gender role portrayals which may
either promote female independence, or discourage it altogether. It is therefore
important to consider those women who desire liberation, and are held back
because they don’t coincide with traditional norms and expectations.

The very concept of woman has been revolutionized by the integration of Western
ideals and practices that are seeping into Indian-produced television. Conflicts are
therefore surfacing which pertain to the issues of female identity. Similarly, with
the recent uproar of music-based television, Indian youth culture is flourishing into
an ‘Indianized’ group which depends on Western ideals to propel their tastes. This
consequently, is creating drifts within the nuclear family structure, and producing
a generation gap. The urban middle class, as well as rural villagers are also
affected in that they now utilize commodities as a signifier of rank, and these
commodities are determined by conglomerate advertising through mainstream
Indian                                                                    television.
Television watching and physical activity both are related to obesity. However this
has been investigated mainly in children. Television viewing takes up 10.9% of an
adolescent’s time (about 12 hours per week) study proves. Children get glued to
the television and do not exercise. They watch one program after another with out
giving them self’s a break. They do not even have half an hour to do any kind of
physical activities. This finally results in obesity.

Socially, one of the greatest problems plaguing India today is the consequences of
Americanization. Indian’s have eroticized the culture of America to such a degree
where they do not realize that they are constantly consuming high priced
merchandise at the expense of their own enriched diverse culture. The Indian
economy is so motivated by the capital gain from multinationals that they often try
to counterbalance the impact of the western images by enforcing radical
Nationalistic themes. The growing popularity of television in all parts of India is
therefore making way for a homogenized Indian culture whose cultural identity is
becoming ever so fragile.

4. Effects on youth

4.1 (a) Children and adolescents as target groups

The children’s market, where resistance to advertising is weakest, is the “pioneer
for ad creep”. “Kids are among the most sophisticated observers of ads. They can
sing the jingles and identify the logos, and they often have strong feelings about
products. What they generally don't understand, however, are the issues that
underlie how advertising works. Mass media are used not only to sell goods but
also ideas: how we should behave, what rules are important, who we should
respect and what we should value.” Youth is increasingly reduced to the role of a
consumer. Not only the makers of toys, sweets, ice cream, breakfast food and
sport articles prefer to aim their promotion at children and adolescents. For
example, an ad for a breakfast cereal on a channel aimed at adults will have music
that is a soft ballad, whereas on a channel aimed at children, the same ad will use a
catchy rock jingle of the same song to aim at kids. Advertising for other products
preferably uses media with which they can also reach the next generation of
consumers. “Key advertising messages exploit the emerging independence of
young people”. Cigarettes, for example, “are used as a fashion accessory and
appeal to young women. Other influences on young people include the linking of
sporting heroes and smoking through sports sponsorship, the use of cigarettes by
popular characters in television programmes and cigarette promotions. Research
suggests that young people are aware of the most heavily advertised cigarette
brands.”

“Product placements show up everywhere, and children aren't exempt far from it.
The animated film, Food fight, had ‘thousands of products and character icons
from the familiar (items) in a grocery store.’ “Business is interested in children
and adolescents because of their buying power and because of their influence on
the shopping habits of their parents. As they are easier to influence they are
especially targeted by the advertising business. “The marketing industry is facing
increased pressure over claimed links between exposure to food advertising and a
range of social problems, especially growing obesity levels.” In 2001, children’s
programming accounted for over 20% of Indian television watching. The global
market for children’s licensed products was some 132 billion U.S. dollars in 2002.

Kids are most targeted because they will carry forward brand expectations,
whether positive, negative, or indifferent. Kids are already accustomed to being
catered to as consumers. The long term prize: Loyalty of the kid translates into a
brand loyal adult customer”. The average Indian child sees 350,000 TV
commercials before graduating from high school, spends nearly as much time
watching TV as attending classes.

4.1 (b) Fast food and Obesity in Children

We all know what causes obesity, and that is eating too much of the wrong kinds
of food and not getting enough exercise. Some studies have shown that fast food
causes obesity in children. However, the fast food industry claims that their foods
do not cause obesity in kids. So, is there a link between fast food and obesity in
children?

Well, there appears to be both a link between fast food and obesity and fast food
and obesity in children. Some of these links are large serving sizes, low fiber
content, and increased content of fat, sugar and salt in most fast foods. Also, since
kids are usually out running and playing together, lack of exercise does not seem
to be a link in most kids. Studies have also shown that there has been a dramatic
increase of the number of times per day and per week that families eat out since
the 1950's. Therefore, it is conceivable that fast food causes obesity.

The fast food industry does need to realize that there are other effects of fast food
than just obesity. While anyone, but especially overweight children, are eating
burgers, fries, pizza and coke products they are not getting the nutritious food that
they need. Instead, they are getting empty calories. Calories, which have no
nutritional value, are setting themselves up for diabetes, heart problems and other
fatal disorders. This also leads to the stark realization that if this poor nutrition in
our obese children.

Advertising, including television ads, billboards, and other advertising, including
toys in boxed meals, has had an effect upon children as never before. Children
these days are growing up with low concern for their health and more concern for
what tastes good.

Without enough parental supervision, these kids grow up with little nutritional
discretion and usually these kids grow into adults with both weight and health
problems as well as teaching another generation that it is ok to waste money on
unhealthy foods. So it is not only the young people of our generation that are being
affected by the fast food industry, it is going to have an effect for generations to
come, if something isn’t done about the consumption of fast food.

4.1    (c)    It’s   up      to     us!

As is expected the fast food industry is not going to think it possible to suddenly
change its direction after years of offering poor food choices. It will have to come
from the consumer demanding healthier food choices. Our vote comes with where
we shop and what we buy. Our children and grandchildren will grow up with
weight and other health problems if they continue eating the fast food.

We can read all the studies that show links between fast food and obesity and fast
food and obesity in children. We can look on as medical science proves that fast
food causes obesity, but if we, as consumers do nothing and continue to feed these
foods to our children, the health problems that will be the end result will be our
own fault.

4.1 (d) Role of Media in Advertising for Children

Media has been a significant part of our daily life, a vehicle for communicating to
the public as well as a source of entertainment. Magazines, TV programs, radio,
billboards, news, internet, cell phones are the forms of mass media which are
considered to be part of our everyday routine. Traditionally, parents serve as
primary social models for children; whereas other models may include siblings,
teachers, relatives and other persons who are significant in children’s lives. Over
time, however, parents’ influence as models to their children is on the decline as a
direct or indirect result of technological advancement and alterations in household
economics. Aside from their busy schedules, families of today seem to gather
around rarely because each member has easy access to his or her own television,
telephone, computer, music player, etc... This set-up would imply that children are
more inclined to interact less with their parents and spend more time on their own.
Thus, children could turn their attention from their parents to more accessible
diversions, such as television watching. Without their parents’ direct guidance or
control, such exposure can become excessive and unguarded. It would not be
much of a surprise, if what these children watch did influence their thinking and
behavior. Children and the youth are media’s darling. Media as perceived by
children is full of excitement and wonder, because it brings them to a world of
reality as well as makes believe. James P. Steyer an advocate for media
organization for children, in his book regards media as “the other parent” since at
present time children spend much of their time with these different forms of
media. In view of the fact that our society is media saturated, parents should be
aware of the positive and negative effects of media to children.

Media’s positive effects are: First, its academic learning opportunities. “Over the
past 30 years, shows such as Teletubbies, Barney, and M.A.D have provided
academic learning to toddlers and pre-aged children. For older children, programs
such as Big Bang, Spellz and Tricky T.V. are replete with informative, scientific
facts. For pre-teens and teenagers, cable channels such as The Animal Planet, The
Discovery Channel, and The Learning Channel offer a wide range of educational
fare”. Children that are exposed to educational programs are more likely to adopt
to what they are watching , to cite an example children(toddlers) from a non-
English speaking country that are expose to shows like Barney are able to learn to
speak English although with improper grammar. They learn to communicate with
the English language and by the time they attend school learning grammar will be
easier for them. The same is true with older children, programs shown in the
National Geographic Channel, The Animal Planet, The Discovery Channel and
articles written in their published magazine as well as their websites help them to
learn and see what a certain animal looks like, see and explore places that are
impossible for human to go to and visit places that are overseas. These educational
programs help them to visualize places and animals as well as further explain
theories that are learned in the classroom.

The second positive effect of media is pro-social behavior learning. “Pro-social
behavior refers to any action that benefits another person. Comforting, sharing,
and helping are all examples of pro-social actions” .Many develops mentalists,
especially those leaning towards the tradition of Social-Cognitive perspective;
argue that much of the changes in children’s behavior may be accounted for by
their observation of others. Learning through imitation or more commonly known
as Observational Learning, occurs when a child observes and eventually imitates a
model’s behavior. Programs designed for pro social behavior learning teaches
children to practice social behavior such as sharing, helping when they themselves
interact socially. They are thought how to properly respond to problems
encountered in the outside world like in school or in the community. For example
a child who watches how kids share art materials in completing a project in
Sesame Street will the same way share his crayons to a classmate when he attend
school. To further explain this impression, a study conducted by Mares in 1986
“suggest that the viewing of pro social television content can increase positive
interactions among youth during play and increase altruism”. On the other hand,
although pro social programs are intended to teach pro social behavior the age of
the viewer should be considered because children of younger age are more
adaptable to such teaching than older children.

Despite the positive effects presented media has negative effects as well.
Children’s familiarity with these media models could lead them to pick up new
behaviors that are not modeled by their own parents such as: First, body image and
eating disorder problems. According to the Anorexia Nervosa and Related Eating
Disorder organization (ANRED), more than half of teenage girls are on diets or
think they should be. TV programs and magazines that show teenage girls that are
thin even though unintentional young girls tend to copy their favorite character. In
their target to get thin they put themselves to diet, at times they force themselves
not to eat to get thin. “On average, girls begin dieting at the age of eight, and
eighty-one percent of ten-year-olds fear becoming fat. A national eating disorder
treatment center in 2006 reported that sixty-three percent of elementary school
teachers are concerned about eating disorders in their classroom. From where do
these girls get such a poor self image”? Unfortunately, mass media most
frequently foster negative affective body images among youth. Apparently,
models are not limited to real people; super heroes, cartoon or video game
characters, even television or movie idols, can also serve as symbolic or media
models in this case.

The second negative effect of media is the introduction to drug use. Commercials
give enthusiasm to young viewers because they are entertaining, but the harm it
brings to the young minds of children is often overlooked. The youth being
exposed in a world surrounded with media, are therefore exposed to adult aimed
advertisements like commercials of cigarettes and liquor. According to a survey,
the average child between ages eight to 18 spends more than 40 hours using
television, radio, billboards and the internet wherein advertising occupies much of
the time. Take smoking for instance; commercials of cigarette infuse curiosity to
the youth in the same way that movies and music videos that contain characters
that smoke predispose them to do the same. Moreover, ads contribute to problems
such as obesity, alcohol abuse and teen smoking.



4.1 (e) Children and Advertising

Children are the most susceptible to advertising. They are the most susceptible
because their minds are immature and are unable to distinguish good advertising
versus bad advertising. For that reason, there are laws and established
organizations to protect children from advertising. Commercials, the effects of
advertising on children, laws and organizations on television, and laws and
organizations on the internet that help protect children are important in
understanding how advertising affects children. Television commercials have a
huge impact on how it affects children. Commercials are the biggest form of
advertisement geared toward children. Children between the ages of 2 and 11 view
well over 20,000 television commercials yearly, and that breaks down to 150 to
200 hours (National Institute on Media and the Family, 1998). Television
advertisements geared towards children have the biggest market by far. The
advertising market in 1997 showed that children under twelve years of age spent
well over twenty-four millions dollars of their own money on products they saw
on television.

In the last fifteen years or so, there have been a few laws passed about advertising
to children on television. Advertisers should be careful not to exploit children's
imagination to create unrealistic expectations for a product. In addition, advertisers
have become sneaky about the way they convey their product. Commercials that
had boys often showed them in a non-home setting, showed them engaging in anti-
social behavior, and showed them using more products in different activities than
girls. Over the years, CME has been the leading force in expanding both children's
educational television programming and fostering television and Internet
safeguard for children and teens (Center for Media Education, 2001). These
studied revealed that nearly one third of three-year-old children, and almost all of
the children over the age of six could identify the Mc Donald’s logo. They work
closely with advertisers to promote educational messages to children that are
consistent with the Children's Television Act of 1990.

4.2 (a) The Effects of Advertising on Teens

Advertisements all around the globe, attempt to lure consumers to buy products.
Advertisements are placed in newspapers, magazines, schools, and on billboards
everywhere. Many questions arise about these advertisements, such as “Is
advertising deceptive? Does it create or perpetuate stereotypes? Does it create
conformity? Does it create insecurity in order to sell goods? Does it cause people
to buy things that they really don’t need? Advertisers use specific methods to
target teen consumers, but these methods are not always successful or ethical.
Advertising is giving the general public information about new goods and trying to
increase overall sales, which increases the efficiency of the nation’s economy. It is
supposed to be a significant way of getting the point across about a product and
create motivation for people to buy. Advertising alone, however, does not get
customers. It simply catches consumers’ attention, gets them to walk up to a shelf,
and make an impulsive purchase. However, getting the customer back requires a
more creative marketing approach. There are several ways to research consumers’
behaviors, likes, and dislikes. Companies also check whether the ads are being
productive by means of comparing the money made and number of sales during
periods of advertising to those during a time of no advertising. Some companies
even allow average consumers to preview a commercial to get a response. As a
result, companies learn what consumers want before wasting money on useless
ads. A well-known advertising strategy is making consumers feel insecure and
creating fears that can be overcome by buying. Advertising reveals the latest
fashions and the new popular novelties on the market. It exhibits perfect
individuals wearing the new styles and looking good. Consumers observe this
perfection and envy it. Therefore, they go out and buy in hopes of reaching
perfection. Furthermore, being an accepted member of society has become very
important to most individuals. For instance, the presence of body odor on
individuals makes them an outcast in society. Advertisers use this knowledge to
their advantage by developing ads that show a person using deodorant and being
recognized as popular. Fear also works into the whole advertising process. Due to
the fear by consumers that they will not fit in, they pay close attention to the new
ads for the new looks, which gives advertisers more drive to make their ads
portray the ideal person. Advertisers also insure that ads are simply informational,
but many disagree and believe that they are definitely persuasive. Likewise, critics
of the advertising industry argue that it connects products with preferred emotions,
such as happiness and popularity. For example, beer commercials often show a
man after a hard day’s work enjoying an ice-cold beer to relax him. They also
argue that ads give people the impression that products can give them talent. Take
athletics, for example. Nike ads are accused of implying that their shoes will give
a consumer athletic ability. Michael Jordan, our very own Neil Nitin Mukesh in
campus shoes T.V. Ads. is shown doing a basketball, wearing a new style of Nike
shoes. Consequently, kids are going to want the same pair shoes for that reason.
On the other hand, advertising agencies say that they just give the consumers up-
to-date information. They show change in their ads because they know that is what
consumers want and to fulfill the needs of the general public, change. Thus,
persuasive strategies are considered techniques used by advertisers to get
consumers to buy. Teenagers have become top consumers in today’s society, so
advertisers have focused on getting their business. According to Market Research,
teens bought 25% of all movie tickets and 27% of all videos, totaling $6.6 billion.
In 1998, teens spent $1.5 billion on jeans, almost twice as much as in 1990, and $3
billion on sneakers, almost four times more than the amount spent in 1997.
Another reason teens are being targeted is the fact that there are many more teens
in India today than the past Generation X. The current number is even expected to
grow in the next decade, giving advertisers more reason to target them. Winning
teens over as customers today means possible long-term customers. The majority
of teens also have part-time jobs or some type of income. With the possibility of
the minimum wage rising once again, teens have come to possess a lot of buying
power. According to the Teenage Research Unlimited, teenagers spent $140
billion in 1998, which is 14 percent more than in 1997 .Teens are able to spend
their money more freely because they do not have the responsibilities of adults.
They even have a greater influence on household spending, as their role in the
spending of their parents’ money continues to grow. For instance, it is not unusual
for a parent to send their teenager to the grocery store for them, giving them
complete control of brand choice. Thus, teenagers are becoming big targets for
advertisers due to their growing consumerism. Why are teenagers such big targets
in the advertising industry? The answer is simple: They are different. Advertisers
view them as a constant changing generation with optimistic outlooks. They want
to show individuality by their clothes and possessions, yet fit in with their peers.
Their optimism comes from the good rate of job placement after college, the good
position of the nation’s economy, and the very low unemployment rates.
Teenagers can basically strive for any career with a good chance of being
successful. They like to feel good about themselves, so they buy new materials to
produce that feeling. Teens are continuously purchasing new items to keeps up
with the changing trends. Therefore, advertisers use their view of teens to create
ads. With this in mind, advertisers devise specific ads, using a variety of tactics, to
appeal to these changing teens. Although marketers each have their own unique
techniques, they all use original, flashy, and funny ads to reach the teenage
audience. They make posters with college age students that create a fun and happy
image. Television commercials include music with good beats and bizarre images
because that is what gets the attention of teens. For example, the Set Wet Hair
styling gel commercial is a big success among teens. Advertisers use celebrities to
endorse products because teens admire and look up to them. Since teens are still
trying to find themselves, advertisers try to create ads and brands that will survive
past the finding years of teenagers, so they will have them as future customers.
Due to the change in today’s teens, advertisers target them much more. Another
controversial subject with advertising is that fact that teenage smoking is on the
rise. According to TIPS (Tobacco Information and Prevention Source), at least
6,000 people try a cigarette for the first time each day, all of which are under
eighteen years old. From 1988 to 1996, the number of adolescents, ages twelve to
seventeen, who are daily smokers, has increased by 73 percent. Teenage smoking
has obviously increased. As a result, tobacco advertisements are being blamed for
the increase use of tobacco by teenagers. Many advertising critics argue that
tobacco ads do indeed influence and contribute to the number of teenage smokers.
Most teens, however, disagree and believe that their peers are the number one
factor in their decision to smoke. Since image is very important to teens, they
evaluate what image their smoking friends portray. If they want that image too,
they may also take up the habit of smoking. A teen’s attitude towards cigarettes is
a considering factor, ranking above advertising that leads to teen smoking. It is
obvious that if one has a negative attitude towards cigarettes, he or she will be less
smoke. However, if individuals openly accept cigarettes, they may end up as a
smoker. Also, those around cigarettes on a daily basis are more likely to be
persuaded to smoke than individuals who are not around cigarettes. In the opinions
of teens, tobacco ads do not play a big role in their decision to smoke. Advertisers
use a variety of tactics to target particular groups, such as teens, to market their
product. There are many views on advertising. Despite the many opinions that
advertising is manipulative, a waste of money that could go towards other issues,
and a bad influence on human beings, there is no true way of proving it has a bad
effect on people. It is simply intended to reveal the benefits of products that
consumers want. It is vital to many businesses, as some would be unable to
survive without a way of making their products known. Although advertising is
accused of influencing consumers to buy things they do not need, they have the
choice to buy. It is up to the consumer to make wise choices and develop shopping
skills that are intelligent.

4.2 (b) Teens that resist liquor ads, peer pressure less likely to become
alcoholic.

Adolescents who have the ability to resist alcohol advertising gimmicks and peer
pressure are less likely to indulge in alcohol use, according to a new study.
Previous studies have shown how advertising and influence of peers promotes
adolescent alcohol use. "There are many pressures on teens to drink. One very
powerful influence is advertising — from television to billboards, it's
everywhere,” said Dr. Jennifer A. Epstein, lead author and assistant professor of
public health in the Division of Prevention and Health Behavior at Weill Cornell
Medical College.

The findings of researches going on worldwide revealed that seventh graders who
were critically aware of advertising were significantly less likely to drink alcohol
as ninth graders

These seventh graders were more likely to have developed better skills for
resisting peer pressure by the eighth grade, thus reducing their odds of drinking.

The students with media resistance and peer refusal skills (saying "no"), were less
likely to succumb to advertising and peer pressure to drink alcohol subsequently in
the ninth grade.

"Our findings point to the need for prevention programs that teach adolescents
media resistance skills and peer refusal skills to reduce the likelihood that they
will succumb to the powerful dual influences of alcohol advertising and peer
pressure," said Dr. Gilbert J. Botvin, the senior author; professor of psychology in
public health and professor of psychology in psychiatry; and chief of the Public
Health Department's Division of Prevention and Health Behavior.
4.2 (c) The University of Texas researchers find link between advertising and
increased tobacco use among India’s youth

As the westernization of India accelerates, tobacco advertising and marketing have
been linked to increased tobacco use by urban Indian children as young as 11,
according to a study by researchers at The University of Texas School of Public
Health. The study, “Associations between Tobacco Marketing and Use among
Urban Youth in India,” is published in the May/June issue of the American Journal
of Health Behavior.

Findings from an earlier published study by the researchers revealed that in 2004,
Indian sixth graders were using three times the amount of tobacco as eighth
graders, which the authors found might indicate a new wave of increased tobacco
use. The second study sought to discover the reason for the jump.

“As India becomes more westernized, more teens will use tobacco,” said the
study’s principal investigator Cheryl Perry, Ph.D., professor and regional dean of
The University of Texas School of Public Health Austin Regional Campus. “The
sixth graders as a group are already thinking that smoking is cool while the eighth
graders haven’t been as exposed to the Western message.”

After the major tobacco company settlements of 1998 that included more stringent
laws banning pro-smoking advertising, smoking has dropped among American
youth. According to The Monitoring the Future study, daily smoking among
eighth graders dropped from 8.8 percent in 1998 to 3 percent in 2007.

“The current study is the first in India to demonstrate a strong, dose-response
relationship between exposure and receptivity to tobacco advertising and
promotions and tobacco use among Indian youth. These associations clearly
suggest a need to strengthen policy and program-based interventions to reduce
tobacco use among youth in India,” said Melissa Stigler, Ph.D., assistant professor
at the UT School of Public Health and study co-author, who did much of the
ground work in India.

Chewing tobacco and aromatic cigarettes called “bidis” account for the majority of
tobacco use in India with cigarettes taking 20 percent of the market.

While tobacco advertising was banned in India in 2004, the year the study began,
cigarette companies are coming up with new ways to reach a relatively untapped
audience, Stigler said. Event sponsorship and lifestyle stores centered on tobacco
products are slipping through the cracks of the law.
As part of the 2004 law, smoking is also banned in public areas such as indoor
malls, but tobacco companies have responded with air-conditioned mobile
smoking lounges.

“On a visit there shortly after the 2004 law was enacted, I witnessed a long line of
college age students lined up for one of the mobile lounges, which was parked
outside an upscale shopping mall.” Stigler said.

The government is still working through the courts to determine the extent of the
ban. For example, Stigler said, actors have started to stop smoking cigarettes in
Bollywood movies but they now sing and dance about it instead.

The researchers found the link between advertising and tobacco use among the
Indian youth to be alarming.

“I was surprised that they were so strongly influenced,” Perry said. “The more
exposed the youth were to tobacco advertising, the more likely they were to have
ever used or be currently using tobacco.”

The study, which included 11,642 sixth and eighth graders, was produced in
collaboration with Indian organizations Health Related Information Dissemination
Amongst Youth in Delhi and Tamil Nadu Voluntary Health Association in
Chennai.

The researchers found that 37 percent of youth in the study had seen tobacco
advertising in more than four places while 50 percent had seen advertising in one
to four places.

Tobacco use rose with measures of receptivity, including having a favorite tobacco
advertisement, believing misleading imagery created by tobacco advertisements
and being willing to use a tobacco promotional item (such as wearing a T-shirt that
advertises tobacco).

Evidence from long-term studies

A national study published in January 2006 concluded that greater exposure to
alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in drinking among underage youth.
Specifically, for each additional ad a young person saw (above the monthly youth
average of 23), he or she drank 1% more. For each additional dollar per capita
spent on alcohol advertising in a local market (above the national average of $6.80
per capita), young people drank 3% more.
Another study found that, among a group of 2,250 middle-school students, those
who viewed more television programs containing alcohol commercials while in
the seventh grade were more likely in the eighth grade to drink beer, wine/liquor,
or to drink three or more drinks on at least one occasion during the month prior to
the follow-up survey.
Researchers followed 3,111 students, from seventh to ninth grade, and found that
exposure to in-store beer displays in grade 7 predicted onset of drinking by grade
9, and exposure to magazine advertising for alcohol and to beer concessions at
sports or music events predicted frequency of drinking in grade 9.
A study of 2,406 never-drinking middle school students found that ownership of
alcohol-branded merchandise at baseline was significantly associated with
increased likelihood of having initiated drinking at follow-up one to two years
later, after adjusting for wide range of confounders.

Evidence from studies of the effects of reductions in alcohol advertising

Survey of Youth in 1997 estimated that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising
would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24%
and 21%, and would reduce adolescent participation in binge drinking from 12%
to between 11% and 8%.
An effort to estimate the likely effects of several alcohol policies on youth
drinking behavior in the population concluded that a complete ban on alcohol
advertising would be the most effective, resulting in 7,609 fewer deaths from
harmful drinking and a 16.4% drop in alcohol-related life-years lost.
An analysis of the impact of evidence-based personal and environmental
interventions on disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 12 regions of the world
found that in regions where heavy drinking is less prevalent, targeted strategies
such as brief physician advice, roadside breath testing, and advertising bans would
be most effective.

Evidence of how alcohol advertising attracts and influences young people

A study on the responses of young people to alcohol advertising found that
underage youth are drawn to music, animal and people characters, story and
humor in alcohol advertising. Ads that were liked by youth in the study were more
likely to elicit responses from youth saying they wanted to purchase the brand and
products advertised. The three most popular alcohol ads among youth in the study
used animal characters as the leading actors.
A review of the neuroscience, psychology and marketing literatures concluded that
adolescents, because of how the human brain develops, may be particularly
attracted to branded products such as alcohol that are associated with risky
behavior and that provide, in their view, immediate gratification, thrills and/or
social status.
If young people like alcohol ads, they are more likely to have positive
expectancies about alcohol use and to intend to drink or to drink.
Exposure to alcohol advertising shapes attitudes and perceptions about alcohol use
among both young people (defined in this study as ages 15-20) and young adults
(ages 21 to 29). However, these attitudes and perceptions predict young people’s
positive expectancies and intentions to drink, but not those of young adults.

4.2 (d) What teens and others think about alcohol advertising and youth

A survey found that teens say ads have a greater influence on their desire to drink
in general than on their desire to buy a particular brand of alcohol.
Eighty percent of general public respondents in a poll by the Bureau of Alcohol,
Tobacco and Firearms believed "that alcohol advertising influences youth to drink
alcoholic beverages."
Another poll, done for an alcohol-industry-funded organization, found that 73% of
the public believes that "alcohol advertising is a major contributor to underage
drinking."
The National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) recognizes the influence
advertising can have on youth: "The impact of advertising on radio and television
audiences, particularly kids, cannot be overstated. Clever jingles, flashy lights, fast
talking, and quick pacing, all contribute to the message of commercials."


4.2 (e) Driving teen egos and buying through 'branding'

Teens are inundated with so much marketing about the importance of brands to
identity and image, it has changed the way they socialize with each other, interact
with adults and view themselves and the world. "It's the meta-message that you
can solve all of life's problems by purchasing the right products that's having the
most profound effect.”

So with that in mind, psychologists are pushing for increased research on the
effects of marketing to teens, an area where little empirical work has been done
arguing for a change in the political and social culture that would wipe out
marketing's identity-molding effects for increased influence of parents and other
role models in teenagers' communities.

4.2 (f) Targeting teen girls

Who you are includes how you fulfill your gender role, which with the intensity of
marketing to teens, can't help but be defined by products and images. Although
damaging to both sexes men often encounter pressure to look and behave in hyper-
masculine ways that influence identity teen-age girls bear a particularly high
burden of intense advertising. Constant exposure to commercials promising the
world beauty, popularity, peace-of-mind, self-confidence, great relationships turns
many young girls into insatiable consumers. Teenage girls spend over $9 billion
on makeup and skin products alone, an example of advertisers successfully selling
the "quick fix.” But that kind of purchase robs them of self-determination, self-
awareness and self-esteem.

"Encouraged to look outside of themselves for comfort, values and direction, girls
become easy prey to addictive behaviors and unrealistic images that ads promote".
"The diet, tobacco and alcohol industries target girls, capitalizing on the body
image, weight concerns and beauty ideals that make them most vulnerable."

Psychology's role

Many teens are feeling the social pressure. Some have trouble distinguishing
between what they truly like and what marketers have told them to like.

Parents and others who care about children need to take baby steps in several
arenas to turn the materialistic tide:

      At home, find ways for children to spend time away from advertising and
       talk to them about why and how ads are produced.
      In communities, share concerns with parents and community leaders who
       can work together to change teen views of marketing.
      In schools, work to stop the influx of advertising messages in school
       buildings.
      In the marketplace, join advocacy groups, such as the Coalition to Stop
       Commercial Exploitation of Children, that lobby politicians and companies
       to be responsible marketers. Also, support foundations that fund research
       on marketing effects on children.

4.3 (a) Effect of advertising on Women

We live in a world of stick thin models and emaciated celebrities. Magazine
covers tout “Best and Worst Beach Bodies” and “Too Thin for TV.” Weekly
tabloids feature stories on who has lost the most weight and who needs to cover
up. Television ads celebrate the greatness of diet pills; energy drinks can speed up
your metabolism, and the newest Master Cleanse diet will help you lose ten kgs. in
two days. The idea that thin is in is everywhere, and is hardly escapable from the
advertising industry. And although the messages are damaging and often untrue,
women everywhere are suffering the consequences of constant exposure to overly
thin models and movie stars.
4.3 (b) Stats about Models

The average woman has a 7 percent chance that she will be as slim as a catwalk
model and a 1 percent chance of being as thin as a supermodel, according to Web
site healthyplace.com. There is a disturbing trend that has gotten progressively
worse in fashion advertising over the past several years. Healthyplace.com also
notes that the average woman sees between 400 and 600 ads a day—these ads
often promote beauty and thinness. These ads do not encourage women to
embrace their own shapes, but rather to work hard to attain a low weight and toned
body. There are a few ads that try to honor ‘normal’ looking women—the most
notable was Dove’s recent ad campaign that featured everyday women in their
underwear. But there is no way that after seeing skinny models over and over
again, one company can really make a difference in how women feel about their
bodies. More needs to be done to cancel out the hundreds of ads women see
everyday that basically tell them they are not good enough.

4.3 (c) Dieting Culture

More and more horrific facts come up when one researches the effects of overly
thin models in advertising. According to Healthyplace.com, over 80 percent of 10-
year-old girls have dieted, and currently, 50 percent of women are presently
dieting. Women everywhere are exhibiting signs of hatred towards their body,
continually fueled by being exposed to ads featuring bodies they can never obtain.
Young women are extremely vulnerable to developing eating disorders—millions
are suffering from illnesses like anorexia or bulimia, and their quest for the
thinnest bodies are only furthered by ads with 90-pound models. The hardest part
is that these ads are everywhere—even if women avoided magazine ads, the
message to be thin is broadcast on television, radio, the Internet, and outdoor
billboards.

4.3 (d) Living in an Ad Society

A study was conducted called “The Elastic Body Image: The Effect of Television
Advertising and Programming on Body Image Distortions in Young Women,” and
the results showed that “actual body size is in conflict with a mediated ideal body
image and an unstable self-perceived body image…results of the study suggest
that watching even 30 minutes worth of television programming and advertising
can alter a women’s perception of the shape of her body.” This is an especially
troubling fact because the amount of television women watch directly correlates to
the ads they see everyday.

The advertising industry is very much responsible for the continued bombardment
of images of sickly thin models. While the fashion industry has taken minimal
steps in using healthy models, not much action has actually taken place. The
United States has tried to encourage the industry to use plus size models (usually
the still-thin size 4 or 6) or average looking women; however, there still hasn’t
been much of a change. Magazines like Vogue and Elle have tried to showcase
healthy models, but no matter how many stories they do about wanting to change
negative body image, the ads that run alongside the articles still display extremely
gaunt models.

4.3 (e)What Can We Do

There needs to be direct action taken by the advertising industry to show women
that being too thin is dangerous for individuals and for society as a whole.
Products should be boycotted or held accountable for their advertisements. Maybe
if money was withheld, companies would start to realize that they should be
celebrating their consumers, not denigrating them by insisting they are far from
perfect. Because this is a billion-dollar industry, change would most likely be a
long time in coming. But it is a necessary change that our culture needs to go
through…women’s lives are at stake.



4.4 Effects of Advertising on Society

Every time we open a newspaper or we turn on the TV, we see sellers of almost
identical products spending huge amounts of money in order to convince us to buy
their brands. Every year, each typical Indian watches 1650 hours of TV, listens
1270 hours on radio, and spends 430 hours reading newspapers and magazines. So
every day, each Indian watches 100 TV advertisements, 100 to 300 ads through
other mass media, and in one single year receives 216 pieces of direct mail
advertising, and almost 50 phone calls from telemarketers.

 All these, because sellers of everything, from computers to detergents, believe
that advertising is essential to the product. The critics state that advertising is
really beneficial to the consumers. They believe that advertising “creates”
consumers that are better informed about the characteristics of the commodities,
and that it does not alter the way in which the companies evaluate their products.
Also, they believe that advertising creates price sensitivity for the consumers that
buy the best products for their value. Finally, they think that with advertisement,
entries for new brands are much easier because of the communication with the
potential consumers that commercials offer.
Advertising, collective term for public announcements designed to promote the
sale of specific commodities or services. Advertising is a form of mass selling,
employed when the use of direct, person-to-person selling is impractical,
impossible, or simply inefficient. It is to be distinguished from other activities
intended to persuade the public, such as propaganda, publicity, and public
relations. Advertising techniques range in complexity from the publishing of
simple, straightforward notices in the classified-advertising columns of
newspapers to the concerted use of newspapers, magazines, television, radio,
direct mail, and other communications media in the course of a single advertising
campaign.

From its unsophisticated beginnings in ancient times, advertising has burgeoned
into a worldwide industry. Modern advertising is an integral segment of urban
industrial civilization, mirroring contemporary life in its best and worst aspects.
Having proven its force in the movement of economic goods and services,
advertising since the early 1960s has been directed in increasing quantity toward
matters of social concern. The continuing cancer and anti drug abuse campaigns
are only two examples of the use of the advertising industry as a means to promote
public welfare. Advertising falls into two main categories: consumer advertising,
directed to the ultimate purchaser, and trade advertising, in which the appeal is
made to dealers through trade journals and other media. Both consumer and trade
advertising employ many specialized types of commercial persuasion.

Another minor, but increasingly popular, form of advertising is cooperative
advertising, in which the manufacturer shares the expense of local radio or
newspaper advertising with the retailer who signs the advertisement. National
advertisers occasionally share the same space in magazine advertising.

Advertising may be local, national, or international in scope. The rates charged for
the three different levels of advertising vary sharply, particularly in newspapers;
varying rates are set also by newspapers for amusement, legal, political, financial,
religious, and charitable advertisements. Advertising, collective term for public
announcements designed to promote the sale of specific commodities or services.

Because advertising is not journalism but salesmanship, is not obligated to tell the
whole story (advantages and disadvantages of the products). For example, in car
advertising, some advertisers often say that their cars are fast, safe, and luxurious,
but they do not mention that these cars are the most expensive in their category.
As a former director of promotion for the Time magazine, Nicholas Samstag puts
it “the half truth is the essence of advertising”. That ‘s why advertising has
devaluated some words like “real” or “natural” which mean whatever each
advertiser wants them to mean. For example, there are chocolate chips with “all
natural” ingredients, “all natural” cosmetics and so forth .So we see the
advertisement of “Kinder” chocolate saying that has only natural ingredients,
without mentioning the preservatives that it contains. In addition, advertisers
trying to paste up more appealing images to the products, they give them an added
vague value. Charles Revson, the founder of Revlon, often says that in the
laboratory he makes cosmetics but in the store he “sells dreams”. Many products
may be transformed into glamorous, full of colors and image products. Moreover,
advertising has been dominated in the media in such a way that has the ability to
be all-invasive. Professor of Advertising, Kim Rotzoll, has a good explanation.
Advertisers, he says, are not in a position to enforce, but they have the power to
dominate by transmitting us their messages through our television programmes,
through our magazines etc .Besides, according to Eric Clark “advertising is far
from impotent or harmless; it is a mere mirror image. Its power is real, and on the
brink of a great increase. Not the power to brainwash overnight, but the power to
create subtle and real change. The power to prevail” .So still in the postindustrial
society, advertisers produce consumers by controlling their ideas and beliefs
.That’s why the Times say that advertising works – without our knowing that it is
working on us. Good advertising works – with still greater .Furthermore,
advertising is harmful to the children, too. From the earliest years of children,
advertisements shape the way of their lives, and what to consume. Many
commercials showing boys playing with cars and girls playing with dolls create
different tastes and preferences for each sex .Children see about 20.000 thirty-
second commercials each year, which stands for three hours per day. Thus, every
day companies sneakily draw children with complicated baiting techniques. Such
a technique is found in some advertisements that show “cool” children consuming
the products that companies advertise. So advertisement offering a parade of toys,
games, and foodstuffs, impede on Saturday morning cartoons. Usually we do not
know the image making and role modeling that such commercials transmit to the
children. After all, we should remember that children simply want some products
without being concerned about the quality of these goods.

Finally, advertising prevents new entrances in the market: That, permits to
inefficient large manufacturers to govern the scene because newer (and probably
more efficient) producers cannot afford the large advertising budgets required in
order to get into the market. So advertising becomes an entrance obstacle that
discourages ethical competition and gives an impulse to conditions in which a few
manufacturers have an unhealthy “oligopolistic” control of prices and supplies of
commodities. For that reason, advertising leads to a significant deviation from the
perfect market .Also, the supporters of the idea of advertisement believe that the
last benefits the firms too. First of all, as a result of the better informed consumers,
firms lower the prices and improve the quality of their products and second
because there is better communication between the consumers and the firms .It is
suggested that advertising benefits the advertisers in an unethical way. First of all,
companies are forced to advertise in order to frustrate the invasion of brand
enemies without extensive changes in quality or price of the products. Thus,
advertising is an added cost to the consumers, without benefit to the last or the
competitiveness of the market. If there is any real and useful information in the
commercials, it could be better provided on the labels of the products or by the
salesmen in the stores .Moreover advertising creates brand loyal consumers that do
not pay much attention on the price of the products. Also, it affects the tastes and
preferences of the consumers. All of the above give the ability to the firms to
charge higher prices and to be uninterested in the quality of their products .In
addition, the reasoning process taught by the commercials deserves attention,
because of a faulty logic that fosters conclusion without all the information that
could probably be associated with. Although this problem is not very important in
deciding which breakfast cereal to buy, it is very dangerous and sneaky in
presidential elections, where the consequences are more conspicuous .That is
because each candidate has created propaganda that might distort the beliefs of the
voters. That is why advertising is appealing to the government. Making an
advertising campaign against heroin use as the best way of spending money is
debatable, but it enables the administration to be seen caring.

So, to sum up that advertisement exists only in order to return profits to the
advertisers by many tricky ways. Some of these are the use of persuasion at the
consumers, the faulty – logic messages, and the influence on children. All these
acts, definitely, are not for the benefit of the consumers.
                                   Future


Global advertising

Advertising has gone through five major stages of development: domestic, export,
international, multi-national, and global. For global advertisers, there are four,
potentially competing, business objectives that must be balanced when developing
worldwide advertising: building a brand while speaking with one voice,
developing economies of scale in the creative process, maximizing local
effectiveness of ads, and increasing the company’s speed of implementation. Born
from the evolutionary stages of global marketing are the three primary and
fundamentally different approaches to the development of global advertising
executions: exporting executions, producing local executions, and importing ideas
that travel.

Advertising research is key to determining the success of an ad in any country or
region. The ability to identify which elements and/or moments of an ad that
contributes to its success is how economies of scale are maximized. Once one
knows what works in an ad, that idea or ideas can be imported by any other
market. Market research measures, such as Flow of Attention, Flow of Emotion
and branding moments provide insight into what is working in an ad in any
country or region because the measures are based on the visual, not verbal,
elements of the ad.

Trends

With the dawn of the Internet came many new advertising opportunities. Popup,
Flash, banner, Popunder, advergaming, and email advertisements (the last often
being a form of spam) are now commonplace.

In the last three quarters of 2009 mobile and internet advertising grew by 18.1%
and 9.2% respectively. Older media advertising saw declines: -10.1% (TV), -
11.7% (radio), -14.8% (magazines) and -18.7% (newspapers).

The ability to record shows on digital video recorders allow users to record the
programs for later viewing, enabling them to fast forward through commercials.
Additionally, as more seasons of pre-recorded box sets are offered for sale of
television programs; fewer people watch the shows on TV. However, the fact that
these sets are sold, means the company will receive additional profits from the
sales of these sets. To counter this effect, many advertisers have opted for product
placement on TV shows like Survivor.

Particularly since the rise of "entertaining" advertising, some people may like an
advertisement enough to wish to watch it later or show a friend. In general, the
advertising community has not yet made this easy, although some have used the
Internet to widely distribute their ads to anyone willing to see or hear them.

Another significant trend regarding future of advertising is the growing
importance of the niche market using niche or targeted ads. Also brought about by
the Internet and the theory of The Long Tail, advertisers will have an increasing
ability to reach specific audiences. In the past, the most efficient way to deliver a
message was to blanket the largest mass market audience possible. However,
usage tracking, customer profiles and the growing popularity of niche content
brought about by everything from blogs to social networking sites, provide
advertisers with audiences that are smaller but much better defined, leading to ads
that are more relevant to viewers and more effective for companies' marketing
products. Among others, Comcast Spotlight is one such advertiser employing this
method in their video on demand menus. These advertisements are targeted to a
specific group and can be viewed by anyone wishing to find out more about a
particular business or practice at any time, right from their home. This causes the
viewer to become proactive and actually choose what advertisements they want to
view.

In the realm of advertising agencies, continued industry diversification has seen
observers note that “big global clients don't need big global agencies any more”.
This trend is reflected by the growth of non-traditional agencies in various global
markets, such as Canadian business TAXI and SMART in Australia and has been
referred to as "a revolution in the ad world".

In freelance advertising, companies hold public competitions to create ads for their
product, the best one of which is chosen for widespread distribution with a prize
given to the winner(s). During the 2007 Super Bowl, PepsiCo held such a contest
for the creation of a 30-second television ad for the Doritos brand of chips,
offering a cash prize to the winner. Chevrolet held a similar competition for their
Tahoe line of SUVs. This type of advertising, however, is still in its infancy. It
may ultimately decrease the importance of advertising agencies by creating a
niche for independent freelancers.

Advertising education has become widely popular with bachelor, master and
doctorate degrees becoming available in the emphasis. A surge in advertising
interest is typically attributed to the strong relationship advertising plays in
cultural and technological changes, such as the advance of online social
networking. A unique model for teaching advertising is the student-run advertising
agency, where advertising students create campaigns for real companies.
Organizations such as American Advertising Federation and AdU Network partner
established companies with students to create these campaigns.
BIBLIOGRAPHY


Advertising by B.N. Ahuja & S.S. Chhabra

ISC Commerce (Volume 2) by C.B. Gupta

Ogilvy on Advertising by David Ogilvy

Contemporary Advertising by William F. Arens & Bovee

Advertising Principles and Practices by Chunawala & Sethia Himalaya
Publication

AdWords Made Easy by Brad Callen
Encyclopedia of Advertising




Annexure
Color the option, you choose…..

Name:

Age

Sex:

Education Status:

Address:
1) Do you know what is advertising?
  Yes                     No

2) Which kind of advertisement do you like the most?
   Television advertisements

   Newspaper advertisements

   Magazine advertisements

   Hoardings / banners etc

   Radio advertisements

   Internet advertisements




3) Which medium of advertising are you most influenced with?
  Print (newspaper, magazine, etc)

  Outdoor (Banner, hoarding, signboards, etc)

  Audio (Radio)

  Audio-Video (Television)

  Internet



4) Do messages shown in a Social Ad convinced you?
   Yes               No



5) Are you influenced by the advertisement that you see?
  Yes                No
6) Are you ready to spend large amount of money to fit in to the

 Society?
   Yes                No




7) Since when are you adapting to the latest trends?
  When I was 15 years of age

  When I was 21 years of age

  When I was 25 years of age

  When I was 28 years of age

 ( if any other answer, then write it down)



8) As youths, what does advertisement mean to you?
  Everything

  Nothing

  Source of fashion

  Awareness about new things



9) On watching an advertisement of a brand, do you wish to buy
the Product?
   Yes                No             Sometimes




10) Do you wish to do the stuns, shown in an advertisement?
    Yes               No             Sometimes
11) Will you smoke /drink on seeing your favorite celebrity/ ideal
doing so?
   Yes            No



12) What do you see in a product before purchasing it?
   Brand

   Quality

   Quantity

   Price

   Free gift

   Who has endorsed it?

13) Do you believe that celebrity advertising is effective in
promoting a Product?
   Yes               No




14) Do you agree to flip the pages of newspaper / magazine to
see the advertisement first, and then read the rest of the news /
article?
   Yes          No



15) From where do you get your lifestyle update? (Write your answer
below)

				
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posted:8/16/2012
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