filtering by cuiliqing

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									           Internet Access:
     Regular, Filtered, or Menthol?

      Indiana Library Federation Annual Meeting


                      March 14, 2000
                     Howard Rosenbaum
                    hrosenba@indiana.edu




http://www.slis.indiana.edu/hrosenba/www/Pres/filt00/index.html
Filtering the net




          I. Introduction
               • The problem: access to networked information
               II. Possible solutions
                    • Legislative
                    • Social
                    III. Technical: filters
                       • What are they?
                       • How do they work?
                       • How well do they work?
                       IV. Conclusions


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  I. The problem
  Controlling access to networked information
      Schools and libraries are in the business of providing
      access to information
      Internet access raises difficult issues
         Should there be any restrictions on user access?
         Do librarians or teachers have any responsibility
         to monitor children’s use of this resource?
         Should access to networked information be treated as
         a collection development task?



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    Can and should the Internet be censored by filtering is a
    question bedeviling thousands of public librarians who
    have rushed to embrace this seemingly limitless and
    economical information source only to find that it
    includes a distinctly dark and dirty side.

        Bastian, J.B. (1998). Filtering the Internet in American Public
        Libraries: Sliding Down the Slippery Slope. First Monday 2(10)
             http://www.firstmonday.dk/issues/issue2_10/bastian/




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    How bad can it be?
        11/98: ~60,000 “adult” sites in the US
        http://www-cse.stanford.edu/classes/cs201/projects/ online-
        pornography/index.html
        NFOInteractive: 42% of online kids (N=346 avg = 13)
        have subscribed to a website or other service
          85% of parents have rules against this, and 80% of
          kids say they know these rules
        ~ 50% had met a new friend online, evenly split among
        boys and girls
          42% of parents knew that their children had done this
        http://www.nfoi.com/nfointeractive/nfoipr60799.asp
        Greenfields Online surveyed 1,350 households and
        20% use filtering software

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                                   Kids on the net




                    http://www.emarketer.com/estats/061499_kids.html



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     A scenario
          At a library or school Board meeting, a coalition of
          parents makes a strong case that the library or
          school should not be in the pornography business
          Free and open access to the net with children
          allowed to use the computers means that librarians
          and teachers are no better than the smut dealers
          They demand that filtering software be installed on
          all net-accessible computers that can be used by
          children
     The Board asks you to respond - what do you say?



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     Or:
     A parent asks to see your collection development
     policy
         They notice what the library or school will and will
         not buy
         They sit at the nearest computer terminal and access
         versions of the unacceptable material on the net
         They call you over and ask you to explain why it is
         that they (or their child) can access this information
         with the library or school’s computer, but can’t find it
         on the shelves
     How do you respond?


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    Filtering…NO!
        WHEREAS,On June 26, 1997, the US Supreme Court
        issued a sweeping re-affirmation of core First
        Amendment principles and held that communications
        over the Internet deserve the highest level of
        Constitutional protection...
        ...
        RESOLVED, That the American Library Association
        affirms that the use of filtering software by libraries to
        block access to constitutionally protected speech
        violates the Library Bill of Rights

    ALA's Resolution on the Use of Filtering Software in Libraries
    [Adopted July, 2, 1997]


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  Filtering…YES!
  Filtering Facts promotes the use of filtering in libraries to
  protect children from the harms of pornography
  All public libraries should filter children’s access
  Filtering for adults should be decided on a community-by-
  community basis
  Goals of Filtering Facts:
       Educate the public and media about net software filters
       Encourage libraries to adopt filters
       Persuade the ALA to rescind its “Resolution on the use
       of filtering software in libraries,” and adopt a more
       tolerant view of filtering
  http://www.filteringfacts.org/faq.htm

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          I. Introduction
               • The problem: access to networked information
               II. Possible solutions
                    • Legislative
                    • Social
                    III. Technical: filters
                       • What are they?
                       • How do they work?
                       • How well do they work?
                       IV. Conclusions


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    II. Possible solutions
    Legislative
    Indiana House Bill #2069
    Current Status: first reading; referred to Committee on
    Education
    If you (the school or public library) want your share of
    the money and provide a “public access computer” that
    minors can use, you must:
        Use software that limits the ability minors to access
        materials determined to be inappropriate for them
        Purchase net connectivity from an ISP that uses
        filtering to limit access to materials determined to be
        inappropriate for minors

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   At least once a year, the governing body of the school or
   library shall hold a public meeting to determine the range
   of material inappropriate for minors
       Filters can then be set to prevent minors from gaining
       access to these materials
       This determination will reflect community standards
       regarding materials inappropriate for minors as
       evidenced during the meeting
   A “public access computer” is a computer that is
       Located in a public school or public library
       Frequently or regularly used directly by a minor; and
       Connected to any computer communication system


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   Child Online Protection Act of 1998 (HR 3783)
   Schools and libraries must implement filtering or blocking
   technology for computers with net access as a condition
   of universal service discounts
   The school board, or other authority must certify that it
       Has selected a technology for its computers with net
       access to filter or block access to:
         Material that is obscene; and
         Child pornography; and
       Is enforcing a policy to ensure the operation of the
       technology during use of such computers by minors
         Signed into law 10/22/98


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    Certification for libraries:
    A library with more than 1 computer with net access
    used by the public (including minors) shall certify that it
    has installed and uses filtering or blocking to restrict
    material deemed to be harmful to minors on one or more
    of its computers with Internet access
    A library with 1 public net access computer used by the
    public (including minors) can receive universal service
    assistance even if it does not use a filtering or blocking
    software
        It must certify to that it uses a reasonably effective
        alternative to keep minors from accessing material on
        the net deemed to be harmful


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     S. 1619: Safe Schools Internet Act of 1998 (105th
     reported to senate)
     Filtering software must be installed on computers in
     schools and libraries receiving federal subsidies
          Funds will be withheld until certification is provided
          that they have selected a system to filter or block
          matter deemed to be inappropriate for minors
     Libraries have to install software “on one or more of its
     computers with Internet access”
          The determination of what is inappropriate for
          minors shall be made by the school, school board,
          library and
          No agency of the Government may establish criteria
          or review the determination

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   HR 369, Children's Privacy Protection and Parental
   Empowerment Act of 1999 (106th: in subcommittee)
   This is a general children’s privacy protection bill, with
   teeth
       It criminalizes the sale by list brokers of information
       about children under 16 without written consent of the
       parent
       Parents have the right to learn what information a
       broker has disclosed and to whom
         It gives parents the right to stop further disclosure
       It gives parents a private right of action, with minimum
       damages of $5,000


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    H.R. 3560 Online Privacy Protection Act of 2000 (106th:
    in subcommittee)
    It requires the Federal Trade Commission to prescribe
    regulations protecting the privacy of personal
    information collected from and about individuals not
    covered by the COPPA (1998)
        It applies to people age 13 and above
    It provides greater individual control over the collection
    and use of that information, and for other purposes




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   S. 1545: Neighborhood Children’s Internet Protection Act
   (106th: in committee)
   No universal service for schools or libraries that fail to
   filtering or adopt internet use policies
   The internet use policy must address minors’:
       Access to inappropriate matter on the net/web;
       Safety and security when using email, chat rooms, and
       other direct electronic communications;
       Unauthorized access, (hacking) and other unlawful
       activities;
       Unauthorized disclosure, use, and dissemination of
       their personal identification information; and
   It also must report use of technological means to limit,
   monitor, or otherwise control or guide minors’ net access

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    H.R. 543, 896 Children’s Internet Protection Act (106th:
    in subcommittee)
    A bill to require the installation and use by schools and
    libraries of a technology for filtering or blocking material
    on the Internet on computers with Internet access to be
    eligible to receive or retain universal service assistance;
    to the Committee on Commerce
    H.R. 368 Safe Schools Internet Act of 1999 (106th: in
    subcommittee)
    A bill to require the installation of a system for filtering
    or blocking matter on the Internet on computers in
    schools and libraries with Internet access, and for other
    purposes; to the Committee on Commerce


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    Social responses to filtering
    Do nothing
        Get sued to install filters (Kathleen R. v. Livermore)
    Do something
        Get sued to because filters have been installed
        (Loudoun County)
    Develop an internet AUP and require parental consent
        Ask patrons to regulate their own activities
    Install filtering on all net computers
        Install limited filtering
        Move computers and/or use privacy screens
    Refuse to install filtering

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    What librarians want:
    Freedom of choice
         Web management software should allow people to
         choose for themselves and with their children what
         they wish to view
    Guided search
         It should guide users to quality sites
         Librarians should know the criteria used for site
         selection and who is doing the selection
    Data quality
         If a library uses filters, the software should allow
         librarians to review blocked sites
         It should provide a mechanism to notify the company
         when sites are blocked inappropriately
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   Privacy
        The software should clear the screen after each use
        Users should not be able to not know what previous
        users have viewed (health information is a particular
        concern)
   Ease of use
        The software should be multi-functional, easy to
        administer and integrate well with existing products
   March 12, 1999 meeting of librarians and filtering
   companies at ALA in Chicago



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   Another social solution comes from industry
   There are several self-regulation initiatives
        Web site owners will require verification or will label
        their own sites
        Internet Content Summit
        http://www.stiftung.bertelsmann.de/internetcontent/english/
        frameset_home.htm
   Standards
        These solutions are largely voluntary and involve a
        considerable degree of sophistication on the part of
        the user to work
          PICS (Platform for Internet Content Selection)
          P3P (Platform for Privacy Preferences)

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        The Internet Content Rating Association was formed
        in April 1999 as an independent, non-profit
        organization
        Its mission is to develop, implement and manage an
        internationally acceptable voluntary self-rating
        system which provides users with the choice to limit
        access to content they consider harmful, especially
        to children
        The Recreational Software Advisory Council (RSAC)
        has formally folded into ICRA which now manages
        and operates the RSACi rating system
        http://www.icra.org




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   The RSAC is a non-profit based in Washington, D.C
        It empowers the public (parents) to make informed
        decisions about electronic media using an open,
        objective, content advisory system
   The RSACi system provides consumers with information
   about levels of sex, nudity, violence, offensive language
   (vulgar or hate-motivated) in games and Web sites
        RSACi is used in browsers and Cyber Patrol
        CompuServe (US and Europe) is committed to rating
        its content with the RSACi system
        http://www.rsac.org/homepage.asp



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                                 How PICS works

                                                                Content

                                  Service A
                Parent            label
                selects rating                Service B label
                method
                                                            Publisher’s label
                Child using
                the net




                                          Label reading
                                            software




                    http://www.w3.org/pub/WWW/PICS/iacwcv2.htm
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  P3P: web sites express their privacy practices and users
  exercise preferences based on those practices
      Users are informed of site practices when they
      access the site
        Access decisions are largely automated
         Users can tailor relationships with specific sites
      Sites with practices within the user’s range of
      preferences are accessed seamlessly
         If the site is outside the range, users are notified of its
         practices
         They can agree to those terms or other terms and
         browse or leave


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                            How P3P works
                                                      The site
                                                      sets its P3P
      Click on a link                                 preferences
                                Request a page


               Check them against
               your P3P data                 Site sends P3P data


                                              If not OK, negotiate



  You set P3P                If OK, accept     If OK, accept page,
  preferences                page              if not, leave
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          I. Introduction
               • The problem: access to networked information
               II. Possible solutions
                    • Legislative
                    • Social
                    III. Technical: filters
                       • What are they?
                       • How do they work?
                       • How well do they work?
                       IV. Conclusions


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         Filters:
              “are mechanical tools wrapped around subjective
              judgment.”
              Schneider, K. (1998). Internet Filter Assessment
              Project
         http://www.bluehighways.com/tifap/




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            Technical
            Hardware
            These solutions are built into the machine and
            are designed to work without user intervention
                    Clipper chip
                    Vchip
                    Machine ID#
            Software
                    Filtering and blocking




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               Why are you filtering?
               What types of materials will be blocked?
               Where will the software be located?
               Who will make the decisions and control the
               software?
               When will the filters be turned on?




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    Filtering software works by controlling access to the net
        It allows access to a restricted subset of the net
        They can be placed on clients, on the LAN, or on a
        proxy server




                                            LAN




  The net


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     On a web page, you can index the IP address, the URL,
     metatags, the body, the graphics, and the links
     Simple filters block URLs
     Complex filters check all on-line activities
         Advanced filters block access to web sites, chat
         rooms, e-mail, file downloading, general browsing,
         newsgroups
         This is based on addresses, protocols, file types, and
         text
         They can log time spent browsing and keep records
         of online activity and some offline computing



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 Submit URL               The filtering process


                                                  For this user? At
             Filter reviews request               this time? This
                                                  type of site? This
                                                  type of file?


                          Is this site allowed?




                                Yes   No


                    See page               See denial page
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     Companies compete on the size and quality of their
       databases which are compiled in a variety of ways
          Inhouse, outsourced, or solicitation from clients
     They compete on the ability of their products to
     withstand assault and hacking
     Most contain an encrypted database of “objectionable”
     locations
          Only the company producing the software knows
          exactly what is blocked and what isn’t
          They decide what is “bad” and what is “acceptable”
          content



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  Types of databases
  Blacklists: these files list all sites that are blocked
       A site is brought to the attention of the company,
       examined and compared to a list of criteria
       Offending sites are placed into one or more categories,
       (profanity, full nudity, drug use, violence…)
         These categories differ among filtering products
       Most commercial filter vendors do not publish their
       blacklists
         Most users never see the full list of pages that are
         blocked
         Some products now allow limited editing of the list


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     Keyword blocking: software developers (or others)
     come up with a list of objectionable terms
         A page can’t load if it contains any word in the stop
         list (or it will load with the        blocked)
     Current commercial products do not handle exceptions
     where otherwise acceptable pages are blocked because
     of a word that appears on the stop list
         Breast cancer, sexually transmitted diseases
         The problem is that keywords have no context
           SuperBowl XXXIV will be blocked



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     Whitelists: these are similar to blacklists except they
     contain the URLs of pages that can be seen
         The developers gather a list of “appropriate” sites
         All others are blocked
     A whitelist provides a very limited view of the net
         However, it is almost 100% effective in blocking all
         pornography and other offensive material
     Whitelists are typically not published
         Some products allow the customer to add or delete
         certain sites



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   Examples:
   Cyberpatrol ($30.00 + $30.00/yr for updates)
       It provides parents, teachers, day care professionals -
       anyone responsible for children’s access to the net -
       with the tools they need to get a handle on an area
       which can be very dangerous for kids.
       CyberNOT block list - researched sites containing
       material parents may find questionable
          Criteria: http://www.cyberpatrol.com/cybernot/criteria.htm
          This list is twice as comprehensive as competitive
          lists, blocking OVER 15,000 Internet resources!
       CyberYES allowed sites list - 40,000+ researched sites
       containing only appropriate material for children
       http://www.cyberpatrol.com

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  Net Nanny ($26-200.00 - 20 users)
  Does Net Nanny allow full discretion over what is blocked?
      Net Nanny’s screening lists are completely user defined
      and allow parents to screen and block any words,
      phrases, sites and content according to their particular
      values - not a developer's arbitrary selection or the
      Government’s!
  Does Net Nanny provide any site lists?
      We provide Net Nanny users with site lists, researched
      by our staff and other 3rd party children’s advocacy
      groups but they are fully editable
  Net Nanny monitors all online activity including Web
  browsers, Newsgroups, FTP's, IRC and standard email
  http://www.netnanny.com/

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   Surfwatch ($40-50.00)
   It provides your institution with a powerful and easy to
      implement solution to protect students from exposure
   to objectionable or harmful content on the net
       It blocks access to more than 100,000 explicit sex,
       violence, drug, and gambling sites, including 200 chat
       channels, and “millions” of URLs
   The Educational Edition features “Secure Learning
   categories,” and starts students off with access to only
   respected educational sites such as Yahooligans!,
     Children’s Television Workshop, and others
   http://www.surfwatch.com/



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    Library Safe Internet System
    It is built for the library and the classroom environment
    It allows the librarian and teacher “Total Empowerment”
    in deciding which web sites should be blocked on which
    computer terminals, and at what time
    Is LibrarySafe 100% tamper-proof?
        Yes: the software is located at the network-level and
        only authorized personnel have access to the filter
        Patrons cannot tamper with it
    http://www.librarysafe.com




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    How can a library system implement its unique filtering
    policy using LibrarySafe?
        It gives the library its own “Private Internet Filter” to
        give you the power to decide what, where, and when a
        site will be filtered.
        Your staff can design its own white- and blacklists
        It has a special password protected web page where
        you can add and delete those URLs you have decided
        are appropriate or inappropriate
    It is a server based system with a site database, rating
    codes, and stop words



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                       Filtering and blocking software
          Bess                               The Library Channel
                    www.n2h2.co              www.vimpact.net
          m
                                             Net Nanny
          Cyber Sitter                       www.netnanny.com
          www.solidoak.com                   Net Shepherd
          Cyber Patrol                       www.shepherd.com
          www.cyberpatrol.com                Smart Filter
          Cyber Snoop                        www.smartfilter.com
          www.pearlsw.com                    Surfwatch
          CyberLibrary                       www.surfwatch.com
          www.jdltech.com                    WebSense
          EdView                             www.websense.com
          www.edview.com                     X-Stop
          I-Gear                             www.xstop.com
          www.urlabs.com
              http://www.ala.org/symons/filtering/filterlist.html
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   How well do they work?
   Smartfilter was used in Utah public libraries and schools
   by the state educational network (UEN)
       It uses 27 categories, any or all of which can be
       activated
       UEN uses five: sex, gambling, criminal skills, hate
       speech, drugs
          It has no access to Smartfilter’s blacklist, does not
          make additions to it and makes very few removals
   The Secure Computing Corp, San Jose makes decisions
   about what Utah students, adults and library patrons can
   view over the net
   http://censorware.org/reports/utah/methodology.shtml


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   A small percentage of sites are blocked:


   Time Period              Total Accesses            Total Banned

   20 days                   53,103,387                  205,737
   20 days (no banners       15,434,442 (.62%)            95,059 (.56%)
            or images)


   Sex              Drugs   Hate    Criminal skills    Gambling
   193,272          1,588   791        4,934             5,772
     86,957         1,298   526        3,753             3,649


    But some interesting sites were among those banned!

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  All about oil exploration
              http://www.pollution.com/
  Computer game reviews
              http://www.kickass.com/
  Shakespeare’s Tragedies
         http://wiretap.spies.com/ftp.items/Library/Classic/Shakespeare
  /Tragedies/
  Mr. Science (things that go “boom”)
              http://www2.southwind.net/~mrscienc/boom.html
  HateWatch (anti-hate speech site)
              http://www.hatewatch.org/frames.html
  Bloomington Brewing Company
              http://bbc.bloomington.com/brewing.html
  The Starr report
              http://www.abcnews.com/report/2toc.htm
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      Some resources used in this talk:
      The Internet Filter Assessment Project
      http://www.bluehighways.com/tifap/
      IFAP: Internet Access Management Options
      http://www.bluehighways.com/filters/options.html
      Filtering Facts
                    http://www.filteringfacts.org/
      Censorware.org
                    http://www.censorware.org/reports/utah/

      W3C PICS
                    http://www.w3.org/pub/WWW/PICS/iacwcv2.htm

      FCC: Parents, Kids & Communications
      http://www.fcc.gov/parents_information/#browsing
      This presentation will be on the web at:
      http://www.slis.indiana.edu/hrosenba/www/Pres/filt00/index.html
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