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Parts of Speech

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									Parts of Speech
Modified from Bruce Bennett’s
  STUS 011 Basic English
Why Learn Parts of Speech?
                   Because Mr. Victor
                   loves to torture us!
    Why Learn Parts of Speech?
   They are the
    building blocks of
    English grammar.
   Understanding and
    applying a process
    is learning to learn.
   It is a foundation to
    improve your
    writing.
    The Eight Parts of Speech
   Nouns
   Adjectives
   Pronouns
   Verbs
   Conjunctions
   Prepositions
   Adverbs
   Interjections
                  Nouns
   Names of persons,        Example:
    places, things,               John has a new
    feelings, or ideas.       car, and he parks on
                              the street under a
                              big tree in Rocklin.
                      Nouns
   Names of persons,              Example:
    places, things, feelings,           The boy on the
    or ideas.                       red bike hit a bird
   Often indicated by              with a rock at the
    “noun markers” –                end of the long
    the articles a, an,             road.
    and the.
                      Nouns
   Names of persons,              Example:
    places, things, feelings,           Happiness is the
    or ideas.                       preference of every
   “Noun markers” --               action and is the
    a, an, and the.                 tendency toward
   Noun endings:                   kindness and
    -ness, -ment, -ance,            contentment.
    -ence, -ancy, -ency,
    -ity, -ion, -ure.
                      Nouns
   Names of persons,               Example:
    places, things, feelings,            The needs of the
    or ideas.                        masses may conflict
   “Noun markers” --                with expectations of
    a, an, and the.                  the members of
   Noun endings:                    legislative bodies.
    -ness, -ment, -ance,
    -ence, -ancy, -ency, -ity,
    -ion, -ure.
   Can be made plural
    with s or es.
                    Nouns
   Names of persons, places, things, feelings,
    or ideas.
 “Noun markers” -- a, an, and the.
 Noun endings: -ness, -ment, -ance, -ence,
    -ancy, -ency, -ity, -ion, -ure.
   Can be made plural with s or es.
                   Verbs
   The action or             The horse ran,
    “doing” words in a         jumped and kicked
    sentence or state of       until it threw the
    being.                     rider off its back.
                              Most verbs make
                               sense in the blanks
                               below:
                               • He _________.
                               • They ________.
                  Verbs
   The action or           Example:
    “doing” words in a       She is a nice
    sentence.                person, and we are
   “Linking verbs” show     her friends.
    a state of being.       Memorize the
                             linking verbs:
                           Be, am, is, are, was,
                           were, been, being.
                  Verbs
   The action or           Example:
    “doing” words in a      Today I am on a
    sentence.                bus, and it goes
   “Linking verbs” show     past my house.
    a state of being.       Yesterday I was on
   Change to show           a bus, and it went
    time (tense).            past my house.
                           The words that
                             change are verbs.
                  Verbs
   The action or             Always helping verbs:
    “doing” words in a      Can Will    Shall May
    sentence.              Could Would Should Might
                                              Must
   “Linking verbs” show
                              Always verbs, may be
    a State of being.          helping:
   Change to show             • Have, has, had
    time (tense).              • Do, does, did, done
                               • Be, am, is, are, was,
   Complete verbs               were, been, being
    include “helping
    verbs.”
                  Verbs
   The action or             Example:
    “doing” words in a         They might have
    sentence.                  been going to the
   “Linking verbs” show       store if they could
    a state of being.          have gotten a ride.
   Change to show
    time (tense).
   Complete verbs
    include “helping
    verbs.”
              Verbs
 The  action or “doing” words in a
  sentence.
 “Linking verbs” show a state of
  being.
 Change to show time (tense).
 Complete verbs include “helping
  verbs.”
              Adjectives
   Describe or modify      Example:
    only nouns. They               A big, red dump
    help to clarify or       truck hit a parked
    make the noun more       little car and the
    specific.                worried driver ran
                             to the other side of
                             the busy street.
                 Adjectives
   Describe or modify only      Example:
    nouns.
                                  The three tired
   Answer questions,             teens tried to eat a
    “what kind?” or               large pie at two
    “how many?”                   pizza parlors.
                                 How many teens? three
                                 What kind of teens? tired
                                 What kind of pie? large
                                 How many parlors? two
                                 What kind of parlors? pizza
                 Adjectives
   Describe or modify only      Example:
    nouns.
                                  The way to a smile
   Answer questions,
                                  and an appreciative
    “what kind?” or “how
    many?”                        attitude is through
                                  the stomach.
   The “noun markers”
    a, an, the are
    always adjectives
    called Articles.
                 Adjectives
   Describe or modify only      Example:
    nouns.
                                  The long, shiny
   Answer questions,
                                  black limousine
    “what kind?” or “how
    many?”                        pulled in front of the
   The “noun markers” a,         huge old mansion,
    an, the are always            and a tall, well-
    adjectives.                   dressed older
   Usually “piled up”            gentleman got out.
    before nouns.
                    Adjectives
   Describe or modify only         Example:
    nouns.
   Answer questions, “what          The river is deep,
    kind?” or “how many?”            wide and cold, but
   The “noun markers” a, an,        the divers are brave
    the are always adjectives.
   Usually “piled up” before        and well-trained.
    nouns.
   May follow linking verbs
                                 Note: to test these, try
    and describe the
    subject.                     putting them in front of
                                 the noun they modify.
            Adjectives
 Describe or modify only nouns.
 Answer questions, “what kind?” or
  “how many?”
 The “noun markers” a, an, the are
  always adjectives.
 Usually “piled up” before nouns.
 May follow linking verbs and describe
  the subject.
                Pronouns
   Specialized words to      Example:
    take the place of          Paul gave Emily
    nouns.                     stationery because
                               he wanted her to
                               write to him when
                               she could.
                Pronouns
   Specialized words to     Memorize:
    take the place of        I he we she they
    nouns.                  me him us her them
   Often refer to people    Other common
    and have several          pronouns:
    forms.
                                • you, it, this, that,
                                  who, what, someone,
                                  everything, anyone,
                                  and many other
                                  similar words.
                  Pronouns
   Specialized words to          Example:
    take the place of nouns.
                                   Her red car is faster
   Often refer to people
                                   than my old Ford,
    and have several forms.
                                   but their new Honda
   May be possessive,             cost more than ours.
    showing ownership
                                  Note the form:
    and working like an
                                I he we she they
    adjective.
                               me him us her them
                               my his our hers theirs
                               Others: yours, its, whose
            Pronouns
 Specialized words to take the place of
  nouns.
 Often refer to people and have several
  forms.
 May be possessive, showing ownership
  and working like an adjective.
            Prepositions
  Specialized words to      The man on the bus
   start prepositional        with a hat on his
   phrases.                   head looked at me
A prepositional phrase        and turned toward
is a group of words           the window.
describing things
which starts with a
preposition and ends
with a noun or
   pronoun.
              Prepositions
   Specialized words to     Memory clue:
    start prepositional    The rabbit went _____
    phrases.                the hollow log.
   Most prepositions       Memorize:
    are small, common
    words indicating       at, from, by, to, on, in,
    time, place, or        into, onto, between,
    position/location.     under, over, against,
                           around, through, near,
                              beyond, behind
                Prepositions
   Specialized words to          Example:
    start prepositional
    phrases.
                                The problem with him
   Most prepositions are        is that he sleeps
    small, common words         during the day and
    indicating time, place or
    position/location.
                                spends most of the
   Some prepositions           night with his friends.
    simply must be               Memorize:
    memorized.                  of, with, for, during
           Prepositions
 Specialized words to start prepositional
  phrases.
 Most prepositions are small, common
  words indicating time, place or position.
 Some prepositions simply must be
  memorized.
             Conjunctions
   Words which           Example:
    “hook/connect”       She and I left, but they
    words, phrases, or   stayed, for Joe or Ted
    sentences.
                         was coming on the
Memory clue: FAN BOYS.
For   But                bus, yet not on time.
And   Or
Nor   Yet                NOTE: FANBOYS are
      So                  called Coordinating
                          Conjunctions
            Conjunctions
  Words which “hook       Example:
   together” words,      I ran when I saw her
   phrases, or           because I was happy
   sentences.            since she was home.
 Some conjunctions       Memory clue:
   only hook clauses.    She is cute _____ she
They include:               smiles.
when, as, if, since,     Note: These are called
                            subordinating
because, while, after,      conjunctions
although, before
          Conjunctions
 Words which “hook together” words,
  phrases, or sentences.
 Some conjunctions only hook clauses.
                  Adverbs
   Describe verbs,           She quickly ran to
    adjectives, or other       her extremely tired
    adverbs.                   friend and gave him
                               a very big hug.
                              “quickly” describes a
                               verb, “extremely”
                               describes a verb,
                               and “very” describes
                               an adjective.
                  Adverbs
   Describe verbs,           Soon the very able
    adjectives, or other       pilot confidently flew
    adverbs.                   west, and thus he
   Answer the adverb          almost crashed.
    questions: How?        When? soon
    When? Where?           Where? west
    Why? Under what        How? very,confidently
    conditions?            Why? thus
                           What conditions? almost
                  Adverbs
   Describe verbs,           Example:
    adjectives, or other
    adverbs.
                             The extremely hungry
   Answer the adverb        animal howled eerily in
    questions: How?          the especially dark
    When? Where? Why?
    Under what conditions?
                             night.
   Often end in -ly
                  Adverbs
   Describe verbs,           Example:
    adjectives, or other
    adverbs.
                             We do not very often
   Answer the adverb        want them here, for
    questions: How?          they are always late
    When? Where? Why?
    Under what conditions?
                             and almost never want
   Often end in -ly         to go there with us.
   Always adverbs: not
    very, often, here,
    almost, always,
    never, there
             Adverbs
 Describe verbs, adjectives, or other
  adverbs.
 Answer the adverb questions: How?
  When? Where? Why? Under what
  conditions?
 Often end in -ly
 Always adverbs: not very, often, here,
  almost, always, never, there
               Interjections
   Words which show           Example:
    emotion or are            Oh, I am surprised, but
    “fillers” with no other   please don’t do it
    function.
                              again. Ouch, you hurt
                              me. OMG! Can you
                                believe she did that?

								
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