Generating electricity through a recycle system

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					Inverter Guide - How to Choose a
Dependable Inverter

 Finally, you have decided you need an inverter because your calculations have shown the
inverter power system as a more cost-efficient option. So, which inverter do you go for?

Choosing an inverter is a tough decision because of the significant cost of inverters. Even the
low-capacity inverter is a sizable chunk of money off one's pocket. The investment must
therefore be justified by the performance of the inverter. That's the challenge: selecting a tough-
performing inverter without knowing much about inverters could prove daunting. That's what
this guide is aimed at helping you with.

Define Your Critical Needs

What do you want to power with an inverter? For the home, most people would love to power
every appliance and device they have: plasma TV, DVD, light points including external security
lights, kitchen appliances, refrigerator, freezer, several air conditioners, water dispenser, water
heater and you name it. The good news is that inverters can do all that. The bad news: you need a
large capacity inverter to take all that load. That translates to a huge battery bank. And that
means some good money, because batteries today are rather expensive. A sealed maintenance-
free dry cell 200AH 12V battery currently goes for about N50,000 or more, depending on the
brand. For a battery bank of 10 units, which a 7.5KVA Sukam inverter requires, that's already
N500,000 or more. Even the cheaper wet cell battery type will cost close to N30,000 each.

That could prove prohibitive and a stumbling block to owning an inverter and deriving its
acclaimed benefits. A smart approach is to scale down to essentials. What are your most
important needs to power with the inverter. You can use fans in place of air conditioners, for
instance. You can use energy-saving bulbs in place of the regular tubes you have. You can run
your freezer when there is public supply but keep it off the inverter. Simply put, with pragmatic
selection, you can trim to an inverter capacity you can afford. With such careful evaluation, most
homes can scale down to a 1.4KVA or, at most, 2.5KVA inverter. That applies to small offices,
too. Configure to your most basic and critical needs so you can begin to enjoy the enormous
value inverters offer.

Determining Your requirement

This chart is a quick guide to load capacity of some inverter sizes, based on the Sukam brand. It
                                       helps you estimate your need, though just a rough guide.
    If you are happy with calculations and want a more precise computation, you can. Here's how:

          First list out the appliances that scale through your screening exercise.
          List the wattage of each item. Wattage is the amount of electricity each item requires to
     function. For items like bulbs, it's clearly written on the body. To help you with other items, see this
     chart of common wattage of appliances.
          Calculate the total wattage of all items, which gives your total running requirement, if all
     devices are on at the same time. That's your load.
           Now, you need to calculate your backup requirement. That will be given by the total load
     multiplied by required backup time. You need 10 hours backup? Multiply by 10. Example: total
     wattage of all items is 600watts and required backup time is 10 hours. That gives total requirement
     of 6,000W.
           That is the true power requirement. Because of the dissipation that results from the power
     factor, the apparent power, as stated in VA (volt-amps), is usually higher. If you apply a power factor
     of 0.90 (true power ratio), 6,000 watts is given by about 6,700VA. That's a rough idea of your battery
     requirement, but because the expected discharge of the battery is roughly 80%, you will be needing
     some 8,500VA (6,700/.8) of battery power.
           Now, divide that total requirement by the rated capacity of the battery to know the number of
     batteries for the system you need. With 200AH 12V batteries, that rating is 2400. For 8,500VA power
     requirement, that's 3.5 ( or 4) batteries.
           That's what the unit should be designed to be powered by for you to have the power you

    What Brand of Inverter?

    Having decided on capacity, you have to get down to choosing an inverter brand to buy. Some of
    the names available in the Nigerian market today include Sukam, MoPower, Genius, Luminous,
    etc. This guide isn't going to recommend one to you, but we'll spell out some criteria you should
    give attention to, to be happy with the end-result. So here:

            Track Record: Can you identify any users of the inverter brand and do they have a good story
     to tell about its performance? Find some proof that this product has measured up in use.
           Technical Support: Every equipment, let alone an electrical device, can suffer damage in use.
     Support for the inverter you want to invest in is critical. If you have any problem with the equipment,
     is the technical capacity locally available to handle it? What about the spares? It won't help to buy an
     inverter that won't be effectively supported.
          Warranty: One assurance you receive about quality is from how willing the
     manufacturer/dealer is to back up their product with an effective warranty. Do they have any on an
     inverter brand you're considering? What's the duration of the warranty? The longer, the better for
          Reputation of Dealer: Warranty on the inverter will only make meaning when you deal with a
     reputable organisation that has integrity. It's in your interest to buy a product from a dealer that you
     are comfortable about their standing.
          Customer Care: You also want to be sure that you are buying from a company that cares and
     one that will have the listening ear if you have issues. You expect some courtesy and it's easy to
     know if it's there, right at the outset. Buying an inverter is a long term investment and you want your
     supplier to respond if you need help.
          Pure Sine Wave or Modified Sine Wave?: Whether you buy a pure sine wave inverter or
     modified sine wave inverter or something else, will depend on you pocket and how much you wish to
     spend. Pure sine wave inverters provide the best quality of current, but are more expensive. When
     choosing, you should, at least, know what you want and ask for it.
            In-built Charging System?: Your inverter will convert DC power in your batteries to AC to
     power your equipment. But the batteries need to be charged and that requires a charger, which may
     still cost you some money. That, though, is if you buy an inverter without a built-in charging
     mechanism. You should consider buying an inverter that can charge your batteries as well.
            Automation & Digital Display: Is the inverter fully automatic, requiring no manual intervention
     in its operation? That's what you want, isn't it?. Besides, there are inverters that provide continous
     digital display on an LCD panel, showing the running status. For instance, what the battery bank level
     is or what total load is. Such information can help you in managing the equipment.
          Battery Protection: The battery bank is a significant part of the cost of inverter set-up.
     Protecting your batteries is very important. If the inverter you buy is high-tech, it will have in-built
     mechanism for protecting the batteries from deep discharge. A Sukam inverter, for instance, will give
     an alarm and display a message to reduce load or shut the system down, when your battery has
     discharged to a low level. That helps prevent total discharge that can ruin the batteries. When you
     ignore that alarm from a Sukam inverter, it also has an in-built mechanism to shut itself down if the
     battery level is getting to a potentially damaging level. The inverter you buy should have such
     features unless you want to keep investing in batteries.
           Price: Probably, you would have like this put first. You certainly want to bother about the
     price, but, most of all, you want to be sure you get value for the price you pay. If you buy cheaply but
     it turns out a disaster, that's money completely lost. Good quality products naturally cost more, but
     be sure you get a fair price.

    Inverter batteries are critical to the performance of an inverter power system. An inverter must
    run on at least one battery, because the power used by the inverter to supply your power
    requirement is drawn from a battery or set of batteries. The primary job of an inverter is to
    convert the direct current (DC) stored in the inverter battery, to alternating current (AC) used
    to power electrical appliances.

     Inverter Battery Bank

    So, we speak of an inverter's battery bank. The concept should be clear. Power is stored
    (banked) in an inverter's battery bank in the state a battery is designed to store (DC power) and
    that is what the inverter converts and provides in a form equipment can use (AC power), when
    there is no mains supply. An inverter with a built-in charge performs the additional role of
charging those batteries when there is mains supply. If an inverter has no inbuilt charger, the
user will need a separate charging system.

The battery bank an inverter needs will depend on the capacity of the inverter. This is also
related to the load capacity intended for the inverter, including the expected backup duration
to carry that load. Battery bank size will vary from one battery to a very large number of
batteries. A 15KVA Sukam Inverter, for instance, is designed to run on a battery bank of 30
units, each 200AH 12V batteries. On the other hand, the Sukam 800VA inverter uses only 1unit
of the 200AH 12V battery.

    Cost of Battery Bank Component

Now, it should be obvious that the performance of your inverter's battery bank is at the heart
of the performance of your inverter setup. Not that the inverter's role is diminished, but the
point is being made that the battery performance is also critical. To accentuate the importance
of the battery component, it has to be noted that the battery bank is, in most cases, the major
chunk of the expenditure on an inverter setup. Good quality batteries are relatively expensive
and tend to shoot up the cost of the project.

    Battery Sense

Where does that leave you? It is that you must carefully consider issues relating to the battery
investment. Here are some key points:

        Since it will cost quite some money, it's important to ensure you get good quality that matches
     your expenditure. Plain value-for-money principle. So, be sure of your source and that the quality
     you get is what you paid for.
         When you can't afford the deep cycle sealed maintenance-free battery, ideally recommended
     for your inverter, you can still consider the option of wet cell batteries. They cost far less, can serve
     you reasonably, though you must realise that they are more challenging to manage. Besides, if they
     are not deep cycle, they are not designed for deep discharge, which may affect their durability. Good
     quality wet cell batteries have, however, given satisfactory performance in use.
         Your inverter quality may substantially determine the fate of your batteries. The battery plates
     may be affected by the quality of voltage the battery receives. Damage that could shorten the life of
     your batteries could result from unregulated charging voltage coming from the inverter's charging
     system. Good inverter brands may protect against such damage. Sukam, for instance, boast of it’s
     battery protection mechanism, based on its CCCV (constant current constant voltage) charging
     system. That ensures regulated voltage to protect the battery plates, extend battery life and give
     optimal delivery. It uses silicon controlled rectifier technology, believed to be the best for battery
     chargers, to achieve constant charging and minimum power consumption. Fuzzy Logic Control or FLC
     technology protects the batteries by controlling the charging current of the battery to an optimum
     level which extends battery life and achieves reduced power consumption.

     A good quality inverter should also have a low battery/deep discharge protection to prevent low
     discharge that can damage the battery bank. Having your battery discharge to very low levels or
     virtually completely could easily ruin them. You could manually monitor the battery level, but that
     could become an engaging chore. A good inverter product will provide inbuilt protection. Let's use
     the Sukam example again. Sukam, first, has LCD display of inverter performance status. Part of the
   alternating displays is battery charge level information. So, you can see your battery level at a glance,
   anytime. That way, you know when it's getting low, without guesswork. That's not all. The Sukam
   inverter will give an alarm if the battery gets to its low charge indication point. So, it warns you to
   reduce your load (and extend use time on remaining battery charge) or, better still, power down the
   system. That message is clearly displayed on its LCD message panel. Your Sukam inverter has the
   additional protection of being able to shut itself off, if you fail to heed its low battery alert. The
   moment the battery is down to a potentially harmful level, the inverter shuts itself off. That shut-off
   doesn't just happen. It is preceded by an extended alarm that alerts you that the system is about to
   go off, so you get a brief moment to save a PC job, for instance. Intelligent design, really.

   Battery overcharge is also as damaging, meaning that the inverter you buy should have inbuilt over-
   charge protection. Battery overcharge corrodes battery plates, shortening the life span of the

   Given that the battery system of your inverter is going to be a substantial part of the cost and that
   you naturally won't find frequent battery replacement any bit funny, it's as important to buy good
   quality batteries as it is to buy an inverter brand that has proven design mechanisms to protect the
   battery bank. That's an important point to note.

 Starting, Deep Cycle, Dry & Wet Cell and all that

You must have heard these and more terms relating to batteries, in particular, with reference
to inverters. What do they really mean and how does that affect your choice of battery type?

Batteries are mainly used in automotive, marine, and deep-cycle applications. Automotive use
batteries are starting batteries which provide a large jolt of starting current to start an engine.
That may take up to 5% discharge, for that limited time the battery fires the engine up. While
the engine runs, they have a limited role. They are not designed for deep discharge.

Deep cycle batteries, in contrast, are designed for deep discharge. They can routinely be
discharged to as much as 80%. What that simply means is that the battery can drain, while in
use, to as low as 20% charge, and get recharged again, repeatedly. That may harm a starting
battery over several discharges, but the construction of a deep cycle battery enables it
withstand such deep discharge over many cycles. That is why they are the ideal battery for
power systems like inverters and solar power systems. While starting batteries will work in such
use, they will offer less durability, other factors being equal.

That a battery is the so-called "dry cell" or "wet cell" is not synonymous with whether it is deep
cycle or otherwise. Flooded batteries or wet cell batteries are easily those with removable caps
and electrolyte that dries up with time. The user is supposed to check occasionally to ensure
that the cells have not gone dry. They require "topping" or the cells may be damaged if they dry
up. What you may not realise is that the sealed, maintenance-free batteries are also flooded.

A big problem with batteries is in being sure of what you are really buying. You probably just
have to trust the vendor, unless you have a deep knowledge of battery technology. The
durability of your batteries amy also depend on you, as it is easy to get them damaged. A large
dose of overcharge can quickly damage the battery. Dried up battery cells could spell the death
of your battery. Being careful with your batteries could save you untimely replacement of
If you take to heart the importance of the battery support for your inverter, you will possibly
make a better judgment of what to buy and how to handle it. That could save you lots of

Power inverters convert DC voltage from a battery to AC voltage used by appliances in our homes.
Power inverters are alternatives to electric power generators when it comes to supplying backup or
standby power during power failure. Standby power is now critical in Nigeria because of epileptic power
supply in the country. Find power inverter dealers and some reason why power inverters may be
preferred over petrol-driven electric generators for backup power supply.

Power Inverters are not as popular as electric generators in backup power applications. This is largely
due to higher costs. In fact, inverters are expensive alternatives to generators. However, power inverters
have some benefits that can make them worth every kobo you spend on them.

Top brands of power inverters in Nigeria include Su-Kam Inverters, Cyberpower Inverters, and Innova

Benefits of power inverters

Inverters offer noise free operations

Power Inverters have silent operations. Unlike generators that make a lot of noise disturbing you and
your neighbours, power inverters make very little noise that you can barely hear any sound. All you hear
from inverters is the fan and the clicking of relays. Therefore, if you want silent operation in your home
or business you should consider a power inverter.

No need for petrol or diesel

One great benefit of power inverters is that they do not require petrol or diesel. This singular capability
comes with many benefits. First, it eliminates the risks associated with refuelling generators or improper
storage of fuel. Many homes, businesses, and markets in Nigeria have been razed by fire from improper
storage of fuels.

Another benefit of the fuel-free operations of power inverters is convenience, no need to visit filling
stations everyday in search of petrol. Power inverters receive power from batteries. All you need to do is
to charge your inverter battery.
Therefore, if you want convenient and reduced risk operations buy power inverters for your standby

Power Inverters offer Zero emissions

Because power inverters do not need petrol and do not have an internal combustion engine, they do not
emit dangerous gases during operations. This means that you can keep a power inverter inside a room
within the building just like your UPS, without any risk of suffocation.

Deaths from generator operation are now a common occurrence in Nigeria. Improper mounting of
generators usually causes these deaths. If you live in an area, where it is inconvenient to properly mount
a generator, then you should consider power inverters. If paying a bit more for a power inverter can
reduce the risk of suffocation from dangerous gases then they are worth the extra cost.

Zero emission may also appeal to you if you are concerned about global warming, and you need to be.
Power Inverters are greener than generators. Therefore, if you prefer a greener world then you will
prefer power inverters.
Inverters offer Lower running cost

Because power inverters do not require fuel, they run with almost no input
aside from charging your inverter batteries. Although, power inverters
have huge purchase/capital cost, the recurrent cost is low. In fact, in the
long term an inverter may be cheaper than a generator, especially in
countries like Nigeria where people rely on generators to supply most of
their power.

Imagine spending 1000 NGN every week for 3 years. That adds up to
156,000 Naira in three years.

Un-interruptible supply

Power Inverters can be connected in such a way that once a power failure occurs, the system
switches automatically to battery mode. This provides convenience. No need to do anything,
power inverters will switch from battery mode to mains mode as the need arises. UPS are also
built-into some power inverters to provide faster response time. With such inverters, you can
connect sensitive devices like computers directly to your wall sockets. No need for a separate
UPS for your computer if you are using a power inverter with built-in UPS.

More about Power inverters

Power Inverters convert energy stored in batteries to AC electricity used by most appliances. Pure sine
wave power inverters are very popular and recommended but are more expensive. Square wave power
inverters generate square waves, which can cause problems when running some devices like TV and
radio. Square wave inverters creates frequency harmonics which can result in humming sound from
your radio and TV and colour clarity problems on your TV.

Have you ever attended a seminar to learn how to build power inverters? That inverter is likely to be a
square power inverter. Square wave inverters are cheaper and easier to build than pure sine wave
inverters and may be used in some applications to save cost. However, pure sine wave power inverters
are preferred for the home electronics.

Pure sine wave inverters use filters to filter out all harmonics leaving only pure 50Hz sine wave. This
filtering adds to the cost of pure sine wave inverters. Therefore, when buying power inverters make sure
you choose the right type. Square wave inverters are okay for charging batteries.

Power inverters offer fluctuation and noise free operations. Inverters also offer automatic switchover to
battery mode during power failure. Power inverters will automatically switch back when public power
returns. It is recommended you choose sealed batteries, which require no maintenance except for
dusting it, occasionally. Sealed maintenance free batteries are more expensive but are safer and easier
to use.

Inverter batteries can be charged with your public power or with electric generators in places with
inadequate public power supplies. Solar panels can also be used to charge inverter batteries via solar
charge controllers. Note that there are power inverters specifically built for solar operations. Therefore,
if you want to build a solar energy system, buy solar compatible power inverters.

Good power inverters come with overload and short circuit protection, protecting your appliances and
inverter from damage.

Power Inverters are available in single phase and 3-phase models. There are also single phase to 3-phase
power inverters.

Applications for Power Inverters

Power inverters can be used in industrial, office, and home applications. Here are some applications
where power inverters can be used:

       Medical equipment in hospitals & clinics
       Telecommunications equipments
       Hotels
       home use
       ATMs
       Industrial

What are Inverters? Why you need them.
Do you need an Inverter? Then you need to read this through.
An Inverter is a key piece of equipment in your wind or solar power setup, even if you are just planning
to run a TV from your Camper or Caravan, to powering up your home. Get the right Inverter for the right
job. Get the facts here.
An Inverter, simply put, is an electronic box that makes house hold electricity for everyday items. It
converts power from e.g. car Batteries, Wind Turbines, or Solar Panels, then turns it into normal
Why are there different types of Inverters? What do they do and how they work? I will attempt to
guide you through the different types of Inverter that are available is a very important piece of
equipment in your wind or solar installation, so it is important that you get the right Inverter for the job,
or the setup you are running. Inverters can be expensive and there is a good reason for this as I will
explain later. There is a lot more to the Inverter than you might think, that's why it is important that you
buy the right one. Here you will find Inverters for sale for as little as $30 right up to $3500.00. There are
Inverters that can be used for running anything, and there are Inverters that cannot be used for LED
lighting, TVs, some PCs and other sensitive electronics.

Inverters Explained
The Inverter takes the power from the batteries and then turns it into your household AC current,
normally 120volts AC or 240 AC and this is what your house needs to run all your everyday appliances.
The Inverter in most cases will need to take power from Batteries as these give a steady flow of power
,In most cases you cant run an inverter directly from your turbine or solar pannels as the power flowing
from them is not stable or constant.Ie the sun goes in ,the wind drops.As I said not always the case as
some grid tie inverters can ,and I will explain more in depth later. So for this type of setup you need to
make sure your Inverter has the right voltage for your setup, either 12volts 24/36/48. This is your input
voltage from your batteries. Then make sure you have the correct output voltage, either 120 volts or
240. The next important bit is the power output that you need.

To do a whole average house you will need between 4000watt and 5000watt continuous power not
peak. If you just want to run the lights and you are using low energy bulbs, and maybe a TV and stereo
and PC then you may be OK with something around a 1000 watt. These figures are just a guide though.
Speak with your local electrician and tell him what you want and he will give you a better idea as to the
size you will need.

There is one more thing you need to be very careful about and that is do you want clean or dirty
electricity? What i mean here is that there are 2 types of electricity that Inverters can produce.
Pure Energy of the type that you get from the electric company or the grid. this is known as a Pure sine
wave Inverter.
Its clean and you can run any appliance's safely even sensitive equipment.
Then we have Modified sine wave , this is dirty power, you can use this to power a lot of things that
don't have sensitive electronics. Kettles for example Fridges, Cookers, Pumps, Fryers ,Hot Plates. You
CANNOT run LED lighting on these Inverters as they over heat and die within a couple of hours. You have
to be careful with some TVs and PCs as they don't like it either, but i have heard that a lot of people use
them for this with no problems, but I like to be safe rather than sorry.

How to setup your Inverter
This bit here will explain just a basic setup.
So your Batteries are charged and you want to connect your Inverter, so let’s make sure the Inverter has
the correct input voltage ,for a car or truck 12volts or 24volts..for a wind turbine you will be probably
using batteries in series so your output voltage will be in steps of either 12volt 24/36/48volts.OK so it
has the right voltage look now at the back of the Inverter it should have 2 large screw on lugs or
terminals one black /negative and one red / the positive goes to positive {REALY
IMPORTANT} on the battery and negative to negative ..Before you start make sure the unit is switched
off..Sometimes when you connect these terminals it can make a spark , don't worry its sometimes
normal. It Would also be a good idea to put a large cut of switch between the battery and the Inverter
,these are available at most car truck stores.then on the front you have your sockets ..make sure the
output voltage is set to the country or the appliance you are using ,this should be 120volts ac or 240ac
.depending on where you live ..and plug it in to the sockets on the front of the unit ..make sure the
appliance is switched off ..power up the Inverter , {always do this first } then switch on your
appliance..that's it ..

Type 1. The stand alone Inverter

An Inverter that is not connected to the grid.
So you have your wind or solar panels installed; now all you need is to get the power into your home
and start using it.
Power Inverters work like this.
Type 1.
The first type of Inverter I am talking about is a stand alone Inverter. This type of Inverter is used for
what is known as OFF grid, Its not connected to your mains power. These Inverters can be used when
camping, you just attach them to your car/truck battery. The power from your wind turbines/ solar
panels goes through a voltage regulator, and the voltage regulator sends the power to your
batteries.You have to have a voltage regulator as the Wind Turbine often generates its power with 3
phase DC. So it converts the power to whatever your system is running normally either 12volt 24/36/48,
for the average residential setup.

Type 2. Pure Sine Wave Inverters
The best choice if you have the money.
Pure sine wave Inverters are more expensive than modified Inverters. These Inverters are safe to use
with any electrical equipment, because they make electricity that is the same as you get from your
supplier or the grid. If it is sensitive it should run fine. Just follow the steps above when buying one of
these Inverters.

Type 3 Grid Tie Inverters.

For those who want to keep things simple.

Grid Tie Inverters are great for those that want to keep things simple. You don't need a set of Batteries
for these Inverters. Although these are the most expensive they still work out well as you don't have to
fork out for those expensive batteries. one thing though you need to remember is that if you have a grid
tie system when the power goes off that's it , no power. On some of the newer models you just attach
the power from your Solar panels /Wind turbine, and then plug it into a normal mains socket
somewhere in your house, simple. However these Grid Tie Inverters are not allowed in some places so
you will need to check with the relevant authorities in the area you live. This is because when you run
them they match the supply exactly to the electricity that you are receiving,so when your system is
producing power it makes your electric meter run backwards or slows it down. This is called Backward
metering. Personally i think this system is the way to go as anyone can install it ,its that simple. As the
inverter gets bigger though you may find that you will have to get a qualified electrician to install it. So if
you are at work all day and you turn off all your appliances the meter would go backwards reducing your
electric bill.

Some Questions and Answers
Can you mix power Inverters?

Well yes you can ..As long as they are being fed the same voltage ..IE both are 12volt or both take in
24volt ..etc..So suppose you want a pure sine wave and a normal modified cheaper Inverter. I mix mine
because I need to run some sensitive equipment PCs example and the rest is not important ..So what do
i do ..I look at how much power the PC uses 70watt.and then i have a TV flat screen plasma 100watt and
some LED lighting 40watt.So I add them up total 210 watt then i add a little in case i have other things in
the future,so I reckon on 500watt pure sine will be fine ..500watt continuous 1000watt peak . Everything
else can run on dirty modified sine wave ,these are a lot cheaper so for my house i am going to get 5000
watt continuous 10.000peak
You must also ensure that each inverter has a direct supply from the battery or the power source you
are using, Normally batteries.and its own cut off switch. Don't link them like this .from battery to
Inverter one then from inverter one to inverter two .But like this ,cables direct from battery to Inverter
one ,done, and cable from battery to Inverter two done .

How To Generate Electricity Through
Recycle System - Without Generator or Solar

This system is called Recycling System because once setup it generates electricity 24/7 –― unless you
switch it off, and it charges itself so that it produces electricity recurrently. Since there is a kinetic energy
produced in the process hence the system does not run down and no fuel, sun, public electricity or
generator is needed to keep it working.

This is not inverter because inverter is one of the components nor is it solar because you do not need
solar energy or panel which often time very expensive to purchase and manage. This is a wonder of the
century. It is so easy to setup and it cost you nothing to maintain unlike your Solar system and generator
that you have to service almost every two months and unreliable public power supply where you pay
bills for what you do not enjoy.

This system supplies current to your entire household or company once setup and it recharges itself
simultaneously as long as the system is on.

Six major components are needed to build a recycling system.

One inverter

Deep Cycle Battery ― Dry Cell
Car Alternator

Charge Controller ― Solar Charge Controller

Car, Lorry or Standing Fan Motor

One Extension Box

1mm cable wire

Functions Of The Components
Inverter: Inverter converts the Direct Current (D.C) from the Deep Cycle Battery to Alternate Current
(A.C) for the output of the appliances. Inverter is of different sizes. Deep Cycle Battery (Dry Cell): Deep
Cycle Battery supplies Direct Current (D.C) for power generation.

Normal car battery can be used but it is not as durable and does not last long as Deep Cycle Battery. It
is advisable to use the later.

Car Alternator: As the inverter converts D.C produced by Deep Cycle Battery to A.C when in use,
the battery is outputting and thereby power is being used up, hence charging is necessary. This is where
Car Alternator comes in.
It recharges the Deep Cycle Battery for constant flow of Direct Current. Car Alternator replaces the
function of Solar Panel and ensures that your system does not run out of Direct Current for inverter to
convert to Alternate Current for outputting the appliances.

Solar Charge Controller: This is the regulator of the system. It regulates the charging of the battery. It
also regulates the Direct Current supplied by the Deep Cycle Battery to maintain stable and normal flow
of current that goes into the inverter for Alternate Current output.

It protects your appliances against thunder strike and other environmental or weather effect. Solar
Charge Controller as it is been really called comes in 12volts/24volts/48volts with different sizes of
ampere. The volts and the ampere of your battery will determine the type of Solar Charge Controller
that a particular project or sizing will require.

Car, Lorry or Standing Fan Motor: It energizes the alternator by rotating it to keep the Deep
Cycle Battery charging. As long as the Fan motor rotates the alternator, the Deep Cycle Battery will keep
charging. This is very important for your system to keep producing current.

Take note, please, ensure that your alternator comes with capacitor. It is always attached to the end of
the wires of the Fan Motor. If it is not there, make sure you ask for it or ask for another one that has
capacitor. Capacitor determines the speed of the fan. So to have a required speed, you need a working
capacitor. The bigger the capacity of the capacitor the faster the fan rotates and the quicker the
battery charges.

Extension: This is the place where you plug your appliances. It is recommended that you go for a
very strong and durable extension box.

Sizing The System
Sizing is the process of evaluating, rating and knowing the capacity of work load of your electrical
appliance and getting the adequate material for it. Despite that this system can be used to power a
whole room to a whole company yet I strongly advise here that before embarking on any project it is
strongly advisable that you first know the capacity of the appliances you are building the system
for. Before I take you on the sizing I will like to first take you on the general principle that will guide you
in building a correct system.

The general principle is as follow:

12volts 200amps battery goes for 1000watts inverter

12volts 300amps battery goes for 2000watts inverter

12volts 400amps battery goes for 3000watts inverter

12volts 500amps battery goes for 4000watts inverter

12volts 600amps battery goes for 5000watts inverter

1000watts – 2000watts Inverter goes with 12volts 20amps Charge Controller.
2500watts – 5000watts Inverter goes with 12volts 40amps Charge Controller.

Better still, you can follow the volts of the battery you are using. If you are using 24volts battery then
you can not use 12volts charge controller. It will not charge it. If you have problem with the sizing, this is
the easiest way to measure your load.

If you have generator, just check the watts/KVA of the generator then you will be able to get the idea of
the sizing you need. Some bigger generators are 2.7KVA that is 2700watts. Hence, if this kind
of generator can power your whole house successfully but let us say you need one air conditioner now
then you have to go for 4KVA that is 4000watts.

WARNING: Some people who are into this or who have the knowledge of electrical may advise that
you can ignore the principle above. Well, if you do, I guarantee that you will still have light but you risk
loosing your battery too soon. In short, your battery will not last. Hence, it is better if your load is less
than the whole output of the recycle system. I believe that is simple to follow?

For One Room Connection

A room with one bulb, one fan (standing, ceiling, or table), one DVD or CD player, one TV set, and
one computer set.


One 800 – 1000watts of inverter.

One 12volts 200amperes of Deep Cycle Battery.

One car alternator.

One 60 watts of car or standing fan motor.

One 20 amperes of Charge Controller.

The project above should not be more than 800watts but if otherwise then
you have to increase the size of the inverter and the Deep Cycle Battery.
You will get to know this as we go on.

Specification 2

If you need to use pressing iron, a refrigerator, more than one bulb with
the sizing in specification 1, the add ups will be around 1740watts or
more, here is the right sizing:
One 2000watts of inverter.

One 12volts 300amperes of Deep Cycle Battery.

One car alternator.

One 60 watts of car or standing fan motor.

One 12volts 20amperes or 12volts 30amperes of Charge Controller.
However, 12volts 30amperes
will serve better though 12volts 20amperes will also work. It is always
advisable that you check the
watts of the appliances to know the exact sizing. Please, always unplug
your refrigerator if you
want to iron cloth because pressing iron only consumes 1000 to 1400watts
of power.

Why do you need to unplug your fridge or any other? It is because it is not
advisable to have load that is up to the exact current output of your sizing
at a usage. Always make sure you have some watts left, at least, 100 to 150
watts. The benefit of this is that, your battery’s life-span will be longer.

Specification 3

If you will need to use one air conditioner with the sizing in specification 2
then your project will be higher than 1740watts but may fall between
2800watts to 3000watts, here is the right sizing:

One 3000watts of inverter.

One 12volts 400amperes of Deep Cycle Battery.

One big vehicle alternator e.g. Trailer e.t.c.

One Industrial fan motor.
One 12volts 40amperes of Charge Controller

This sizing will suffice for the project but always bear in mind that you can
use more appliances only if you are careful enough to know the capacity of
the appliance and unplug some appliances for the other.

In other words, do not exceed your sizing, but if you have more appliances
above your sizing just unplug some appliances for the other and when you
are through using it just plug back your normal appliance.


You have to get your connection correctly otherwise you may jeopardize
your system. Please take extra care while connecting. The connection is so
simple that an elementary school pupil can set it up but it requires that
you take your time and do it properly. Make sure you read the manual
over and over, most especially this connection aspect until you can do it
even if you are dosing. You can always refer to your manual.

Please, when doing the connection, always connect the negative wire first
before the positive. Also make sure you ask the vendor to differentiate the
negative wire from the positive because many at times the wires may not
come with the kind of colours you are familiar with. Once you can
differentiate between the wires, and then mark them with whatever you
like for further easy recognition you can go home with it. Now, let’s have
the settings

Setting One

Car Alternator: It comes with a bolt. Always ensure you get one that has a
bolt and capacitor attached to the end of the wires, if not, do not buy. Ask
for the one that has capacitor.

Take the Car Alternator bolt and the fan motor to a welder and weld the
bolt the head of the fan motor rod. Then screw the welded bolt on the fan
motor rod to the car alternator tightly so that when the fan motor is
connected to electricity it will propel, rotate and energize the car

As the car alternator rotates, the deep cycle battery charges. Now, since
the car motor will propel the car alternator and produce a little vibration
then it must be stationary. Something must hold them in place. Just have
a carpenter build a kind of box that will hold the car alternator and the
car motor in place.

Setting Two

Charge Controller: This controller has 6 ports, 3 positive (+) and 3 negative
(-) with 3 different
symbols on it.(Get 1mm bundle rolls of wire (cable), not flexible wire,
please). The 6 ports are
divided into three separately.

The first one has a striped rectangular shape with two holes. First, connect
the car alternator negative wire to the hole marked (-) and then the
positive to the hole marked (+) and screw them tightly. If you can not
differentiate the wires, ask the seller to show you the negative from the

The second has a rectangular shape like a car battery with two holes.
Here, connect and screw tightly the negative (-) wire from the deep cycle
battery to the negative (-) port first and then the positive (+) to the
positive hole, using part of the cable wire.

The third has a diagram like electric bulb with two ports. Using the cable
wire, connect and screw tightly the negative (-) wire from the inverter to
the port first and then the positive (+) to the positive from the inverter. Do
not forget to screw them tightly with screw driver. Always screw
the negatives first before the positives.

Setting Three
Extension: At the back of the inverter, there is a plug space there, plug the
extension to this space
and plug the fan motor on one of the posts on the extension. The other port
spaces are meant for
your appliances.

After this connection, switch on the inverter. However, your appliances are
not yet powered. Why?
The Charge Controller is not yet switched on. There is a button on the flat
surface of the Controller.

Switch it on by pressing it. Immediately you do this, the fan motor will
start rotating energizing the
car alternator to rotate and charge the deep cycle battery. Always put on
the inverter first before
you put on the controller.

Now you can plug all you sized appliances on the extension and enjoy
uninterrupted Power Inverter dealers

Below are some major dealers of power inverters in Nigeria. These dealers offer at least 1-year warranty
on power inverters. Credit financing may also be available from some dealers.

Simba Industries Limited

A division of Simba group of companies

Inverter Brand: Su-Kam pure sine wave Inverters
Power inverter range: 800VA – 100 KVA
Other products: Su-Kam UPS, Su-Kam batteries
12 months inverters financing from bank PHB

Simba Su-Kam power inverters Lagos:

77/79 Eric Moore Road, Surulere, Lagos
Su-Kam Sales Hotline: 01-2199422, 01-7939655

Simba Su-Kam power inverters FCT-Abuja:

IGI House, 3 Gwani Street, Off IBB Way, Wuse, Zone 4, Abuja

Simba Su-Kam power inverters Kano:

167, Mission Road, Bompai, Kano

Simba Su-Kam Power inverters Maiduguri

10, Busari Road, Opposite Maiduguri Flour Mills, Maiduguri

Simba Inverters Katsina: 08033225188

Simba Su-Kam inverters Jos: 08034380994

Simba Sokoto: 08067049555

Simba Su-Kam inverters Kaduna: 08032775001

Simba Su-Kam inverters Lokoja: 08034380994

Simba Su-Kam inverters Minna: 08033241266

BuyRight ComputerPort

Power Inverter brand: Cyberpower
Power Inverter range: 1.5KVA – 5 KVA
Warranty: 1 years on inverters

Rivetco Nigeria Ltd

Inverter Brand: Innova pure sine wave inverters
Other products: Innova power products and batteries
Warranty: 1 year on inverters

Sales and service centre

31/32 Asa Afariogun Street, Opp. Eleganza, Ajao Estate, Isolo, Lagos
Phone: 01-7758882, 07055711511


Kowski Systems

Power Inverter range: 1KVA – 1000 KVA
Other products: UPS, transformers, windmills, solar panels, AVRs
6 – 12 months inverters financing available from Oceanic bank
Warranty: 2 years on inverters

Head office

141b Olabode George, Victoria Island, Lagos

TuFoSeven Power Systems Ltd

Power Inverter range: 1KVA – 500KVA
Other products: solar panels

289, Herbert Macaulay way, Alagomeji bus stop, Yaba, Lagos

Port Harcourt address

642 Ikwere Road, Opp. MCC main gate, Port Harcourt, Rivers state
08023134370 upply of
electricity. However, you need to ask a carpenter to help you build a portable box that will hold
compactly both the fan motor and the car alternator.
You might ask; how do I have it power a whole house? All you have to do is to bring in the generator
wire and plug it on the extension. You are done! If you do not have this wiring, you can enlist the help on
an electrician to help you do the wiring. Period!
Happy uninterrupted electricity!

See below for the special Power Glossary, listing providing a concise description of all the unusual
jargon and acronyms used in the power industry.
AC: (Alternating Current) Voltage or current which is periodically changing polarity

AC-DC Converter: Converts an alternating current power supply eg: 230V mains into one or several DC
voltages as required by particular electronic circuits or in Powerstax’s case mainly for the charging of
battery operated equipment.

Ambient temperature: The still-air temperature of the immediate environment measured a minimum of
100mm from the power supply

Amps: (Amperes) Unit of measurement of electromotive current (A).

Basic Insulation: According to international safety standards (eg UL1950, EN60950) basic insulation
provides basic protection against electric shock. In contrast, operational insulation is needed for the
correct operation of the equipment, but does not protect against electric shock. Quite frequently, safety
standards call for basic insulation between secondary circuits.

Breakdown voltage: See: Isolation

Bridge: Rectifier circuit incorporating four diodes (full-bridge) or two diodes (half-bridge). Converter or
chopper section of switching power supplies incorporating four transistors (full-bridge) or two
transistors (half-bridge).

Brownout: Condition during peak usage periods when electric utilities reduce their nominal line voltage
by 10% to 15%.

Brownout protection: The ability of a power supply to continue operating within specification through
the duration of a brownout.

Burn In:The period directly following the very first turn-on of a given power supply. It is characterized by
a relatively high and declining failure rate.

Bus: The system of conductors (wire, cable, copper bars, etc.) used to transport power from the power
supply to the load. A communications structure used to control various instruments and subsystems.

Busbar: A low impedance conductor which feeds power to various circuits in, for example, an
equipment room or within an equipment rack. In the telecommunications industry the busbar voltage is
often at a standardised 48V, requiring dc-dc converters to convert the busbar voltage to such voltages as
are used by the electronics circuits it is supplying

CB-report: Document necessary for the mutual recognition of approvals between different national test

CEE (International Commission on Rules for the Approval of Electrical Equipment): A regional, European
safety agency. NB: the United States participates only as an observer.
Common-mode noise: The components of noise which is common to both the DC output and return
lines with respect to input ground
Constant current: A power supply that regulates current level regardless of changes in load resistance.

Constant current limiting circuit: Current-limiting circuit that holds output current at some maximum
value whenever an overload of any magnitude is experienced.

Constant voltage: A power supply that regulates voltage level regardless of changes in load resistance.

Convection: The transference of thermal energy in a gas or liquid by currents resulting from unequal

Convection-cooled power supply is a PSU that is cooled from the natural motion of an air over the
surfaces of its components.

Crowbar: A type of overvoltage protection circuit which rapidly places a low resistance shunt across the
power supply output terminals if a predetermined voltage is exceeded.

CSA (Canadian Standards Association): An independent Canadian organization testing for public safety,
similar to the function of Underwriters’ Laboratories in the United States.

Current: Rate of transfer of electrical charge measured in amperes (A)

Current limiting circuit: A circuit designed to prevent overload of a constant-voltage power supply. It can
take the form of constant, foldback or cycle-by-cycle current limiting.

Cycle-by-cycle current limiting circuit: Current-limiting circuit that immediately reduces output current
to some minimum level whenever an overloaded of any magnitude is experienced.

DC: Direct Current or undirectional voltage or current

Derating: The specified reduction in an operating parameter to improve reliability. Compensates for a
change in one or more other parameters. In power supplies, the output power rating is generally
reduced at elevated temperatures.

Differential mode noise: That component of noise measured between the DC and output return. It does
not include common-mode noise.

DPA (Distributed Power Architecture): A system where the supply power is fed to each electronic unit on
a busbar and then locally converted at rack or PCB level to such voltages as the electronic circuits

Drift: See: Stability.

Dynamic load: A load that rapidly changes from one level to another. To be properly specified both the
total change and the rate of change must be stated.
Efficiency: The ratio of total output power to total input power, expressed as a percentage, under
specified conditions.

EMC (Electromagnetic compatibility): Any electromagnetic effect: Emissions from elements within
apparatus (motors, converters, choppers), disturbance of elements and measures for improving the

EMI (electromagnetic interference): Also called radio-frequency interference (RFI), EMI is unwanted high
frequency energy caused by the switching transistors, output rectifiers, and zener diodes in switching
power supplies. EMI can be conducted through the input or output lines or radiated through space.

ESR (Equivalent Series Resistance): The amount of resistance in series with an ideal (lossless) capacitor,
which duplicates the performance of a real capacitor. In general, the lower the ESR, the higher the
quality of the capacitor and the more effective it is as a filtering device. ESR is a prime determinant of
ripple in switching power supplies.

ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute): Non-profit making organisation whose mission
is to determine and produce the telecommunications standards that will be used for decades to come.

Faraday shield: An electrostatic shield wound on a transformer, designed to reduce interwinding
capacitance. The result is less common- and differential-mode noise at the output of the power supply.

FCC (Federal Communications Commission): United States federal regulating body whose new EMI
limitations are affecting the design and production of digital electronics systems and their related
subassemblies, such as power supplies.

Ferroresonance: The principle used open-loop (non-feedback) voltage stabilizing power supply.

Filter: A frequency-sensitive network that attenuates unwanted noise and ripple components of a
rectified output.

Flyback converter: Switching power supply configuration using a single transistor and a flyback diode.

Foldback current limiting circuit: Current-limiting circuit that gradually decreases the output current
under overload conditions until some minimum current level is reached under a direct short circuit.

Forward converter: Switching power supply configuration using a single transistor.

Frequency changer: Power-conversion equipment that transforms AC electric power from one
frequency to another without affecting its other characteristics.

Full Brick: An industry standard size and pin-out for DC-DC Converters. The package size is 2.50″ x 4.8″
with the pins on a 4.47″ spacing. The height is usually 0.50″ without heatsink.
Full-bridge converter: Four-transistor switching power supply configuration used to handle high power

Half-bridge converters: Two-transistor switching power supply configuration used in medium-power

Half-wave rectifier: Single-diode rectifier circuit that rectifies only one-half the input AC wave.

Full-wave rectifier:: Rectifier circuit that rectifies both halves of an AC wave.

Ground loop: An unwanted feedback problem caused by two or more circuits sharing a common
electrical line, usually a common ground line.

Harmonic distortion: AC current outputs with multiple harmonic frequencies to AC line frequency
provoked by the switching devices in a power supply.

Head room: In a linear regulator, the head room is the difference between the secondary voltage
supplied by the power transformer at nominal input voltage and the regulated output voltage. Head
room is necessary to ensure proper regulation under full load and low input voltage operation.

Heat sink: Device used to conduct away and disperse the heat generated by electronic components.

Hi-pot (high potential voltage): See: Isolation test voltage.

Holdup time: The time under worst case conditions during which a power supply’s output voltage
remains within specified limits following the loss or removal of input power; also called “ride-through”.

Hybrid supplies: A power supply that combines two or more different regulation techniques, such as
ferroresonant and linears or switching and linear.

IEC (International Electrotechanical Commissions): An international safety agency headquartered in
Geneva, Switzerland.

IFB3 - Interleaved Full-Bridge Boost Buck, the patented dc-dc converter topology from Powerstax
providing high efficiency, high power density and great versatility in a compact and reliable package.

Inhibit: The ability to electrically turn off the output of a power supply from a remote location.

Input voltage range: The range of source voltages for which the power supply meets its specifications.

Inrush current: A high surge of input current that occurs in switchers and occasionally in linears upon
initial turn on, caused by charging of the input capacitors.

Isolating power supply is a PSU that provides isolation between input and output. Isolation is absence of
DC current pass between two circuits. Isolation in PSU is provided by transformers. Most of
commercially available AC-DC PSU are isolating. Low input voltage DC-DC PSU are often non-isolating,
such as a car phone charger. Note that isolation does not mean a complete absence of AC current path-
some AC currents can still flow from input to output through physical and/or stray capacitance.

Instantaneous current limiting circuit: See: Cycle-by-cycle current limiting circuit.

Insulation: Material used to insulate a device by preventing or reducing the transmission of electricity.

Inverter: A power converter which changes DC Input power into AC output power.

Isolation: The degree of electrical separation between two points. It can be expressed in terms of
voltage (breakdown), current (galvanic), or resistance and/or capacitance (impedance). In power
supplies, it is important to maximize the input to output isolation.

Isolation test voltage: Ability of a power supply to withstand a high voltage potential placed either from
the input terminals to ground, from any of the output terminals to ground, or between any pair of input
and output terminals. This specification is important for safety reasons and is partially dependent on the
mechanical design of the power supply.

Leakage current: Current flowing between the output buses and chassis ground due to imperfections in
electronic components and designs. It must be tightly controlled to satisfy safety regulations such as UL
and VDE.

Line regulation: The variation of an output voltage due to a change in the input voltage, with all other
factors held constant. Line regulation is expressed as the maximum percentage change in output voltage
as the input voltage is varied over its specified range.

Linear power supply is a PSU that regulates the output parameter (usually output voltage) by varying
voltage drop accross an electronic component placed in series with the load which dissipates unused
power. This component may be a power semiconductor or a resistor. The regulation is accomplished by
changing its effective resistance (if it is a power semiconductor) or by forcing extra current through it (if
it is a resistor).

Linear regulator: A common voltage stabilization technique in which the control device (usually a
transistor) is placed in series or parallel with the power source to regulate the voltage across the load.
The term “linear” is used because the voltage drop across the control device is varied continuously to
dissipate unused power.

Load: For voltage regulated power supplies, the load is the output current.

Load regulation: Variation of the output voltage due to a change in the output’s load within a specified
range with all other factors held constant. It is expressed as a percentage of the nominal DC output

Logic inhibit: The ability to turn a power supply off and on with TTL signals. A logic low generally allows
the power supply to operate. A logic high turns off the power supply. See also: Logic low.

Logic low: A TTL voltage lower than 0.8 V. Also known as a “logic 0″ .

Master/Slave operation: In order to increase output power and provide redundancy should one
converter fail, several converters are often connected in parallel. In most cases one type of converter is
then used as master, controlling the other (slave) converters

Modular: A physically descriptive term used to describe a power supply made up of a number of
separate subsections, such as an input module, power module, or filter module. Modular construction
tends to lower the MTBF.

MTBF This measurement, expressed in hours, gives the relative reliability, and can be based on actual
operation or on a calculated standard such as MIL

Multiple output supply: A power supply that delivers two or more different output voltages.

Noise: Noise is a periodic, random component of undesired deviations in output voltage. Usually
specified in combination with ripple. See: PARD and also: Ripple.

Nominal output voltage: The intended, ideal voltage of any given output.

Off-line power supply is a PSU that takes its power directly from AC line without using line frequency
transformer. Such supply can still be isolating if it uses high frequency transformer in one of its power
conversion stages. A typical off-line SMPS rectifies input AC line voltage, converts it into high-frequency
AC voltage by using semiconductor power switches, steps that voltage up or down by using inductors
and/or transformers, then rectifies it again and filters for DC output. An example of isolating off-line PSU
is a computer switching power supply.

Open-frame construction: A construction technique common to OEM power supplies where the supply
is not provided with an enclosure. It can be either a simple printed circuit board or circuit board
mounted on a metal chassis without a cover.

Operating temperature: The range of temperatures within which a power supply will perform within
specified limits.

Opto-isolator: Device that provides electrical isolation and a signal path by making an electrical to
optical to electrical signal transformation from its input to output terminals. This is accomplished with a
light-emiting diode in close proximity to a phototransistor. Opto-isolators are used in the feedback loop
to maintain electrical isolation between the input and output of the power supply. Ageing may provoke
degraded feedback response.

Output impedance: The value of a fictional resistor in series with an ideal voltage source that would give
the same magnitude of AC voltage across the supply terminals as observed for a particular magnitude
and frequency of alternating current.
Output voltage: The voltage measured at the output terminals of a power supply; A feature or device
that senses and responds to current or power overload conditions;

Overcurrent protection: See: Current limiting circuit.

Overshoot: The amount by which an output exceeds its final value in response to a rapid change in load
or input voltage, measured as a percentage of the nominal. It is an important value at turn-on and
following a step change in load or line voltage.

OVP (overvoltage protection): A protection mechanism for the load circuitry that does not allow the
output voltage to exceed a preset level. In most cases, the output voltage is reduced to a low value, and
the input power must be recycled to restore the power supply output

Parallel operation: The ability of power supplies to be connected so that the current from corresponding
outputs can be combined into a single load.

PARD: Acronym for “Periodic And Random Deviation” and used as the specification term for ripple and
noise. Ripple is the unwanted portion of the output harmonically (periodically) related in frequency to
the input line and to any internally generated switching frequency. Noise is the unwanted, a periodic
output deviation.

Pass element: The active circuit element, typically a transistor, that forms the output power stage of a
linear power supply.

Peak charging: A rise in voltage across a capacitor caused by the charging of the capacitor to the peak
rather than rms value of the input voltage. This generally occurs when a capacitor has a high discharge
resistance across it and large ripple and noise or spikes on its input line. In a switcher, this parameter
may affect minimum load conditions (discharge resistance) on each output required to maintain

Peak transient output current: The maximum peak current that can be delivered to a load during
transient loading conditions, such as electric motor starts.

Phase controlled modulation: A circuit used in switching regulators where the operating frequency is
held constant (typically 50 or 60 Hz line frequency) and the phase angle at which the control elements
are turned on its varied, controlling both line and load changes with minimal dissipation.

Pin fins: Type of heatsink that uses pins in place of conventional extruded fins.

Planar Magnetics: Use of high volume manufacturing processes and technologies to replace
conventional wire windings in magnetic components with patterned conductors formed on a single or
multi-layer substrates. Planar magnetic offer advantages in terms of cost, reliability, manufacturability
and predictable electrical parameters.
Post regulator: Usually a linear regulator used on the output of a switching or ferro power supply to
improve overall (load) regulation.

Power factor: The ratio of actual power used in a circuit to the apparent power. Power factor is the
measure of the fraction of current in phase with the voltage and contributing to average power.

Power fail detect: A circuit that senses the DC voltage across the input capacitors of a switching power
supply. Should the AC input line fail, it senses an abnormally low DC level across the capacitors and
provides an isolated TTL output signal warning of imminent loss of output power.

Power supply or Power Supply Unit (PSU) is a device that transfers electric energy from the source to the
load using electronic circuits. A common application of power supplies is to convert raw input power
into a regulated voltage and/or current required for an electronic equipment.

Pre-regulator: A regulator circuit that provides a line-regulated output, which is then processed by a
second regulator, the post-regulator, which provides load regulation.

Programming: The capability of controlling the voltage of each output.

Push-pull converter: Used in switching power supplies where the main switching circuit uses two
transistors operating in push-pull. The main advantage is simplicity of design.

PWM (Pulse width modulation): A circuit used in switching regulated power supplies where the
switching frequency is held constant and the width of the power pulse is varied, controlling both line
and load changes with minimal dissipation.

Rated output current: The maximum continuous load current a power supply is designed to provide
under specified operating conditions.

Recovery time: The time required by a transient over or under shoot in a stabilised output quantity to
decay within specified limits

Redundancy: The ability to connect power supplies in parallel so that if one fails the other will provide
continuous power to the load. This mode is used in systems when power supply failure cannot be

Reference: A known stable voltage to which the output voltage is compared for the purpose of
stabilizing the output voltage.

Regulated power supply is a PSU that maintains a given output parameter (usually output voltage) to
within specified limits under varying operating conditions, such as input line, output load, ambient
temperature. PSU can be linear or switched-mode (switching) depending on the method of regulation
and mode of operation of power handling components.

Regulator: The part of a power supply that controls the output voltage. In most cases, the regulator acts
to stabilize the output voltage at a preset value.

Remote on-off: See: Inhibit.

Remote sensing: A method of moving the point of regulation from the output terminals to the load.
Compensates voltage drops in the power distribution bus, but negative impact on dynamic load
behaviour must be tolerated.

Response time: The time required (usually ms) for the output of a power supply or circuit to reach a
specified fraction of its new value after a step change or disturbance.

Return: An arbitrary name for the common terminal for all the outputs. It carries the return current of
all the outputs.

Reverse voltage protection: The ability of a power supply to withstand reverse voltage at the input
terminals when hooked up in the reverse polarity.

RFI (radio frequency interference): See: EMI.

Ripple: The periodic AC component at the power source output harmonically related to source or
switching frequencies.

Ripple voltage: The periodic AC component of the DC output of a power supply.

Schottky diode: A device that exhibits a low forward voltage drop (e.g.0.4 V) and a fast recovery time.
This type of diode is especially useful at high current, low voltage (typically 5VDC), where low losses and
high switching speed are important.

Semi-regulated output: A secondary output on a multiple-output power supply that receives line
regulation only.

Sense line: S+ and S- lines, complementary to the Vo+ and Vo- lines, allowing the compensation of
voltages drops due to line resistance.

Sequencing: Controlling the time delay and order of output voltage appearance and drop-out upon
power supply turn on and turn off.

Series regulator: A linear regulator in which the active control element (transistor) is in series connection
with the load.

Short-circuit protection: See: Current limiting circuit.

Shunt regulator: A linear power supply in which the active control element (transistor) is in parallel with
the load.
Slave: The unit in a master-slave paralleling scheme that is controlled by the master unit. See:
Master/Slave operation.

Snubber: A network containing a resistor, capacitor, and diode used in the switching power supplies to
trap high-energy transients and to protect sensitive components.

Soft start: Input surge-current limiting in a switching power supply where the switching drive is slowly
ramped on.

Stability: The change in output voltage of a power supply over a specific period of time, following a
warm up period, with all other operating parameters such as line, load and ambient temperature held

Standby current: The input current drawn by any power supply under minimum load conditions.

Static load: A load that remains constant over a given time period. It is usually specified as a percentage
of full load.

Step change: An abrupt and sustained change in one of the influence or control quantities (e.g. load

Stress-ageing: The process of subjecting a completed power supply to a variety of stresses to force the
occurrence of all burn-in-failures.

Surface Mount Technology (SMT): A space saving technique whereby special leadless components are
soldered onto the surface of a PCB rather than into holes in a PCB. The parts are smaller than their
leaded versions and PCB area is thus saved.

SMPS or Switched-mode power supply is a PSU that incorporates power handling electronic components
that are continuosly switching on and off with high frequency in order to provide the transfer of electric
energy. By varying duty cycle, frequency or a phase of these transitions an output parameter is
controlled. Typical frequency range of SMPS is from 20 kHz to several MHz. The actual choice of
operating frequency is usually the trade off between size and efficiency.

Switching frequency: The rate at which the source voltage is switched in a DC to DC converter.

Switching regulator: A high-efficiency non-isolated DC to DC converter consisting of inductors and
capacitors to store energy and switching elements (typically transistors or SCRs), which open and close
as necessary to regulate voltage across a load. The switching duty cycle is generally controlled by a feed-
back loop to stabilize the output voltage.

Synchronous Rectification: A circuit arrangement where the output rectifier diodes of a power supply
are replaced with active switches such as MOSFETs. The switches are turned on and off under control
and act as rectifiers. This results in considerably lower losses in the output stage and subsequently much
higher efficiency. They are particularly useful with low voltage outputs.
Temperature coefficient: The average percentage of change in output voltage per degree change in
temperature with load and input voltage held constant.

Thermal protection: A protective feature that shuts down a power supply if its internal temperature
exceeds a predetermined limit.

Thermal regulation: See: Temperature coefficient.

Thermistor: A device with relatively high electrical resistance when cold and almost no resistance when
at operating temperature. Thermistors are sometimes used to limit inrush current in off-line switchers.

Topology: Topology is the fundamental circuit design of a clearly identifiable and characteristic type. DC-
DC converters can be designed along several different topologies (using different fundamental design
principles). A patent for a particular topology can be very powerful in that it can encompass any circuit
solution regardless of power output, falling within the design principles of the topology in question.

Transformer: A magnetic device that converts AC voltages to AC voltages at any level. An ideal
transformer is a lossless device in which no energy is lost and that requires no magnetising current.

Transient: A temporary and brief change in a given parameter. Typically associated with input voltage or
output loading parameters.

Transient response time: The amount of time taken for an output to settle within some tolerance band,
normally following a step change in load.

UL (Underwriters’ Laboratories): An independent, non-profit organization testing for public safety in the
United States.

Undershoot: The amount by which an output falls below its final value in response to a rapid load

UPS or Uninterruptible power supply is a PSU that continues to supply electric power to the load for
specified periods of time during a loss of input power or when the input line varies outside normal
limits. UPS is implemented with a backup battery and an additional DC-AC inverter.

VDE (Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker): A German organization testing for public safety.

Volt: Unit of measurement of electromotive force, electric potential or potential difference (V).

Voltage converter technically has the same definiton as the switching power supply, except the term
converter is usually used for a single-stage DC-DC SMPS. A typical
off-line switching power supply may consist of several cascaded voltage converters. The term converter
may also imply an incomplete PSU, which may need additional components (filters, protective devices,
housing, etc.) to make a complete PSU.
Warm up drift: The change in output voltage that occurs during warm-up from turn on of a cold supply
until about 30 minutes after turn on. Warm-up drift is measured at constant load, input line, and
ambient temperature and is primarily due to internal components reaching thermal equilibrium.

Warm up time: The time needed, after turn on, for the power supply to reach thermal equilibrium with
a constant load. Usually estimated to be about 30 minutes.

Watt: Unit of measurement of power equal to 1 joule/sec (W). DC power can be calculated by
multiplying voltage and current.

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