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					    BASIC                                      Federal Aviation
                                               Administration


AERODYNAMICS
    PART I


 PRESENTED BY: Dennis H. Whitley
   FAASTeam Lead Representative
       NORTH FLORIDA REGION



NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation      1
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
                       MY MOTTO
        SHOW ME A PILOT THAT CAN’T
           ANSWER A CORRELATIVE
          QUESTION AND/OR CAN’T
          PERFORM A GIVEN TASK, &
        I’LL SHOW YOU A PILOT THAT
        DOESN’T UNDERSTAND WHAT
            HE/SHE IS TRYING TO
                ACCOMPLISH.
NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   2
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
     FLIGHT INSTRUCTING
       MUST NOT BE THE
        BY-PRODUCT OF
       BUILDING FLIGHT
            HOURS.

NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   3
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
           BUILDING FLIGHT
            HOURS MUST BE
           THE BY-PRODUCT
               OF FLIGHT
             INSTRUCTING.
NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   4
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
                           SAFETY
                       COMMITMENT
                                  VS
                       DEDICATION

NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   5
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
     THIS DISCUSSION IS BASED ON
 SUBSONIC AIRCRAFT AND WILL BE


                         “VERY BASIC”
                        “NO FORMULAS”
                   “VERY LITTLE MATH”

NORTH FLORIDA FSDO-15    AERODYNAMICS                      6
                                        Federal Aviation
JANUARY 27, 2010             PART I     Administration
          WE WILL TALK ABOUT
                       ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
              4 FORCES LIFT/WEIGHT/THRUST/DRAG
                           GROUND EFFECT
                        TURNING TENDENCIES
                            TRIM DEVICES
                       AERODYNAMICS OF SPINS
                             SLIPS/SKIDS
                            ADVERSE YAW
NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS    Federal Aviation   7
OCTOBER 02, 2010                             Administration
  WHAT IS
ATMOSPHERIC
 PRESSURE?

NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   8
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE IS THE WEIGHT
 OF ALL THE AIR UPON THE SURFACE OF
              THE EARTH.
WHAT DOES 30 hg MEANS?
HOW WAS ATMOSPHERIC
 PRESSURE MEASURED?



NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   10
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
36


     TORICELLI'S MEASUREMENT

     YARD
     RULER   STICK
                       GLASS TUBE
             1 SQUARE INCH INNER DIAMETER BY
                      3536 INCHES TALL
                         INCHES TALL
                         TORICELLI'S MEASUREMENT

                        RULER
                                          GLASS TUBE
                                1 SQUARE INCH INNER DIAMETER BY
                                         35 INCHES TALL




                                                        CONTAINER
                                       MERCURY          WITH
                                                        MERCURY




                                                                    CONTAINER
                     MERCURY                                        WITH
                                                                    MERCURY
              36
YARD STICK
      RULER
                   TORICELLI'S
                   MERCURIAL
                   BAROMETER
              36
YARD STICK
      RULER
                   TORICELLI'S
                   MERCURIAL
                   BAROMETER
TORICELLI'S 30.00
MERCURIAL
BAROMETER


                              ATMOSPHERIC
                               PRESSURE



                    MERCURY

                                    SEA LEVEL
HOW WAS THE DROP
 OF PRESSURE WITH
ALTITUDE VERIFIED?
  HOW WAS THE
WEIGHT OF THE AIR
  DETERMINED?



NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   17
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
MERCURY
   1 SQUARE INCH




29.92" hg.




         14.7 lbs.   14.7 lbs.
                         WHAT
                   IS AN ALTIMETER?

A PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
        GAUGE

NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   20
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
                                                                                  FROM
 FROM                 20                                         20
                 15        25                               15        25         SOURCE
SOURCE
         10                     30                  10                     30

         5                       35                 5                       35

             0              40                          0                  40
                      HG                                         HG



                                          20
                                     15        25
                                10                  30

                            5                           35

                                0               40

                                          HG
         Kollsman
Static   Window
Port
static port                     sea
 pressure                      level
 31.00 hg.    31.00          pressure
                             31.00 hg.


                 SEA LEVEL
static port
 pressure
 23.00 hg.
              31.00
                         sea
                        level
                      pressure
                      31.00 hg.
      WHAT IS
 ALTIMETER SETTING?
SEA LEVEL PRESSURE CORRECTED FOR
   NONSTANDARD TEMPERATURE.
 WHAT IS THE MAIN REASON
THAT AN AIRPLANE IS ABLE TO
            FLY?
 BECAUSE OF THE WEIGHT OF
          THE AIR.
      In other words the
 aerodynamic effect air has on
          the aircraft.
NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   26
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
                   DEFINITION OF
                   AERODYNAMICS
The branch of science that
deals with the forces
produced by air flowing over
specially shaped surfaces
called airfoils.
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                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   27
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
IS THERE ANY THING WRONG WITH
          THIS PICTURE?




                         TWO THINGS
         THE FLOWING OF THE RELATIVE WIND
       THE DIRECTION OF THE RELATIVE WIND


NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   28
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
CAN WE FLY WITH A FLAT WING?
                                1ST LAW:
Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state
          of motion unless an external force is applied to it.
                                 3RD LAW:
         For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.




AT CRUISE COSTANT ALTITUDE
 NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                        BASIC AERODYNAMICS          Federal Aviation   30
 OCTOBER 02, 2010                                   Administration
NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   31
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
MINIMUM MANEUVERING SPEED
             SLOW FLIGHT

 NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                        BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   32
 OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
                                                 STALL




PA-28 SERIES
NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   33
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
WHAT IS THE DEFINITION OF
          FOIL?
       TO PREVENT FROM BEING
            SUCCESSFUL
                        TO THWART



NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   34
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
         AIRFOIL
•Any surface designed to deflect
the airflow passing over it or
striking it, and thereby obtaining
an useful reaction

     AN AIRFOIL IS AN
      AIR DEFLECTOR
                HOW MANY
               AIRFOILS ARE
                  THERE?



NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   36
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
                           •AIRPLANE WING.
                              •AILERONS.
                                •SLATS
                           •LANDING FLAPS.
                        •VERTICAL STABILIZER.
                               •RUDDER.
                       •HORIZONTAL STABILIZER.
                       •ELEVATOR/STABILATOR
                                                 •FUSELAGE.
                              •TRIM TABS.
                                                  •FEARING.
                             •PROPELLER.
                                                   •STRUTS.
                            •ROTOR BLADE.
NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                        BASIC AERODYNAMICS      Federal Aviation   37
OCTOBER 02, 2010                                Administration
         WHAT IS LIFT?




NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   38
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
                       A FORCE CREATED BY
                       A DEFLECTION OF AIR
   AND PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL AROUND AN
                 AIRFOIL.
       IS CALLED LIFT WHEN IT ACTS UPWARD.
         WHEN IT ACTS DOWNWARD IS CALLED
                  NEGATIVE LIFT.
WHEN IT ACTS SIDEWAYS IS CALLED SIDE LIFT.
  WHEN IT ACTS FORWARD IS CALLED THRUST

NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                        BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   39
OCTOBER 02, 2010                             Administration
                    HOW IS LIFT
                     CREATED?
AIR PASSING BY AN AIRFOIL
DEFLECTION -- ISSAC NEWTON

AIR’S CHANGE OF DIRECTION--BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE
PRESSURE DIFERENTIAL-- BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE




 NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                        BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   40
 OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   41
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
       WHAT’S WRONG WITH THIS PICTURE




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                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   42
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   43
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   44
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
CAN WE FLY WITHOUT
    THE HELP OF
   BERNOULLIS?



NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   45
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   46
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   47
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
                        THRUST
       •Thrust is a reaction force described
quantitatively by Newton's second and third laws.
When a system expels or accelerates mass in one
   direction the accelerated mass will cause a
 proportional but opposite force on that system.




 NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                        BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   48
 OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
                            LIFT
•LIFT is a reaction force described quantitatively
   by Newton's second and third laws. When a
    system expels or accelerates mass in one
   direction the accelerated mass will cause a
 proportional but opposite force on that system.

          •Thrust is LIFT DIRECTED FORWARD.


NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   49
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
     THE PROPELLER’S                 DEFLECTION OF AIR




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                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS    Federal Aviation   50
OCTOBER 02, 2010                             Administration
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                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   51
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NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   52
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
                       DRAG

NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   53
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
     PARASITE DRAG
                             FORM
                   INTERFERENCE

NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   54
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
       INDUCED DRAG

    GROUND EFFECT
                   COMMANDER TYSON
NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   55
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
                                         STAGNATION AREA
                                             UPWASH
                       ASSUMED            RELATIVE WIND
  ASSUMED                LIFT
   ANGLE                                   DOWNWASH
  OF ATTACK




        ASSUMED RELATIVE WIND
           IS THAT RIGHT?




NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                         BASIC AERODYNAMICS    Federal Aviation   56
OCTOBER 02, 2010                               Administration
                   STAGNATION AREA          UPWASH
             RELATIVE CURRENT               DOWNWASH




NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS      Federal Aviation   57
OCTOBER 02, 2010                               Administration
                        ASSUMED
                          LIFT
   INDUCED               INDUCED
    ANGLE                  LIFT
  OF ATTACK




INDUCED RELATIVE WIND




 NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                           BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   58
 OCTOBER 02, 2010                               Administration
                                                DOWNWASH
                        ASSUMED
                          LIFT
   INDUCED               INDUCED
    ANGLE                  LIFT
  OF ATTACK




INDUCED RELATIVE WIND




 NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                           BASIC AERODYNAMICS         Federal Aviation   59
 OCTOBER 02, 2010                                     Administration
                                               DOWNWASH
                        ASSUMED
                          LIFT
   INDUCED              INDUCED            WING TIP
    ANGLE                 LIFT             VORTICES
  OF ATTACK
                                       TOTAL ENDUCED DRAG




INDUCED RELATIVE WIND




 NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                          BASIC AERODYNAMICS          Federal Aviation   60
 OCTOBER 02, 2010                                     Administration
        WING
  THREE-DIMENSIONAL                       UPWASH MODIFIES
                                           RELATIVE WIND
        FLOW


DOWNWASH PULLS
BACK ON LIFT VECTOR




    WING TIP VORTICES PULLS LIFT VECTOR FURTHER BACK
                                               DOWNWASH
                        ASSUMED
                          LIFT
   INDUCED              INDUCED            WING TIP
    ANGLE                 LIFT             VORTICES
  OF ATTACK
                                       TOTAL ENDUCED DRAG




INDUCED RELATIVE WIND




 NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                          BASIC AERODYNAMICS          Federal Aviation   62
 OCTOBER 02, 2010                                     Administration
                                               DOWNWASH
                        ASSUMED
                          LIFT
   INDUCED              INDUCED
    ANGLE                 LIFT
  OF ATTACK




INDUCED RELATIVE WIND




 NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                          BASIC AERODYNAMICS         Federal Aviation   63
 OCTOBER 02, 2010                                    Administration
                        ASSUMED
                          LIFT
   INDUCED              INDUCED
    ANGLE                 LIFT
  OF ATTACK




INDUCED RELATIVE WIND




 NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                          BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   64
 OCTOBER 02, 2010                              Administration
                                 WASHOUT




NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   65
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
WHAT DOES
   THE
STABILATOR
   DO?
WHAT DOES
   THE
ANTI-SERVO
 TAB DO?
        STABILIZED UNACCELERATED CLIMB


        A

    B


C
IF DESCENDING
IN A 60 ° BANK
HOW MANY G ’S?
     DYHEADRAL



NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   70
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
                       ADVERSE
                         YAW


NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   73
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
             OVERBANKING
              TENDENCIES



NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   74
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
MANEUVERING SPEED
       VA



NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   75
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration
               LOAD FACTOR



NORTH FLORIDA REGION
                       BASIC AERODYNAMICS   Federal Aviation   76
OCTOBER 02, 2010                            Administration

				
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