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					    Management Guidance on the
Provision and Use of Work Equipment




             Date: May 2012
                           INDEX




      Management Guidance

1.    Suitability of Work Equipment           3

2.    Maintenance                             4

3.    Inspection                              4

4.    Information and Instruction             5

5.    Training                                5

6.    Specific Risks                          6

7.    Acquisition of Equipment                7

8.    Specific hazards                        7

      8.1    Dangerous Parts of Machinery     8
      8.2    Temperatures                     8
      8.3    Stability                        8
      8.4    Lighting                         9
      8.5    Controls                         9
      8.6    Isolation                        10

9     Markings                                10

10.   Warnings                                10

11.   Mobile Work Equipment                   10

12.   Regulations and Guidance                11



12.   Appendices

      Appendix 1 - Example risk assessments   13

      Appendix 2 - Work Equipment Checklist   21




                                 2
            Management Guidance - Provision and Use of Work Equipment

     This guidance document is provided to enable management within Schools and
     Directorates to develop local arrangements to comply with the requirements of The
     Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (Northern Ireland) 1999 (PUWER)
     approved code of practice and to assist those responsible for conducting risk
     assessments of work equipment.


1.   Suitability of the Equipment

     Management action required:

     Schools and Directorates must ensure that the work equipment is suitable for its intended
     use and the conditions in which it will be used. Work equipment must be assessed for its
     suitability and where possible this should always be prior to purchase so that health and
     safety risks can be eliminated at source.

     Guidance:
     The safety and suitability of work equipment must be assessed from three aspects:

        1. Its initial integrity (ie it must be safe for use in terms of its construction or
           adaptation).
        2. The actual place where it will be used (eg electrical equipment is not normally
           suitable for wet or flammable atmospheres unless it is designed for that purpose).
        3. Its intended purpose and use (eg a screwdriver should not be used as a chisel).

     When selecting and purchasing equipment, particular attention must be given to its
     suitability by design, construction or adaptation for the actual operation it is to be used
     for. It should be used in accordance with manufacturers' specifications and instructions. If
     it is adapted or repaired in any way it must still be suitable for the operation it is to be
     used for.

     The location where it is to be used must be assessed to take account of the risks that
     may arise, eg use of electrical equipment in a hazardous environment. The use of work
     equipment may also cause risks to health in particular situations which would otherwise
     be safe, eg ergonomic & environmental considerations of workstations.

     The particular process, procedures, working conditions and environment, under and in
     which the equipment will be used, must also be considered eg using welding equipment
     in a flammable environment. Similarly, it may be inappropriate to use portable power
     tools for operations which should preferably and effectively be carried out by other
     specialist machinery with appropriate guarding.

     Schools or Directorates may require specialist items of work equipment to be
     manufactured in-house by members of staff. In this case the staff involved in specifying,
     designing and manufacturing work equipment in-house are responsible for ensuring that
     it is safe.



                                              3
2.   Maintenance

     Management action required:

     Schools and Directorates must maintain work equipment in an efficient state (general
     safe working of the equipment), in efficient working order, (everything works as it should)
     and in good repair (repairs and maintenance have been undertaken to the correct
     standard).

     Guidance:
     The frequency of planned preventative maintenance will depend upon the type of
     equipment and on the manufacturers’ recommendations, and in consideration of its
     intensity and frequency of use and its operating environment.

     Complex powered equipment will normally be accompanied by a manufacturers’
     maintenance manual that specifies routine and special maintenance procedures to be
     carried out at particular intervals. Typically such equipment will have a maintenance log
     and these must be kept up to date

     Planned preventative maintenance and condition-based maintenance (of safety critical
     parts) must be able to be carried out without risk to health or safety, and only by
     competent persons who have adequate information and instruction in the necessary
     procedures and techniques. Maintenance records must be completed and kept for high
     risk equipment.

     If plant and equipment is hired, the responsibilities for maintenance and inspections
     must be documented. The Hire Company is responsible for this and the
     School/Directorate using the hire equipment must ensure that these have been
     carried out and also retain copies of all records.


3.   Inspection

     Management action required:

     In addition to any pre-use checks by operators, certain (complex and automated) work
     equipment must be formally inspected by a competent person where there is a
     foreseeable risk of major injury resulting from incorrect installation or re-installation,
     deterioration or other exceptional situations. Such inspections would include, as
     appropriate, visual checks, functional checks and running and load testing for the
     purposes of safety.

     Where work equipment is of a type where the safe operation is critically dependent on it
     being properly installed (or re-installed in a new location), Schools and Departments
     must arrange for a suitable inspection to be carried out before it is used.

     Records must be kept of inspections and thorough examinations.

     Guidance:
     The thorough examination of particular equipment required under specific legislation will
     normally suffice for the above inspections; ie the six monthly thorough examination of


                                              4
          equipment used for lifting people (eg hoists) as specified under Lifting Operations and
          Lifting Equipment Regulations.

          Maintenance, inspection, repairs or adjustments to specified equipment may need to be
          undertaken using a ‘permit to work system’ and in any case a safe system of work and/or
          method statement will usually be required.


4.        Information and Instruction

          Management action required:

          Schools and Directorates must make all relevant safety information available and, where
          appropriate, written instructions on the use of work equipment to their staff.

          This information must be provided to maintenance workers and supervisors as well
          as operators. Staff must have ready access to such information and instructions. The
          information should be in a format they can comprehend.

          Guidance:
          Information and instructions must cover:-

                 • health and safety aspects arising out of the use of work equipment;
                 • any limitations on these uses;
                 • any foreseeable difficulties that could arise and the methods to deal with them;
                 • any important safety considerations that have been learned from experience.

          Instructions can be from suppliers, in-house documents or from training courses and may
          be in a range of formats from instruction sheets to warning labels to training manuals.
          Information can be provided in writing, or verbally if considered sufficient.

          The form that instruction takes therefore depends on the complexity of the equipment.
          Management will need to take into account any staff or students with language difficulties
          which could make it difficult for them to understand the information or instruction. Special
          arrangements will need to be made in these circumstances.

     5.   Training

          Management action required:

          Schools and Directorates must provide training on safe methods of use to control or
          eliminate any risks associated with work equipment. Such training must be provided to
          staff who supervise the use of work equipment as well as operators.

          Guidance:
          Training will be necessary:-

                    on recruitment;
                    when new technology or equipment is introduced;
                    if the system of work changes;
                    as a refresher.

                                                   5
     The nature of the training will depend on the job, the equipment and the experience of
     the member of staff with the key aim to achieve competency, eg

           particular care must be taken in the training and supervision of students, taking
            into account lack of experience, lack of awareness and immaturity;
           self-propelled work equipment must only be driven by appropriately trained
            competent drivers;
           some work equipment such as chainsaws must only be operated by staff who
            have received training relevant to the work they undertake.

6.   Specific Risks

     Guidance:
     Where work equipment generally poses negligible or low risk, eg some office equipment
     and tool box tools and a detailed assessment is not required, arrangements must still be
     made to ensure that:

           it is suitable for the work to be undertaken;
           it is only used for work for which, and under conditions for which, it is suitable;
           when selecting equipment account is taken of working conditions and hazards in
            the workplace;
           the equipment carries the CE mark or other safety standards, where applicable;
           operators have sufficient information, instruction and training in its safe use;
           it is maintained in an efficient state, in good working order and good repair;
           ensuring that the equipment is ‘electrically’ safe for use, ie PAT tested;
           its use is incorporated in a generic risk assessment for the particular task(s)
            involved.

     Where equipment and/or procedures poses a more significant risk, eg autoclaves,
     centrifuges, woodworking machines, robots, cranes, lasers, or equipment producing
     significant noise and vibration levels, a specific and more comprehensive risk
     assessment must be completed, incorporating reference to:

           the specific hazards identified and their control by mechanical or engineered
            solutions, e.g. guards, interlocks, barriers, brakes, screens, distance, isolation
            etc;
           the specific provisions and emergency procedures made to prevent work
            equipment rupturing, disintegrating, depressurising unintentionally, implosion,
            explosion, overheating or catching fire, making unintended or premature
            discharge of any substance or articles or any such item or substance falling or
            being ejected from the equipment;
           compliance with the specific requirements (ACOPS and Guidance) of the relevant
            legislation;
           any personal protective equipment (PPE) where identified;
           the operators having sufficient information, instruction, training and supervision in
            its safe use; are familiar with the outcome of the risk assessment and working
            under the safe system of work or permit to work for operating the equipment;
           electrical equipment should have been tested as per Portable Appliance Testing
            (PAT) requirements and be labelled to indicate when it was last tested;


                                              6
            those supervising or managing the operators of such work equipment must have
             also received appropriate information, instructions and training;
            the equipment must be CE marked, where appropriate;
            a suitable maintenance and servicing programme being in place;
            any statutory inspection or testing requirements undertaken by competent
             persons;
            Noise and vibration levels; and the measures to control and reduce them to safe
             levels.

     Examples of completed work equipment risk assessments are provided in Appendix 1.

7.   Acquisition of Equipment

     Management action required:

     Schools and Directorates must ensure that equipment provided for use for the first time
     since 31st December 1992 complies with The Supply of Machinery (Safety) Regulations
     1992 (as amended).

     Guidance:
     In practice this requires Schools and Directorates to check that equipment carries a CE
     marking; and where appropriate is accompanied by relevant certificates or declarations,
     together with adequate operating instructions, and information about residual hazards
     such as noise and vibration.

     It is possible that work equipment purchased from outside the EU will not comply with EU
     health and safety legislation. Purchasers should seek advice of the Safety Service and/or
     Estates Department on such equipment.

8.   Specific Hazards

     Management action required:

     All Schools and Directorates must prevent (or if that is not possible, control) the exposure
     of staff using work equipment to any of the following hazards:

            dangerous articles or substances falling from, being ejected from or produced by
             the work equipment;
            rupture or disintegration of equipment;
            equipment catching fire;
            explosion of equipment or substances used or stored within it;
            high or very low temperatures;
            lack of stability of work equipment;
            unforeseen events requiring rapid response with emergency stops controls
            insufficient lighting.

     A work equipment safety checklist (Appendix 2) is provided as an aide memoir to assist
     Schools and Directorates when considering these specific hazards.




                                              7
8.1 Dangerous Parts of Machinery

   Guidance:
   Risks arising from mechanical hazards must be assessed and effective measures
   taken to prevent contact with dangerous parts of machinery, eg cutters/blades/belts or
   any moving parts of the machinery. In order to prevent access to dangerous parts or
   to stop the movement of any dangerous part before any part of a person enters a
   danger zone.

   There is a hierarchy of control measures to be taken which can be a combination of:

        (i) fixed enclosing guards;
        (ii) other guards or protection devices;
        (iii) protection appliances (e.g. jigs, holders, push sticks);
        (iv) provision of information, instruction, training & supervision.

        The features of guards & protection devices must be:

               suitable and sufficient;
               of good construction, sound material of adequate strength;
               maintained in an efficient safe working order & in good repair;
               not to be easily by-passed or disabled;
               at sufficient distance from the danger zone (i.e. to comply with appropriate
                safe reach distances);
               not to unduly restrict the view of the operating cycle of the machinery,
                where such a view is necessary;
               not increase risks to health or safety particularly when maintenance,
                adjustment or inspection is in progress.

8.2 Temperatures

   Guidance:
   The risk from contact with hot or very cold work equipment, parts of work equipment
   or articles/substances within the equipment must be assessed, particularly where
   engineering measures are unable or are impractical to be taken to control the risk.
   Alternative forms of protection must be considered, eg use of personal protective
   equipment (heat resistant gloves), training and supervision, operating instructions and
   warning signs.

8.3 Stability

   Guidance:
   Work equipment should be made stable, where appropriate by fixing to the ground,
   clamping or being tied, eg ladders should be tied or footed whilst in use. Most
   machines used in a fixed position should be bolted or otherwise fastened down.
   Certain types of mobile equipment can have their stability increased, eg by the use of
   outriggers on mobile tower scaffolds or Mobile Elevated Work Platforms (MEWPS).
   Gas cylinders and manifolds must be chained, secured or guarded to prevent for
   example, toppling or collisions.




                                           8
8.4 Lighting

   Guidance:
   Lighting within the work place should be suitable and sufficient for the work tasks.
   Ideally this should be by ambient lighting, however, if tasks involve perception of
   detail, additional local lighting should be provided. Temporary lighting for use when
   carrying out maintenance, construction or repairs may also be necessary, e.g. use of
   portable lamps, torches or generators.

8.5 Controls

   Guidance:
   Where work equipment has no moving parts or where the risk of injury is negligible,
   stop, start and emergency stop controls are not generally appropriate. Equipment and
   machinery must be supplied with appropriate controls (dials, switches, knobs,
   screens, indicators, handles, levers) which should be properly marked or colour coded
   to indicate their use or status. In turn, these devices may be connected to interlock
   door catches, ‘dead man’s handles’, automatic cut outs, or similar, as appropriate.

   With electrical equipment, devices which break the circuit (eg residual current
   devices) may already be in use for hazardous operations, for example, electrically
   powered lawn mowers. Where equipment is powered by human effort, the provision of
   controls may be inappropriate, eg hand drills. Where work equipment is powered by
   means other than human effort (wind or solar power, for example) or has moving
   parts, the provision of start, stop and emergency stop controls must still be
   considered.

   Starting should only be possible by operating a control button/switch/key or initiation
   sequence command. The start function can be combined with a stop control, a ‘hold to
   run’ device, eg machine foot control. Operating the start control may not immediately
   start the equipment as this may still require additional conditions to be met, eg
   protection devices locked in place.

   Stop controls are intended to bring equipment to a safe condition in a safe manner.
   Operating the stop control may not instantaneously stop equipment. For operational
   and safety reasons it may be necessary to allow equipment to run to the end of an
   operating cycle, deactivate or power down; this may take some time.

   Emergency stop controls should be provided within reach of the operator, where other
   safeguards are not adequate to prevent danger. They are intended as a rapid
   response to potentially dangerous situations. They should not be used as functional
   stops during normal operation, and must have priority over start and operating
   controls.

   Where start, stop and emergency stop controls are provided, they should be fully
   functional and maintained. Controls should be clearly seen and easily accessible but
   also ergonomically designed so as to prevent accidental operation. It should be
   possible to easily identify what each control does and on which equipment function it
   takes effect.




                                        9
     8.6 Isolation

        Guidance:
        Where appropriate, powered work equipment should be provided with suitable means
        to isolate it from sources of energy, to allow it to be made safe for maintenance or
        adjustment or if an unsafe condition develops, eg overheating. For some equipment,
        isolation can be achieved by simply removing the plug from the electrical supply
        socket. Other equipment may require an isolating switch or valve to be operated at a
        remote or distant location.

        To avoid unsafe reconnection, the switch or valve may need to be locked off, eg
        during maintenance or cleaning operations. Emergency stop devices should not be
        used solely as a means of isolating equipment in order to adjust, service or maintain
        the equipment or machine. Permit to Work systems must be considered and
        implemented as needs be.

9.   Markings

     Management action required:

     Where significant risks exist, work equipment must be marked in a clearly visible manner.

     Guidance:
     Work equipment must be clearly marked or provided with clearly visible instructions and
     colouring that is appropriate as a warning for health and safety reasons, eg an abrasive
     wheel must be marked with its maximum rotation speed, stop and start controls on
     machines need to be identified. Gas service pipes should be colour coded and marked
     with pressures and direction of flow.

10. Warnings

     Guidance:
     Where risks to health and safety remain after other control measures have been
     implemented, it may be appropriate to use warnings or warning devices, usually in the
     form of a notice or similar, giving:

            positive instruction, eg hearing protection or eye protection must be worn;
            prohibition, eg no smoking/no entry;
            restriction warning, e.g. authorised users only.

     Any signs must conform to the Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals)
     Regulations1996. Audible signals may also be appropriate and are sometimes fitted as
     standard, eg vehicles with an audible reversing alarm.

11. Mobile Work Equipment

     PUWER has a number of Regulations specific to mobile work equipment, which apply in
     addition to the general requirements.

     Schools and Directorates that use mobile work equipment should consult the Approved
     Code of Practice (“Safe Use of Work Equipment”) and the management guidance
     document on Mobile Work Equipment available on the Safety Service web site.

                                             10
      Management should ensure that arrangements are in place to address the hazards listed
      in the guidance where it applies to mobile work equipment they use.

12.   Regulations and Guidance

      1. Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (Northern Ireland) 1999.

      2. L22 Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations Approved Code of Practice
         and Guidance.

      3. L114 Safe use of Woodworking Machinery, Provision and Use of Work Equipment
         Regulations as applied to woodworking machinery, Approved Code of Practice and
         Guidance (1998).

      4. L112 Safe Use of Power Presses, Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations
         as applied to power presses, Approved Code of Practice and Guidance.

      5. L113 Safe Use of Lifting Equipment, Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment
         Regulations (LOLER) 1998, Approved Code of Practice and Guidance.

      6. INDG291 Simple guide to the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations.

      7. Health and Safety - The Supply of Machinery (Safety Regulations) 2008.

      8. Preventing falls from boom-type mobile elevating work platforms, HSE information
         sheet Misc 614

      9. Five steps to risk assessment leaflet INDG163 (1998) Health and Safety Executive.


The above list of HSE Regulations and Guidance is available from the link provided to the
Occupational     Health     and     Safety Information    Service    (OHSIS)     database
http://www.qub.ac.uk/directorates/HumanResources/OccupationalHealthandSafety/Information/T
echnicalIndexesOnline/




                                            11
                                                                Appendix 1

Examples of Risk Assessments

Example 1:   Laboratory centrifuge

Example 2:   Laboratory autoclave

Example 3:   Horizontal/vertical milling machine


NB:   These risk assessments are example documents only and are not intended to be
      definitive.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Appendix 1
School/Department/Unit: Biological Sciences                                                         Work activity: Use of Micro and Ultracentrifuges in Biological Sciences

Assessment completed by: A N Other                                                                  Date completed: June 2011                                                     Review Period: 1 year




                                                                                                                                            (L,M,H, VH)
                                                                                                                                             Risk Level
                                                                                                                       Likelihood
                                  Persons




                                                                                                                                                                                                       Final risk
                                                                                                    Severity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Action by




                                                                                                                                                                                                         rating
                                  exposed                 Existing Control Measures                                                                          Additional controls required to




                                                                                                               (1-4)


                                                                                                                                    (1-4)
      Hazard/risk                                                                                                                                                                                                      whom
                                (who might be            (what are you already doing)                                                                      achieve an acceptable level of risk
      description                                                                                                                                                                                                    & by when
                                  harmed)

                                                    Centrifuges are electrically inspected
                               Staff and students
                                                    annually and have a current PAT test
Electricity – electric         using the
                                                    label to indicate it is electrically safe.                                                            Damaged units are not to be used until
shock from contact with        centrifuges,                                                                                                                                                                         Operator prior
                                                    Centrifuges are visually inspected                    4                    1              M           examined by a competent person.                 L
live electrical parts, fire,   contractors who                                                                                                                                                                         to use
                                                    (including the electrical cable) before
explosion.                     perform
                                                    each use and damaged units reported to
                               maintenance.
                                                    the Laboratory supervisor.

                                                                                                                                                          Check safety switches so that the                         Operator prior
                                                    Use of the centrifuge is restricted to
                                                                                                                                                          centrifuge lid cannot be opened while the                 to use
                                                    persons who have been trained in its
Dislodged material –                                                                                                                                      centrifuge is spinning.
                               Staff and students   operation by an experienced person. Only
potential injury from
                               using the            equipment designed to withstand the
material escaping from                                                                                                                                    SOP’s to be located on or near the                        A N Other
                               centrifuge, other    centrifuge process must be used.                      3                    1              M                                                           L
the centrifuge during                                                                                                                                     centrifuge and be followed at all times.                  June 2011
                               persons in the       Glasses, lab coats and when required
operation.
                               vicinity.            gloves are worn when operating a
                                                                                                                                                          Do’s and Don’ts sign to be posted at the                  A N Other
                                                    centrifuge.
                                                                                                                                                          centrifuge stressing the importance of                    June 2011
                                                                                                                                                          balancing tubes.
                                                    No person is permitted to operate the
                                                    centrifuge without first receiving
                                                    instruction in the safe use of the particular
People – Use of                                                                                                                                           Arrange for trainee’s to be supervised
                               Staff, students      model/type of centrifuge. Laboratory                                                                                                                              A N Other
equipment by                                                                                                                                              while performing the first number of runs.
inexperienced or
                               and others in the    supervisors/managers ensure that                      4                    1              M                                                           L           (at start of
                               vicinity.            persons under their control using                                                                                                                                  training)
untrained operator.
                                                    centrifuges have been trained by an
                                                    experienced person. Records of training
                                                    are maintained.




                                                                                               13
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Appendix 1




                                                                                                                                        (L,M,H, VH)
                                                                                                                                         Risk Level
                                                                                                                   Likelihood
                               Persons




                                                                                                                                                                                                  Final risk
                                                                                                Severity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Action by




                                                                                                                                                                                                    rating
                               exposed                 Existing Control Measures                                                                         Additional controls required to




                                                                                                           (1-4)


                                                                                                                                (1-4)
     Hazard/risk                                                                                                                                                                                                  whom
                             (who might be            (what are you already doing)                                                                     achieve an acceptable level of risk
     description                                                                                                                                                                                                & by when
                               harmed)
Mechanical –
Mechanical failure of                            Only trained operators are authorised to
rotating parts may                               use centrifuges. Centrifuges are serviced
                            Staff and students                                                                                                        SOP’s to be located on or near the
cause major damage to                            by competent persons in accordance with
                            using the                                                                                                                 centrifuge and be followed at all times.
the machine. Rotor                               the manufacturer’s guidance. Operators
                            centrifuge, other                                                         3                    2              M           Do’s and Don’ts sign to be posted at the       L           As above
imbalance causes                                 are instructed to report all equipment
                            persons in the                                                                                                            centrifuge stressing the importance of
centrifuge movement or                           faults. A log is kept of rotor usage for the
                            vicinity.                                                                                                                 balancing tubes.
malfunction.                                     ultracentrifuge and rotors replaced as per
                                                 manufacturers’ guidance.


                                                                                                                                                      SOP’s to be located on or near the                        A N Other
                                                 Only trained operators are authorised to
Mechanical – Injuries       Staff and students                                                                                                        centrifuge and be followed at all times.                  June 2011
                                                 use centrifuges All centrifuges are fitted
caused by contact with      using the
                                                 with an interlocking device which prevents
                                                                                                      3                    1              M                                                          L
moving parts.               centrifuge.                                                                                                               Check safety switches so that centrifuge                 Operator prior
                                                 the lid opening while in operation.
                                                                                                                                                      lid cannot be opened while in operation.                    to use

Chemical – chemical         Staff and students   All persons using the centrifuge are
                                                                                                                                                      SOP’s to be located on or near the
reaction caused by          using the            trained in its operation by an experienced
                                                                                                                                                      centrifuge and be followed at all times.
leaking samples or from     centrifuges,         person. A person must be supervised
                                                                                                                                                                                                                A N Other
contact with vapours        contractors who      while performing the first number of runs.
                                                                                                                                                      Do’s and Don’ts sign must be posted at                    June 2011
and contaminated            perform              Only equipment designed to withstand the
                                                                                                                                                      the centrifuge stressing the importance
components.                 maintenance.         centrifuge process must be used.                     2                    2              M
                                                                                                                                                      of balancing tubes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     L
                                                 Glasses, gloves and lab coats must be
                                                 worn when operating a centrifuge. Any
                                                 spills must be cleaned up immediately
                                                                                                                                                      Check safety switches so that the                          Operator
                                                                                                                                                      centrifuge lid cannot be opened while the
                                                 using the appropriate spill procedure.
                                                                                                                                                      centrifuge is spinning.
Biological – release of     Staff and students   Trained operatives are instructed to follow
biological material being   using the            the SOP and to use the appropriate
centrifuged.                centrifuge, other    centrifuge tube and to ensure the tube is                                                            SOP’s to be located near the centrifuge
                            persons in the       sealed.                                              3                    2              M
                                                                                                                                                      and to be followed at all times.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    M            Operator
                            vicinity.




                                                                                           14
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Appendix 1




                                                                                                                                        (L,M,H, VH)
                                                                                                                                         Risk Level
                                                                                                                   Likelihood
                              Persons




                                                                                                                                                                                                   Final risk
                                                                                                Severity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Action by




                                                                                                                                                                                                     rating
                              exposed                   Existing Control Measures                                                                         Additional controls required to




                                                                                                           (1-4)


                                                                                                                                (1-4)
     Hazard/risk                                                                                                                                                                                                   whom
                            (who might be              (what are you already doing)                                                                     achieve an acceptable level of risk
     description                                                                                                                                                                                                 & by when
                              harmed)
Manual Handling –          Staff and students     Persons moving the equipment are
musculoskeletal injuries   moving                 trained in manual handling techniques.                                                               Staff to attend manual handling refresher                A N Other
caused by manually         equipment.             Mechanical aids are used where                                                                       training.                                                Nov 2011
handling centrifuges                              necessary when heavy equipment is
and their component                               being manoeuvred. Expectant mothers
                                                                                                      3                    2              M                                                           L
parts ie rotors which                             are instructed not to move heavy
can be heavy.                                     equipment and to seek assistance when
                                                  replacing heavy rotors.
                                                  Centrifuge is placed on flat bench away
                                                  from the edge. Operator ensures                                                                      Laboratory Supervisor to monitor usage.                  A Supervisor
Movement of centrifuge
                                                  centrifuge is loaded correctly and rotor is
Injuries/damage caused     Operator and
by centrifuge falling      others in vicinity.
                                                  balanced on start-up. Faults in equipment           3                    1              M                                                          M          Daily
                                                  are reported by operatives and faulty
from lab bench.
                                                  equipment is labelled and removed from
                                                  use.




                                             Likelihood                                                            Risk Rating                                                           Action
    Severity
                       Unlikely        Possible        Likely      Very likely                     Score                                    Risk Level
Very Minor                 1                2             3             4                              1-2                                            Low         No further action necessary
Minor                      2                4             6             8                              3-6                                    Medium              Although tolerable – monitor activity
Significant                3                6             9             12                             8-9                                        High            Further measures required
Major                      4                8            12             16                        12-16                                     Very High             Immediate action required – cease activity




                                                                                           15
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Appendix 1
                                                                                              Work activity: Use of autoclave (steam pressure vessel) for the sterilisation of
School/Department/Unit: Biological Sciences                                                   laboratory materials and equipment that may or may not be contaminated with
                                                                                              biological agents/material.
Assessment completed by: A N Other                                                            Date completed: October 2011                                                 Review Period: 1 year




                                                                                                                                      (L,M,H, VH)
                                                                                                                                       Risk Level
                                                                                                                 Likelihood
                             Persons




                                                                                                                                                                                               Final risk
                                                                                              Severity
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Action by




                                                                                                                                                                                                 rating
                             exposed                Existing Control Measures                                                                          Additional controls required to




                                                                                                         (1-4)


                                                                                                                              (1-4)
      Hazard/risk                                                                                                                                                                                              whom
                           (who might be           (what are you already doing)                                                                      achieve an acceptable level of risk
      description                                                                                                                                                                                            & by when
                             harmed)

                                              Autoclaves are electrically inspected
                                              annually and have a current PAT test
                                              label to indicate it is electrically safe.
                                              Autoclaves     are    visually    inspected
                                              (including the electrical cable) before
Electricity – potential   Staff using the     each use and damaged units reported to
for electric shock from   autoclave,          the Laboratory Supervisor.                                                                            Faulty/damaged units are to be labelled
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Operator prior
contact with live         contractors who     Equipment is serviced by the approved                 4                    1              M           and are not to be used until examined by      L            to use.
electrical parts, fire,   perform             maintenance       contractor     as     per                                                           a competent person.
explosion.                maintenance.        maintenance schedule and manufacturers
                                              recommendations. Control panels are
                                              checked before setting up the autoclave.
                                              Any faults with the autoclave are reported
                                              to the person in charge of the laboratory.

                                              No person is permitted to operate the                                                                 Trainee’s to be supervised by a
                                              autoclave       without    first   receiving                                                          competent authorised user while first
People – Use of                               instruction in the safe use of the particular                                                         operating the autoclave.
                          Staff, students
equipment by                                  model/type of autoclave.
inexperienced or
                          and others in the
                                              Records of training are maintained.
                                                                                                    3                    1              M
                                                                                                                                                    A log of persons and authorised to use        L           A N Other
                          vicinity.
untrained operator.                           Instructions for the use of autoclaves are                                                            the autoclave is to be maintained by the
                                              clearly displayed on or adjacent to the                                                               laboratory manager.
                                              unit.

Infection or                                  All items are sealed in appropriate
contamination of                              autoclave bags. Ownership of the bags is
                          Staff, students,                                                                                                          Procedure to be followed in event of
persons and or
                          others.
                                              recorded in a log book. A failure to                  3                    1              M
                                                                                                                                                    alarm activation to be included in SOP.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 M            A N Other
environment through                           sterilise is indicated on the alarm panel of
failure to sterilise.                         the autoclave.




                                                                                         16
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Appendix 1




                                                                                                                                       (L,M,H, VH)
                                                                                                                                        Risk Level
                                                                                                                  Likelihood
                               Persons




                                                                                                                                                                                              Final risk
                                                                                               Severity
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Action by




                                                                                                                                                                                                rating
                               exposed                 Existing Control Measures                                                                        Additional controls required to




                                                                                                          (1-4)


                                                                                                                               (1-4)
     Hazard/risk                                                                                                                                                                                             whom
                             (who might be            (what are you already doing)                                                                    achieve an acceptable level of risk
     description                                                                                                                                                                                           & by when
                               harmed)

                                                 Operatives are trained and use the
                                                 autoclave in strict accordance with the
                                                 manufacturer’s      instructions.   Safety
                                                 devices are provided, including a safety
Trauma      injury     by                        valve to prevent over-pressurisation of the
explosive displacement                           vessel, a steam pressure indicator valve                                                            Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s)
(failure of vessel) or                           and, where steam is internally generated,                                                           are to be provided to operators and a
opening of a door or lid    Staff, students,     a water level indicator and low-level                                                               copy located adjacent to the unit.
whilst vessel is still at   others               alarm. A door closure mechanism, with
                                                                                                     3                    1              M                                                       L         A N Other
high temperature and                             interlock device is provided to prevent                                                             Emergency procedures to be included in
under pressure.                                  pressurisation of the vessel unless the                                                             SOP.
                                                 door is securely closed.
                                                 The autoclave is inspected annually by a
                                                 competent person in accordance with the
                                                 written scheme of examination and test.

                                                 All users are trained by an approved
Eye/body injuries
                                                 instructor before using the equipment.
should explosion of
                                                 Face protection (visors), lab coats and
sealed vessels              Staff, students,                                                                                                         Training to be documented and records
containing super-heated     others in vicinity
                                                 gloves are provided and are worn when               3                    1              M
                                                                                                                                                     kept.
                                                                                                                                                                                                M          A N Other
                                                 using the autoclave. Operatives loosen or
liquids occur.
                                                 remove tight lids or seals prior to
                                                 autoclaving.
Puncture injury by                               Contaminated sharps are not autoclaved.
sharps protruding                                Use of personal protective equipment
through the walls of                             (PPE), including eye protection and
                                                                                                                                                     Supervisors to periodically monitor
autoclaved containers       Operatives           sturdy appropriate gloves, when placing             2                    2              M
                                                                                                                                                     wearing of PPE.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 L         A N Other
and exposure to                                  or removing material into or out of the
pathogens.                                       autoclave.

                                                 Appropriate hazard warning signage
                                                 indicating that the surface of the
Scalding by hot liquids
                                                 autoclave may be hot is positioned
vaporised liquid or                                                                                                                                  Supervisors to periodically monitor
steam.
                            Operatives           adjacent to the unit.                               2                    2              M
                                                                                                                                                     wearing of PPE.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 L         A N Other
                                                 Heat resistant gloves are provided for
                                                 operatives. Aprons are provided to protect
                                                 from spillages.




                                                                                          17
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Appendix 1




                                                                                                                                    (L,M,H, VH)
                                                                                                                                     Risk Level
                                                                                                               Likelihood
                             Persons




                                                                                                                                                                                                  Final risk
                                                                                            Severity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Action by




                                                                                                                                                                                                    rating
                             exposed                  Existing Control Measures                                                                       Additional controls required to




                                                                                                       (1-4)


                                                                                                                            (1-4)
     Hazard/risk                                                                                                                                                                                                  whom
                           (who might be             (what are you already doing)                                                                   achieve an acceptable level of risk
     description                                                                                                                                                                                                & by when
                             harmed)

Burns by touching hot
                                                When removing material from an
contents of autoclave or
                                                autoclave heat proof gloves and a face                                                             Supervisors to periodically monitor
metal parts of                 Operatives
                                                shield are worn. Operatives instructed to
                                                                                                  2                    2              M
                                                                                                                                                   wearing of PPE.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     L           A N Other
autoclave.
                                                report defects in PPE.

Manual Handling –                               Persons involved in autoclave use are                                                              Provide refresher training in manual                        Course
musculoskeletal injuries                        trained in manual handling techniques.                                                             handling for autoclave operators.                           arranged for
caused by manually                              Access around the autoclave is kept clear                                                                                                                      Dec 2012
handling autoclave                              to allow unimpeded access.                                                                         Lab Supervisors to periodically monitor
baskets and materials                           Assistance is obtained when moving                                                                 the autoclave room/area to ensure good                      A N Other
which can be heavy.
                               Operatives
                                                bench autoclaves.
                                                                                                  3                    1              M
                                                                                                                                                   housekeeping is maintained.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     L
                                                Trolleys are used to move items.
                                                Operators are instructed to stack
                                                autoclaves carefully and not to overload.




                                            Likelihood                                                         Risk Rating                                                               Action
    Severity
                       Unlikely      Possible        Likely     Very likely                    Score                                    Risk Level
Very Minor                 1                2            3           4                             1-2                                            Low         No further action necessary
Minor                      2                4            6           8                             3-6                                    Medium              Although tolerable – monitor activity
Significant                3                6            9          12                             8-9                                        High            Further measures required
Major                      4                8          12           16                        12-16                                     Very High             Immediate action required – cease activity




                                                                                       18
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Appendix 1

School/Department/Unit: Engineering Workshop                                                   Work activity: Use of milling machines for horizontal and vertical milling

Assessment completed by: A N Other                                                             Date completed: November 2011                                                Review Period: 1 year




                                                                                                                                       (L,M,H, VH)
                                                                                                                                        Risk Level
                                                                                                                  Likelihood
                              Persons




                                                                                                                                                                                                Final risk
                                                                                               Severity
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Action by




                                                                                                                                                                                                  rating
                              exposed                Existing Control Measures                                                                          Additional controls required to




                                                                                                          (1-4)


                                                                                                                               (1-4)
     Hazard/risk                                                                                                                                                                                                whom
                            (who might be           (what are you already doing)                                                                      achieve an acceptable level of risk
     description                                                                                                                                                                                              & by when
                              harmed)

                                               Only trained and experienced operators
                                               authorised to use milling machines.
                                               Operators wear fully fastened lab coats –                                                             Detailed safe working procedures
                                               no loose clothing and hair tied back if                                                               (SOP’s) to be located on or near the                      A N Other
                                               appropriate.                                                                                          machine.
Mechanical – Injuries                                                                                                                                                                                          Workshop
                                               Jewellery and other items that could catch            4                                               The CNC milling machine is fitted with a
caused by contact with     Operator
                                               on projections are removed before start of
                                                                                                                          1              M
                                                                                                                                                     guard on the milling table. A safety
                                                                                                                                                                                                   L           manager
moving parts
                                               work.                                                                                                 micro-switch is to be fitted to prevent
                                               Machine fitted with table guard.                                                                      machine operation when the guard is                       Dec 2011
                                               Emergency stop controls are fitted to                                                                 open
                                               each machine and are within easy reach
                                               of the operator and clearly labelled.
Ejected parts/swarf –
                                               Safety glasses, visor or goggles are worn.                                                            Workshop supervisor to monitor control
potential injury from                                                                                                                                                                                        A.N. Other
                                               The machine drive is stopped when                                                                     measures
swarf or material/parts    Operator and
                                               clearing swarf from the work piece / work
ejected from the milling   other persons in                                                          3                    1              M                                                         L         (daily)
                                               area.
machine during             the vicinity
                                               A brush or rake is used to clear away
operation
                                               swarf.

                                               No person is permitted to operate the
                                               milling machine without first receiving
                                               instruction in the safe use of the particular
                                               machine.
                                               Trainees are only permitted to work under
People – Use of
                           Staff, students     close supervision
equipment by
inexperienced or
                           and others in the                                                         4                    1              M                                                        M            A N Other
                           vicinity            Workshop supervisors/managers ensure
untrained operator
                                               that persons under their control using
                                               milling machines have been trained by an
                                               experienced person. Records of training
                                               are maintained.
                                               Access to the workshop area is restricted.


                                                                                          19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Appendix 1




                                                                                                                                            (L,M,H, VH)
                                                                                                                                             Risk Level
                                                                                                                       Likelihood
                              Persons




                                                                                                                                                                                                       Final risk
                                                                                                    Severity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Action by




                                                                                                                                                                                                         rating
                              exposed                   Existing Control Measures                                                                             Additional controls required to




                                                                                                               (1-4)


                                                                                                                                    (1-4)
     Hazard/risk                                                                                                                                                                                                       whom
                            (who might be              (what are you already doing)                                                                         achieve an acceptable level of risk
     description                                                                                                                                                                                                     & by when
                              harmed)

Mechanical –                                      Only trained operators are authorised to
Mechanical failure of                             use machines. Machines are
                           Operators and
rotating parts may                                serviced/maintained by competent
cause major damage to
                           other persons in
                                                  persons in accordance with the
                                                                                                          3                    2              M                                                          M            As above
                           the vicinity
the machine.                                      manufacturer’s guidance. Operators are
                                                  instructed to report all equipment faults.
                                                  Oil resistant gloves are worn when filling
Chemical –contact with     Operators and,         oil reservoir / cleaning machine /dealing
soluble cutting oil and    contractors who        with spills. Any spills are cleaned up
contaminated               perform                immediately using the appropriate spill                                                                  Copy of the material data sheet for the
components/work piece      maintenance            procedure. A spill kit is retained in the                                                                cutting oil to be retained.                                A N Other
and potential risk of                             workshop.
                                                                                                          3                    1              M
                                                                                                                                                           (refer specific COSHH risk assessment
                                                                                                                                                                                                         M            Nov 2011
dermatitis.                                       Hands are washed thoroughly after                                                                        for disposal of cutting fluid)
                                                  accidental contact with oil and at breaks
                                                  and before eating. Contaminated clothing
                                                  is removed and laundered.

                                                  The tooling used is designed to deliver a
Chemical - Inhalation                             minimum quantity of cutting fluid precisely
of aerosol (mists)
                           Operators
                                                  onto the work piece avoiding mist
                                                                                                          3                    1              M                                                          M
                                                  generation

Manual Handling –
musculoskeletal injuries                                                                                                                                                                                            A N Other
caused by manually                                Operators are trained in manual handling                                                                  Workshop manager to check that
handling work pieces                              Mechanical aids are provided and used                                                                    workshop staff attend refresher training
                           Operators
                                                  where necessary when heavy equipment
                                                                                                          3                    1              M
                                                                                                                                                           in manual handling every 3 years and
                                                                                                                                                                                                          L
and cutters which can
require frequent                                  is being manoeuvred                                                                                      retain records.
changing.


                                             Likelihood                                                                Risk Rating                                                            Action
    Severity
                        Unlikely       Possible        Likely       Very likely                        Score                                    Risk Level
Very Minor                 1              2               3              4                                 1-2                                            Low         No further action necessary
Minor                      2              4               6              8                                 3-6                                    Medium              Although tolerable – monitor activity
Significant                3              6               9             12                                 8-9                                        High            Further measures required
Major                      4              8              12             16                            12-16                                     Very High             Immediate action required – cease activity

                                                                                               20
                                                                                                                            Appendix 2
                                           Work Equipment Safety Checklist

This checklist should be used for all potentially hazardous equipment other than simple straight
forward equipment.
Where the answer is ‘No’ to any of the following questions, the remedial action should be noted
in the space provided at the bottom of the page.

School/Department: ........................................................................................................................

Location and Description of Equipment..........................................................................................

          Information, instruction and safe use
                  Are there written instructions covering:

            1
                  a) Any unusual hazards or complicated features?                                      Y                N               N/A

                  b) Where appropriate, emergency shutdown?                                            Y                N               N/A
                  a) Has instruction (written or verbal) on all hazards
                     been passed on to all those who use the                                           Y                N               N/A
                     equipment?
            2
                  b) Have any written instructions provided by the
                     manufacturer been passed on to users?
                                                                                                       Y                N               N/A

                  a) Have all users of equipment been given adequate
                     training in correct use, risks and precautions?
                                                                                                       Y                N               N/A
            3
                  b) Is there a list of authorised users or a training
                     record kept which verifies this?
                                                                                                       Y                N               N/A

                  a) Is the equipment being used in accordance with
            4        the manufacturer’s instructions?
                                                                                                       Y                N               N/A

                   b) If it has been adapted, is the adaption suitable
                      and safe?
                                                                                                       Y                N               N/A
                  Is the equipment being used in an appropriate
            5     environment? (consider – e.g. ventilation, damp,                                     Y                N               N/A
                  flammable conditions)
                  a) If the equipment is to be moved is the weight
            6        known?
                                                                                                       Y                N               N/A
                  b) Does the location allow the equipment to be used
                     safely? (consider space around moving parts and                                   Y                N               N/A
                     possible distractions to the operator)

            7     a) Are the start and stop controls clearly marked?                                   Y                N               N/A

                  b) Are other operating controls clearly marked?                                      Y                N               N/A
                  Are there clear warning notices or markings (eg to
            8     wear personal protective equipment, restriction on                                   Y                N               N/A
                  use, list of authorised users) where appropriate?
                  If the machinery was put on the market after
            9     01.01.95 does it carry the European “CE” mark?
                                                                                                       Y                N               N/A


                                                                   21
Maintenance/Inspection

      Are the following tested at appropriate intervals?
10    a) Electrical safety                                    Y   N   N/A
      b) Any safety devices                                   Y   N   N/A
11    a) Is the equipment inspected at regular intervals?     Y   N
      b) Are the inspections recorded?                        Y   N
      c) Is there a register of persons competent to carry
            out these inspections?
                                                              Y   N   N/A
      If inadequate maintenance could cause the
      equipment, guards or other safety related features to
      fail in a dangerous way, is there a system of planned
12    preventive maintenance, including where appropriate
                                                              Y   N   N/A
      the periodic replacement or refurbishing of items
      before they reach the end of their useful life?
      Have clear maintenance instructions been given to
13    those responsible for maintaining the equipment?
                                                              Y   N   N/A

      Have all maintenance operations been assessed for
14    risk?
                                                              Y   N   N/A

15    Is a register or other maintenance record kept?         Y   N   N/A

Specific Hazards

      Is protection adequate in relation to:
      a) Items falling from the equipment?                    Y   N   N/A
      a) Items being ejected?                                 Y   N   N/A
16    b) Overturning?                                         Y   N   N/A
      c) Collapse?                                            Y   N   N/A
      d) Overheating or fire?                                 Y   N   N/A
      e) Explosion?                                           Y   N   N/A
      Is the equipment made stable where appropriate by
17    bolting, clamping or tying?
                                                              Y   N   N/A

      Is there sufficient general and (where necessary)
18. local lighting?                                           Y   N   N/A

      a) Is there protection against hot or very cold
         temperature, so far as appropriate?
                                                              Y   N   N/A
19.   b) If the possibility of such contact is unavoidable
         has appropriate instruction and training been        Y   N   N/A
         given?

      In the case of pressurised equipment, is there a
20. written scheme of examination?                            Y   N   N/A




                                               22
      If gas, fume, dust or aerosols (eg mineral oil) is
      released when the equipment is used, is there:
21. a) Local exhaust ventilation, tested annually?             Y              N   N/A
      b) A COSHH specific assessment?                          Y              N   N/A

Dangerous Parts of Machinery

22. Are all parts of dangerous machinery guarded?              Y              N   N/A

23. Are all guards sound and in good working order?            Y              N   N/A

      Do the guards permit an adequate view of the
24. operation where this is necessary?                         Y              N   N/A

25. Is it difficult to bypass or disable the guards?           Y              N   N/A
      Can machinery only be started when a specific
      labelled start device is used? (Note: the normal cycle
26.   of automated machinery is exempt from this
                                                               Y              N   N/A
      requirement).
      Is there a readily assessable stop device which stops
27.   the machinery in a safe way?
                                                               Y              N   N/A
      Where appropriate (ie where in a foreseeable
28.   emergency it could help) is there a prominent easily     Y              N   N/A
      assessable emergency stop device?
29. Can controls be operated safely and easily?                Y              N   X
      Is there a system of work which ensures that nobody
30. is in a dangerous position when machinery is able to       Y              N   N/A
      be started?
      Does the start device need to be activated to restart
      the machine if:
31.   a) The power fails?                                      Y              N   N/A
      b) A control safety device fails to trip out?            Y              N   N/A
      Can the equipment be securely isolated from power,
                                                               (see note 2)
      to prevent inadvertent reconnection:
32. a) By removing a plug from a socket which is easily        Y              N   N/A
          visible to the person at risk? or
      b) By locking off?                                       Y              N   N/A
      If the power is isolated does the machinery come to
33.   rest safely without the possibility of access to         Y              N   N/A
      dangerous parts?
                                                                                  N/A
      For hand-powered tools, if vibration is noticeable,
34.   has it been assessed?
                                                               Y              N


Mobile work Equipment
      Are there clear and concise instructions forbidding
35.   the carriage of persons on mobile work equipment,
                                                               Y              N   N/A


                                              23
      unless the work equipment has been proved
      suitable?
      Has the equipment been assessed to ensure that all
36.   tasks can be carried out safely? (consider seat belts,          Y           N          N/A
      harnesses, cabs, falling object protection)
      Is the work equipment fitted with Roll over Protection
37.           where necessary?
                                                                      Y           N          N/A

      Is the drive shaft between the work equipment and
38.   any accessory adequately protected?
                                                                      Y           N          N/A

Lifting Equipment

      a)  Is the work equipment classified as ‘Lifting
         Equipment’?
                                                                      Y           N          X
39.   b) If “yes”, has an assessment under LOLER been
         completed? (refer to Estates Services                        Y           N          X
         Department for further guidance)

Woodworking Machinery
      Is suitable ‘limited cutter projection tooling’ used
40.   where necessary? (sometimes referred to as chip                 Y           N          N/A
      thickness tooling)
      a) Has the machine been assessed for the need to
           fit braking devices?
                                                                      Y           N          N/A
41.
      b) If braking devices are required, are they fitted?            Y           N          X
      Is the safe working speed or the minimum saw blade
42.           diameter displayed?
                                                                      Y           N          N/A
      a) Are anti kick back devices fitted to planning
           machines?
                                                                      Y           N          N/A
43.
      b) If not, are suitable notices displayed?                      Y           N          X




            Action to be taken                                 Action completed       Date
                                                                  (Signature)




                                            24

				
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