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Water_ electrolyte_ and acid-base balance

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					Water, electrolyte, and acid-base
             balance
        Distribution of body fluid
• Most fluid is inside the
  cells
• Interstitial- spaces
• Blood plasma
• Lymph
• “transcellular” fluid
• What is fluid?
   – Water and solutes
   – Fluid moves between
     compartments
What is in the body fluid?
    How does fluid move around?
• Hydrostatic pressure
  pushes fluid from
  plasma outward
• Colloid osmotic
  pressure brings it back
  to the plasma
Water balance: intake=output
           Electrolyte balance
• What are they
• Intake (dietary)
• Output:
  – Normal body excretion
  – Hormones
     • Aldosterone
     • Parathyroid hormone
  – Active transport in kidneys
Acid-base balance
Buffers help prevent acid-base
          imbalance
               • Chemical buffer systems
                 are present in blood
               • Physiological systems
                 act more slowly
What can cause acid-base imbalance?
 What are the symptoms of acid-base
             imbalance?
• Acidosis
   – CNS shuts down
   – Breathing, circulation affected
• Alkalosis
   – Dizziness
   – Agitation
   – Tingling sensations
• Imbalances in other electrolytes can also cause
  disease
   – Sodium imbalance affects CNS; potassium, muscles
                  Summary
• Water and electrolyte balances are critical for
  homeostasis
• Kidneys are especially important for
  “correcting” imbalances (the site of activity of
  many hormones)
• Physical, chemical and endocrine mechanisms
  are all required
            Review question 1
• In the body, most of the water is located in the
  :
  – A. blood
  – B. lymphatic vessels
  – C. cells
  – D. in the spaces between the cells
  – E. It is evenly distributed throughout the body
            Review question 2
• On average, most water is lost from the body
  through:
  – A. Sweating
  – B. Urine
  – C. As a component of feces
  – D. Breathing water vapor
  – E. Tears
            Review question 3
• Which of these digestive organs does not
  absorb water?
  – A. Stomach
  – B. Small intestine
  – C. Large intestine
  – D. Esophagus
  – E. They all absorb water
           Review question 4
• Which of these is not an electrolyte?
  – A. Sodium
  – B. Glucose
  – C. Chloride
  – D. Bicarbonate
  – E. Potassium

				
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posted:8/16/2012
language:English
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