The World War One Era

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					“The world must be made safe
for democracy. Its peace must
be planted upon the tested
foundations of political liberty.
We have no selfish ends to
serve. We desire no conquest,
no dominion. We seek no
indemnities for ourselves, no
material compensation for the
sacrifices we shall freely make.”
        -Woodrow Wilson (1917)



The World War I Era
1914-1920
        The World War I Era 1914-1920
The Guns of August: The Causes of the WWI

                          Militarism- The glorifying of military
                          power and keeping an army prepared for
                          war. Great countries require great
                          militaries. European arms race begins
                          (1890s). All of the great powers have
                          large militaries by 1914.

                          Alliances- Intended for security. All
                          of the great European powers had formed
                          alliances by 1914. Entangled alliances will
                          escalate a regional conflict into a world
                          war.



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        The World War I Era 1914-1920
The Guns of August: The Causes of the WWI

                        Imperialism- Competition for
                        colonies in Africa and Asia. Colonial
                        resources fueled the economies of the
                        homeland. Imperial competition caused
                        conflict.


                        Nationalism- Deep devotion to one’s
                        country. Can unify a country but also cause
                        rivalries and competition. Examples:
                        France had never forgotten the lost to
                        Germany(1870), Germany and Great
                        Britain competed economically, Austria and
                        Russia and competed for control of the
                        Balkans
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        The World War I Era 1914-1920
The Western Front: 1914-1917
                     The Schlieffen Plan- Germany attacked
                     France to support Austria against Russia. Great
                     Britain declared war on Germany after invasion of
                     Belgium and France. Germans stopped at Battle of
                     Marne. Germans must fight a two front war.


                    Stalemate- Both sides were equal in size and
                     strength. Tough to breakthrough.

                    Trench Warfare- Result of stalemate. Dig in
                     and hold territory. Old school tactics and modern
                     weapons = SLAUGHTER

                     U-boats vs. Blockade-           Great Britain
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                     blocks German ports. Germans respond by
                     unleashing U-boats (submarines)
        The World War I Era 1914-1920
The Modern Weapons of World War I



                                    The Tank




        Big Bertha

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        The World War I Era 1914-1920
The Modern Weapons of World War I


          U-Boats




                                    Zeppelins

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                              Airplanes
        The World War I Era 1914-1920
The Modern Weapons of World War I



                  Flame
                 Throwers



                  Machine
                   Gun               Grenade
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                                    Launchers
        The World War I Era 1914-1920
The Modern Weapons of World War I




                                    Poison
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                                     Gas
        The World War I Era 1914-1920
The Great War Begins: US is neutral but...
                                Central Powers in
                                America- 11 million Americans
                                could trace their ancestry to one of
                                the Central Powers’ countries.

                                Allied Powers in
                                America- US traded 2x as much
                                with France and England as they did
                                with Germany. Reports of German
                                atrocities (not all true) created anti-
                                German feelings. England and the US
                                shared a common ancestry.

                                Public likes- The Allied Powers.
                                The US was pulled out of a recession
                                by the French and British ($2.3
    9                           billion) Anti-German propaganda
                                wins.
         The World War I Era 1914-1920
War By Germany’s Actions: Steps to US Entry

                     Lusitania- (1915). German submarine sunk
                     British passenger ship. 1,198 killed (128
                     Americans). Germany claimed the ship was carrying
                     ammo (true) and warned Americans to stay off.


                     Sussex Pledge- (1916). Germany pledged
                     not to sink passenger ships and merchant ships
                     without giving a warning. Germany wanted the US
                     to modify the Allied blockade of Germany.


                     Unrestricted Sub Warfare- (1917).
                     Germany was desperate (people starving).
                     Announced unrestricted sub warfare in waters
                     around Britain. Germany knows this will pull the
    10               USA into the war. Germans hope to win before
                     America mobilizes.
         The World War I Era 1914-1920
War By Germany’s Actions: Steps to US Entry

                     Zimmerman Note- (1917). Telegram from
                     Germany’s foreign secretary to German ambassador
                     in Mexico. Germany would give Mexico Texas, New
                     Mexico, and Arizona if Mexico would ally itself with
                     Germany (this message was decoded by the
                     British).


                     War Declaration- Pushed by unrestricted
                     sub warfare (4 US ships sunk in March) and the
                     Zimmerman Note the US declared war on Germany
                     (April 1917). President Wilson declared that
                     America joined “to make the world safe for
                     democracy.”


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        The World War I Era 1914-1920
The US Economy Goes To War
             Preparation prior to 1917-Limited preparation
                began in 1915. Ship building program and increased
                Army size to 100.000 (15th in the world). No idea how
                much steel, gun powder, or other military supplies the US
                could produce


             War Industries Board-(1918). Created to end
                economic confusion. Headed by Bernard Baruch. Federal
                government controls: Raw materials, production, prices,
                labor relations, fuel, railroads, and maritime shipping.


             Food Administration-Headed by Herbert Hoover.
                Preferred voluntary compliance. Victory Gardens and
                meatless Mondays. Worked because of patriotism


             Treasury Department-Liberty Loan drives to “halt
   12           the Huns.” Raised $21 billion (2/3 of war costs).
                Remainder was raised by increased taxes
        The World War I Era 1914-1920
America Needs an Army
              Allies Need Troops-USA planned to only use the
                  navy, ship war materials, and give loans. Allies demand
                  US troops or else Western Front would collapse.


              The Draft-Disliked but believed necessary. All males 18-
                  45, no substitutes, key industry workers exempted. 4
                  million drafted. Minorities and women will serve (mainly
                  in non-combat roles).


              USA’s Contributions-Provided the Allies with food,
                  munitions, money, oil, and manpower. US troops only
                  fought 2 major battles (St. Mihiel and the Meuse-
                  Argonne, both in the last two months of the war). Size of
                  American army, not US performance demoralized the
                  Germans. US army depended on Allied supplies (artillery
                  and planes were British and French made) and
                  transportation
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          The World War I Era 1914-1920
World War I: Casualties


         10,000,000
          9,000,000                Russia
          8,000,000                Germany
          7,000,000                Austria-Hungary
          6,000,000                France
          5,000,000
          4,000,000                Great Britain
          3,000,000                Italy
          2,000,000                Turkey
          1,000,000                US
                  0

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     1918 Flu Pandemic:
     Depletes All Armies




  50,000,000 –
100,000,000 died
         The World War I Era 1914-1920
Enforcing Loyalty: America on the Home Front
                   German Americans- 8 million. Almost all were
                      loyal to USA. Rumors of German spies resulted in
                      hysteria (no German music, books removed from
                      libraries, German classes cancelled, hamburgers
                      became “liberty steak”)

                   Committee on Public Information-
                      Headed by George Creel. Job was to sell the war to
                      Americans. Propaganda posters, songs, movies, 4-
                      minute men, urged Americans to spy on neighbors

                   Espionage Act (1917)- Prohibited the
                      obstruction of military recruitment or promote
                      insubordination. Ordered Postmaster to censor the
                      mail. 20 year prison sentence.


                   Sedition Act (1918)- Crime to be anti-war.
                      Illegal to speak against buying Liberty Bonds, or
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                      curtail war effort. Anti-labor union.
         The World War I Era 1914-1920
Peace Without Victory: Wilson’s 14 Points

                       The First 5-Abolish secret treaties, freedom of
                       the seas, reduction of arms, adjust colonial claims,
                       independence (self-determination) for oppressed
                       minority groups

                       14th Point-International organization that
                       would provide a system of collective security (this is
                       the League of Nations)

                       Reaction-Wilson becomes the moral leader of
                       the Allies, inspired the Allies and demoralized the
                       enemy, starts the end of colonialism. Some Allies
                       wanted more territory (Italy and Japan), so they
                       hated the 14 Points.


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         The World War I Era 1914-1920
Treaty of Versailles (1919)-Get Ready for Hitler and el Duce

                       The Treaty-Germans were forced to sign
                       (June 1919). Included only 4 of Wilson’s points
                       (does include the League of Nations). The treaty is
                       about vengeance. The Allies (France and Great
                       Britain) hated Germany.

                       Germany’s Beatdown- 231 (War Guilt
                       Clause), Reparations ($33 Billion), Reduced army
                       (100,00 troops), limited navy (no u-boats), no
                       tanks, no long-range artillery, no conscription
                       (draft), France occupies the Rhineland, No alliance
                       with Austria, no colonies.

                       US Critics-Isolationists (Reservationists and
                       Irreconcilables) didn’t like the League of Nations.
                       German haters thought treaty was too soft. Liberals
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                       thought the treaty was too harsh. Bottom Line:
                       The US does not ratify the Treaty.

				
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posted:8/16/2012
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