The problem

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					      Strategies for Avoiding
Nancy Bou Ayyash   Caroline Wilkinson
To assist students in understanding plagiarism, it
is important to introduce and discuss different
definitions of the term.
“The technical
term for stealing
someone else’s
intellectual                       “
Literacy 41)
Students can Avoid Plagiarism by Understanding
the Concept of Patchwriting.

  Howard defines patchwriting as “copying from a
 source text and then deleting some words,
 altering grammatical structures, or plugging in
 one-for-one synonym-substitutes. If you submit
 work that is patchwritten, you will have done poor
 writing and will get a commensurately poor grade”
 (“Pentimento” 237).
Many Instructors Think Students Plagiarize
            for Two Reasons.
 An absence of ethics
 An ignorance of citation conventions
 Howard argues that plagiarism usually happens
 because of an unfamiliarity with terms and
  Terms like intentional and unintentional plagiarism
       explain why many students plagiarize.
                                          confusion about
                                     terminology, confusion about
 Intentional plagiarism-ease         expectations,misconceptions
  of information retrieval,                about plagiarism
  poor time management
  We think teaching the term common knowledge
  and the complexities of this term assist in avoiding

                Clear examples of
                common knowledge

names of
leaders of                               fundamental
                    basic scientific
prominent                                concepts in a
nations                                    discipline

  Many Cultures Possess Different
  Perceptions of Plagiarism and
  Copyright than the US
• In some cultures in Asia and the Middle East,
political or religious authorities are quoted without
attribution because readers are expected to know
what texts are being circulated.

   •Italian students viewed copying from sources as acceptable
   and a mark of respect or flattery the to original author.

       • Asian students, whose cultures have a more collective sense of
       identity, have a difficulty grasping issues of copyright and distinctions
       between individual and public property.

                            EVANS, F.B. AND YOUMANS, M., 2000. ESL writers discuss plagiarism: the social
                            construction of ideologies. Journal of Education, 182 (3), 49-65.
     Plagiarism Detection Software and
     Systems are solutions that have
     been utilized before, but are not
     necessarily effective.
• Criticisms about change of emphasis from
teaching about plagiarism and working with
sources to policing plagiarism

• Calls among several rhetoric and
composition specialists pedagogical pursuits
rather than punitive ones (Rebecca Howard;
James Purdy, etc.)
   Instructors can Use Alternative Ways
   for Preventing Plagiarism
Creating unique writing prompts where students are unlikely to find suitable
work to copy

Varying assignments or assigned readings each time the same course is

Assigning specific readings or materials that students must use in
completing their writing assignment

Breaking large projects or research papers into a series of milestone
assignments where you monitor students’ work at various stages

Creating an in-class writing assignment on the day the project is due that
requires a detailed knowledge of the project.
 The Following Activities are Helpful in
 Discussing and Explaining Plagiarism to
Story Film: Intellectual Vengeance
Expert Film 1: Credit Where Credit Is Due
Expert Film 2: Copyright and Fair Use
 Plagiarism Discussion Activity 1

  Authorship, Rights of Authors, Responsible Use of Other’s Work
 Plagiarism Discussion Activity 2

      Real Life Scenarios
The Primary Strategies for Avoiding Plagiarism are
Paraphrasing, Critical Reading, and Summarizing

 • Guiding students through understanding and engaging with their sources
 can be achieved by doing collaborative paraphrasing and summarizing
 activities as a class or in groups.

 • Learning about and practicing summarizing and paraphrasing strategies
 are indispensible research tools.

 • Knowing the difference between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing
 can help them to avoid plagiarizing.
The ability to Paraphrase is a very essential
academic skill that students must develop to
ethically work with sources without
  Avoiding Plagiarism Handout and Worksheet:
Critical reading and summarizing are effective
strategies for students to avoid plagiarism.

 Howard discusses that reading critically is important so students
  progress forward from patchwriting.

 Instructors can guide students through understanding and
  engaging with their sources by doing collaborative summarizing

 Ask students in 102 to employ the summarizing activity we
  propose, and see how it helps their work to be less focused on
 Effective Summary Strategies
 Avoiding Plagiarism Checklist
What Constitutes Plagiarism?
Plagiarism Awareness Contract
Our suggestions build from Burkhardt et al.,
Howard, and Purdy.

These authors all discuss reading, summarizing,
 and paraphrasing strategies to avoid plagiarism.
 Burkhardt, Joanna M., MacDonald, Mary C., and
  Rathemacher, Andree J. Teaching Information Literacy: 35
  Practical Standards-Based Exercises for College Students. Chicago:
  American Library Association, 2003.

 Purdy, James P. “Calling off the Hounds: Technology and the
  Visibility of Plagiarism.” Teaching Composition. Ed. T.R.
  Johnson. Boston: Beford/St. Martin’s, 2008. 305-324.
        Resources Continued
 Howard, Rebecca Moore and Amy Robillard.
  Pluralizing Plagiarism: Identities, Contexts,
  Pedagogies. Portsmouth, NH:Boynton/Cook,
 Howard, Rebecca Moore. “Plagiarisms,
  Authorships, and the Academic Death Penalty.”
  College English 57.7 (1995): 788-806.
 Evans, F.B. and Youmans, M., 2000. ESL
 writers discuss plagiarism: the social
 construction of ideologies. Journal of
 Education, 182 (3), 49-65.

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