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    Degrees                                                                                                                       The degrees conferred in French universities and other institutions

                                                                                                            YEARS OF STUDY
                                                                                                                                         of higher education are certified by the French government.
                                                                                                                                    LEVELS                                                       THE LMD SYSTEM
                 The degrees awarded in French higher education reflect a
                 common European architecture. The LMD system—for licence
                                                                                                                                       18 semesters • State diploma of doctor of
                 (bachelor), master, and doctorate—is based on the number of                                   9                         (+ 9 years) medicine
                 semesters completed after leaving secondary school and their                                                                            D O C T O R A L               D E P A R T M E N T S

                 equivalent in European credits under the European Credit                                                                DOCTORATE • Doctorate / PhD
                 Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS)*:                                                     8                        16 semesters                                                                                 Schools of art
                                                                                                                                         (+ 8 years)                                         Grandes Écoles                      Schools of architecture

    • Licence      = 6 semesters         = 180 ECTS (baccalauréat or equivalent + 3 years)
                                                                                                               7                                                                           Schools of business
                                                                                                                                                                                          Schools of engineering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Other institutions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (lycées, specialized schools)

                                                                                                                                                        • State diploma of doctor of
    • Master       = 10 semesters = 300 ECTS (baccalauréat or equivalent + 5 years)                                                    12 semesters dental surgery
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mastère spécialisé (MS)            • HMONP (professional credential
                                                                                                               6                         (+ 6 years) • State diploma of doctor of
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Master of business                   for independent practice of
    • Doctorate = 16 semesters (baccalauréat or equivalent + 8 years)                                                                                    pharmacy
                                                                                                                                                                                          administration (MBA)                 architecture)

                                                                                                                                              MASTER • Research master                  • Engineering degree                 • Art school diploma (DNSEP)
                                                                                                               5               10 semesters (+ 5 years) • Professional master           • Master of Science - MSc            • State architect’s diploma
                                                                                                                                             300 ECTS • Engineering degree              • Business school diplomas           • Diplomas of specialized schools

    • The universities confer “national diplomas,” • A similar accreditation procedure exists for
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Degrees of the Grandes Ecoles       (health, social work, tourism, etc.)
    which have the same weight regardless of the       government-recognized schools of business and
    institution that confers them.                     management, the diplomas of which are approved                                                                                                                        • Art school diplomas
                                                                                                                                              LICENCE • Licence (bachelor)
                                                       by the Ministry of National Education and, in many
                                                                                                               3                                                                                                               (DNAT - DNAP)

    • The diplôme d’ingénieur is a national diploma.
                                                                                                                                6 semesters (+ 3 years) • Licence professionnelle                                            • Architecture diploma
                                                       cases, have obtained international recognition or                                     180 ECTS (professional bachelor)
    The schools that award it are accredited by CTI,   accreditation.
                                                                                                                                        4 semesters • University technology             • Admission to the first year of a   • Art school diploma(DMA)
    the French national commission on engineering
    degrees.                                           • France’s schools of art and specialized schools       2                         (+ 2 years) diploma (DUT)                        Grande école program               • Postsecondary technical
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Preparation for admission to         certificate (BTS)
                                                       also undergo national certification.                                                                                               Grandes écoles (CPGE)
                                                                                                            Completion of secondary school + baccalauréat or equivalent
                                                                                                            (eligibility to enter higher education in home country)
                                                                                                            = access to French higher education
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Did you know?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       • Any student presently enrolled in
                                                                                                                             *ECTS credits: Credits earned under the European Credit Transfer and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       higher education in his or her home
                                                                                                                             Accumulation System are recognized throughout Europe. A full year of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       country may apply for admission to a
                                                                                                                             academic work represents 60 ECTS credits.
                                                                                                                                          French university or other institution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       of higher education, provided he or she
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       meets certain criteria.
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                                                                                                                                                                             Choose France

     Vocational education:                                                                                                                                         The online catalog of
     professionally oriented national                                                                                                                              postsecondary vocational/
                                                                                                                                                                   professional programs
     diplomas at the L2 and L3 levels
                                                                                        Diplôme Universitaire de Technologie
                                                                                        (DUT, university technical diploma)                                        in France
                                                                                        The DUT is a national vocational/professional qualification      
                                                                                        representing 120 ECTS credits (2 years of study). It is conferred by       > Find your program
                                                                                        France’s university-based institutes of technology, or IUTs. DUT           >Licence
                                                                                        programs are offered in 24 specialty areas, 15 of which are related
          The evolution of the global economy has placed a high premium                                                                                            Listings of all BTS, DUT, and
                                                                                        to production (materials science and engineering, mechanical               professional licence programs,
          on skills, advanced technical knowledge, and operational                      engineering, computer-assisted manufacturing, etc.) and 9 to               with Web sites and contact
          know-how as the keys to career advancement. To meet these                     services (administration, communication, management, information,          information.
          demands, France’s system of higher education has created                      etc.). Programs prepare graduates to begin a career immediately after
          undergraduate programs that combine theory and practice,                      graduation. Most require an internship. Graduates may also elect to        Subject-area profiles
          enabling students to gain up-to-date skills, learn the latest                 continue their education by applying for admission to a school of
          methods, and use professional tools in real-world settings.                   engineering or management.
                                                                                                                                                                   >Resource Center
                                                                                        The 115 IUTs located throughout France offer 658 different DUT
                                                                                                                                                                   >Educational and research
                                   Brevet de Technicien Supérieur                                                                                                  >Subject-area profiles
                                   (BTS, postsecondary technical certificate)           Licence Professionnelle (professional licence)
                                                                                                                                                                   Each profile outlines degree
                                   The BTS is a national vocational/professional        After successfully completing 2 years of postsecondary study,              programs and other aspects
                                   qualification representing 120 ECTS credits          students may apply to enter a 1-year program that allows them to           of a particular field, such as
                                   (2  years of postsecondary study). It is offered     earn a licence professionnelle, a national professional diploma            aeronautics, banking, retail,
                                                                                        signifying the accumulation of 180 ECTS credits. Programs are offered      culinary arts and restaurant
                                   in 87 different areas spanning manufacturing,
                                                                                                                                                                   management, hotel management,
                                   production, services, and the plastic arts. Most     in universities and IUTs. More than 2,000 licences professionnelles
                                                                                                                                                                   nursing, nuclear engineering,
                                   BTS programs are offered in the postsecondary        are offered in 46 broad areas that include the agricultural and
                                                                                                                                                                   water resource management,
                                   technical sections of secondary schools. Graduates   manufacturing sectors (agriculture, fisheries, forests and natural         tourism, and many more.
                                   are equipped to perform specialized technical        areas; civil engineering, construction, woodworking; mechanics,
                                   functions in a professional environment.             electricity, electronics; production and transformation) as well as        Degree descriptions
                                   List of BTS specialties:                             services (management and trade; communication and information;
                                                                                        local government services; personal services).                   
                                                                                        Opportunities for professional internships and the participation of        >Resource Center
                                                                                        practicing professionals in the delivery of instruction make the licence   >Educational and research
                                                                                        professionnelle a very effective way to start a career. Across France,     programs
                                                                                        more than 40,000 students are enrolled in licence professionnelle          >Degree descriptions
                                                                                        programs.                                                                  The BTS, DUT, Licence professionnelle,
                                                                                                                                                                   and mastère spécialisé are
                                                                                        National registry of professional certifications (RNCP):
                                                                                                                                                                   presented in detail, including
                                                                              >Licence professionnelle                                   information on prerequisites and
                                                                                                                                                                   the possibilities for further study.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Choose France

                                                                                                                               41% of France’s doctoral candidates come from outside France.

     programs                                                                                                   Financing doctoral study
                                                                                                                Demonstrating the ability to pay for doctoral
                                                                                                                study is very often a prerequisite for admission to
                                                                                                                                                                          Erasmus Mundus Joint Doctorates – EMJDS
                                                                                                                                                                          Full-time grants are offered to students who have been
                                                                                                                                                                          selected to participate in a doctoral program that has
                      Any student holding a European master or the equivalent may
                                                                                                                a doctoral program.                                       been granted the Erasmus Mundus label. The amount of
                      apply for admission to a doctoral program in France. Programs                                                                                       the doctoral grants varies from program to program and
                                                                                                                • Doctoral contracts are a public mechanism for
                      generally last 3 years. Candidates who prepare and successfully                           financing doctoral education that emphasizes              includes tuition, travel expenses, living expenses, and
                      defend a thesis or dissertation receive the doctorate.                                    professional research experience, an essential part       certain other costs.
                                                                                                                of doctoral education. Anyone holding a master’s          To be considered for an Erasmus Mundus grant,
     Scientific research is                                                                                                                                               candidates must:
                                                                                                                degree or equivalent, regardless of age, may apply.
     a top priority in France                                                                                                                                             • Identify an Erasmus Mundus program appropriate for
                                                                                                                Contracts are for 3 years and offer all of the benefits
     France devotes 2.11% of its GDP to research and      recherche avancée), thematic centers for research
                                                                                                                of a formal employment agreement. Contract terms          their intended research.
     development. That effort has put France in fourth    and care (CTRS, centres thématiques de recherche
                                                                                                                are identical at all French institutions of higher        • Submit an application for
     place among all nations in the European patent       et de soins), and competitiveness clusters.
                                                                                                                education and research. The minimum guaranteed            admission to the university
     system and eighth worldwide in the U.S. patent       • Public support for corporate research and                                                                                            
                                                                                                                gross monthly compensation ranges from about              that coordinates the
     system. The CNRS (France’s national center           development has been increased.                                                                                                                  > Find your course
                                                                                                                €1,300 to €1,700. Doctoral departments are                consortium. Applications
     for scientific research) has once again been                                                                                                                                                          > level Doctoral
                                                                                                                responsible for recruiting candidates.                    are generally due between
     ranked second in the world in output of scientific   Doctoral programs                                                                                               October and December.
                                                                                                                                                                                                           CampusFrance’s online catalog
                                                                                                                • Research training agreements with industry
     publications (Scimago 2011 ranking).                 Doctoral training takes place within research teams                                                                                              includes every French doctoral
                                                                                                                CIFREs (conventions industrielles de formation            Applicants are allowed
     Several initiatives to advance the dissemination,    or units affiliated with a doctoral department.                                                                                                  program and the research
                                                                                                                par la recherche) enable young researchers to             to submit applications to
     financing, and evaluation of research demonstrate    Candidates work under the supervision of a                                                                                                       units with which it is affiliated.
                                                                                                                complete their dissertation while working for a           no more than 3 different
     the vitality and future-oriented outlook of the      dissertation adviser. Most doctoral programs are                                                                                                 The database is accessible
                                                                                                                firm. Participants agree on a research and dev-           consortia in a given year.
     French research enterprise:                          found in the universities.                                                                                                                       through a bilingual (French
                                                                                                                elopment program that is pursued in cooperation           http://eacea.
     • A new national research agency (ANR) manages       About 300 university doctoral departments orga-                                                                                                  and English) search engine
                                                                                                                with a research team based outside the firm.    >Erasmus
     financing for research projects.                     nize research teams around scientific and scholarly                                                                                              that employs 20,000 keywords in
                                                                                                                CIFRE-funded candidates must hold a master or an          Mundus>Selected
     • New tools for cooperation in research include      themes. They coordinate doctoral programs and                                                                                                    80 disciplines.
                                                                                                                engineering degree.                      projects>Joint doctorates
     research and higher education clusters, known as     ensure the coherence and efficiency of scientific                                                                                                A profile of each doctoral
     PRES (for pôles de recherche et d’enseignement       and scholarly projects.                               • International joint doctoral programs                   Contact in France :              program is also provided.
     supérieur), thematic networks for advanced           Prospective doctoral candidates must apply directly   Governed by an agreement between a French                 Agence 2E2F :
     research (RTRA, réseaux thématiques de               to a specific doctoral program.                       institution of higher education and a partner             www.europe-education-  
                                                                                                                institution outside France, joint doctoral programs            >Resource center>educational
                                                                                                                allow candidates to work on their dissertation in two     mundus-cours-masters.php         and research programs>Degree
                                                                                                                countries according to defined conditions (time spent                                      descriptions
                                                                                                                in each country, dissertation defense, financing,
                                                                                                                etc.). Most joint degree programs are accompanied                                
                                                                                                                by dedicated financial aid, the main purpose of which                                      Finance your program
                                                                                                                is to defray the candidate’s travel costs.                                                 Find financial assistance online
                                                                                                                                                                                                           using the CampusBourse grant
                                                                                                                                                                                                           search engine!
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Choose France

                                                                                                                                   France’s system of higher education enrolls 2.4 million students,
                                                                                                                                           60% of whom attend the country’s 83 public universities.

                     Unlike in the major English-speaking countries, private institutions                              Deeply committed to their corporate, academic, and research partners in France and abroad, the
                                                                                                                       nation’s universities daily demonstrate their dynamism and their ability to respond to change.
                     account for a relatively small share of postsecondary enrollments in                              In parallel with the traditional academic degree ladder, the universities have accommodated new educational needs:
                     France (less than 15%). France’s 83 publicly financed universities are                            • University-based engineering programs now confer 30% of the engineering degrees awarded in France each year.
                                                                                                                       • More than 2,000 career-oriented licence degrees, known as licences professionnelles, are available.
                     well distributed around the nation. They award national diplomas,                                 • Technical programs are offered in 24 specialty areas in university-based institutes of technology (IUTs, instituts
                     which provide the assurance of a uniformly high level of educational                              universitaires de technologie).
                     quality regardless of where they are earned—from the famous                                       • Management programs are available in university-based institutes of business administration (IAE, instituts
                                                                                                                       d’administration des entreprises).
                     Sorbonne to the alpine campuses of the universities of Grenoble and                               • Programs in political science and economics are found in university-based institutes of politics (IEP, instituts d’études
                     Chambéry and the island campus of the University of Corsica.                                      politiques) and Sciences Po Paris.
                                                                                                                       • Journalism and communication are taught in specialized institutes in several universities. Examples include CELSA at the
     The universities offer programs in all dis-                                                                       University of Paris-Sorbonne and the Centre Universitaire d’Enseignement du Journalisme at the University of Strasbourg.
     ciplines, including the sciences (mathematics,             Research, a key function of the universities >Resource Center>Educational and research programs>Degree descriptions
     chemistry, physics, biology), technology (computer                                                      >Resource Center>Practical and institutional guides
                                                                As the primary locus of research and training in the
     science, engineering, electrotechnics, materials), li-                                                            >Institutions profiles>Universities
                                                                basic sciences, the universities ensure that their
     terature, languages, the arts, the social sciences, law,
                                                                degree programs stay abreast of progress in basic      Medical education
     economics, business, health and medicine, and
                                                                knowledge and technology.                              Within the European LMD system, medical studies in France are divided into 3 stages
     physical education. All of the nation’s universi-                                                                                                                                                              Higher education and research clusters
                                                                The international recognition accorded French          of 3 years or more. The universities deliver medical education in cooperation with
     ties are public. The universities offer programs at                                                                                                                                                            The system of research and higher
                                                                researchers attests to the universities’ devotion      France’s 32 CHUs, or university hospital centers.
     every level; their graduates receive nationally re-                                                                                                                                                            education clusters, known as PRES,
                                                                to knowledge: Fields medals awarded to scholars        The first year of medical education is the same for all four basic medical tracks: (i) me-
     gulated degrees known as national diplomas: the                                                                                                                                                                was created to bring together the
                                                                at French universities include the 2010 medal          dicine (including physical therapy), (ii) dental surgery, (iii) pharmacy, and (iv) mid-
     licence (3 years), master (5 years), and doctorate (8                                                                                                                                                          universities, Grandes écoles, and
                                                                to Cédric Villani, professor at Université Claude      wifery. Those who complete that year are eligible to sit for one of four examinations
     years).                                                                                                                                                                                                        research organizations in a given
                                                                Bernard-Lyon 1 and the 2006 medal to Wendelin          that result in a ranking of places available, as determined each year. Students’ ability
     Note: What is a diplôme d’université (DU)?                 Werner, professor of mathematics at Université         to continue their medical education depends on the rank they obtain on the exam.             region in order to rally their intellectual
     In parallel with the system of national diplomas,          Paris-Sud 11.                                          International students and medical education in France                                       and physical assets behind the goals
     individual universities offer programs that reflect        285 doctoral departments staffed by 100,000            Unless they have already obtained a medical degree in their home country, interna-           of better education and greater
     their academic orientations or respond to regional         scholars and researchers provide research training     tional students must enroll in the first year of the first cycle of medical education and    international visibility. The PRES are:
     economic imperatives. Those diplomas have a                in close cooperation with more than 2,500 research     must pass the end-of-year examination. Students who pass that examination may then           • Thematic centers of excellence
     variety of names, the most common of which is              laboratories. The departments confer more than         jump to the level they had reached in their home country, subject to an assessment by        • A single point of contact for foreign
     diplôme d’université (DU). Another is diplôme              11,000 doctorates each year.                           the program’s administrators of the equivalence of their prior preparation.                  researchers and doctoral candidates
     inter-universitaire (DIU). They are not national           French doctoral departments have always been           • To begin the third stage of medical education, foreign students must undergo a             • A resource for doctoral departments
                                                                open to the world. Of 70,000 doctoral candidates       special medical residency competition organized by the culture and cooperation               • A one-stop shop for international
     diplomas, but they offer international students
                                                                                                                       service of France’s embassies and consulates. In 2010, 20 places were offered in 11          student services
     opportunities to gain university-level knowledge           enrolled in 2011, 41% are from outside France.
                                                                                                                       medical specialties.                                                                         • Responsible for the publication of
     and experience in very specific areas.
                                                                                                                       • Two degree programs—the DFMS and the DFMSA—provide specialty education for                 academic and scientific work.
                                                                                                                       foreign general practitioners and for foreign physicians. The DFMS (diploma of spe-          The 21 PRES are located throughout
                                                                                                                       cialized medical training) requires 1 to 2 years, and the DFMSA (diploma of advanced         France.
                                                                                                                       specialized medical training) requires 6 months to 1 year. Information may be obtai-
                                                                                                                       ned from the culture and cooperation service of the French embassy.                
                                                                                                                       All these programs require a good knowledge of French, evidence of which may be
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    >Resource center >Practical and
                                                                                                                       required (at least level B2 of CERL)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    institutional guides
                                                                                                              >Resource Center>Educational and research                               >Profiles of France’s higher educa-
                                                                                                                       programs>Subject area profiles>Medicine                                                      tion and research clusters
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                                                                                                                                                                                                             Choose France

     The Grandes Écoles                                                                                           The Financial Times ranked 6 French schools among the world’s top 10
                                                                                                                       master in management programs (2011). The Economist included

      and the Écoles supérieures                                                                                                     6 French MBA programs among its top 100 (2011).

                Unique to France, the system of Grandes Écoles was set up in parallel with the
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Engineering and management
                university system at the beginning of the 19th century. The Grandes Écoles offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                 dominate the offerings of the
                top-quality education oriented toward practical problems. The system includes                                                                                                    Grandes Écoles, but one also finds
                schools of engineering and business, the Écoles Normales Supérieures (ENS), and                                                                                                  programs in public administration
                the national schools of veterinary medicine. The Grandes Écoles are highly selec-                                                                                                (the specialty of the prestigious
                tive; their degrees signify the completion of a a rigorous program.                                                                                                              Ecole Nationale d’Administration
                                                                                                                                                                                                 - ENA), military sciences, higher
                                                                                                                                                                                                 education and research, agronomy,
     All Grandes Écoles offer five-year                                                                                                                                                          and veterinary sciences.
     diplomas recognized by the government                   Engineering                                        Business and management
     to be equivalent to the European master                 More than 200 schools of engineering, public and   The Grandes écoles of business and management enjoy special forms of             The Écoles
     They may also offer intermediate degrees and            private, run the gamut of engineering sciences.                                                                                     Normales Supérieures
                                                                                                                official recognition:
     specialized diplomas, among them the bachelor           But they also have some common characteristics,                                                                                     France’s three écoles Normales
                                                                                                                • certification by the Ministry of National Education, indicated by a stamp
     (in 3 or 4 years), the master of science (MSc)          emblematic of the solid quality of the diplôme                                                                                      Supérieures —located in central
                                                                                                                on the graduate’s diploma
     (in 4 or 5 years), the master of business               d’ingénieur, a venerable French degree that                                                                                         Paris, Cachan (a Paris suburb), and
                                                             is fully equivalent to the European master.        • listing in the registry of Grandes écoles published by the Conférence des      Lyon—prepare students for careers
     administration (MBA), and the mastère spécialisé
     (MS) (1 year after the master).                         The diplôme d’ingénieur is a national diploma      Grandes Ecoles, which regulates all of France’s Grandes écoles                   in university teaching and research
     The traditional path into the Grandes écoles was        that entitles its holder to apply to a doctoral    • official recognition of certain diplomas as equivalent to a master.            in both the arts and sciences.
     by examination following 2 years of preparatory         program. Depending on the school in which it                                                                                        Each ENS has its own procedure for
                                                                                                                Operating at a variety of levels, France’s many schools of business and
     classes. Students then earned their degree in           is offered, the degree may indicate general                                                                                         international admissions.
                                                                                                                management offer programs geared to economic requirements and new
     3 more years of increasingly specialized study.         expertise in engineering or more specialized
                                                                                                                management practices. Internships and international exchanges play a large       Schools of veterinary medicine
     However many schools offer admission to a 5-year        study—in agronomy, chemistry, biology, or
                                                                                                                role in many programs. The great majority of schools have come together to       France has four national schools
     curriculum directly from secondary school.              information science, for example. Public schools
                                                                                                                offer common entrance exams. About 190 schools admit students directly           of veterinary medicine—in Paris
     To accommodate international students, many             of engineering charge tuition of approximately
                                                                                                                                                                                                 (Maisons-Alfort), Lyon, Nantes,
     Grandes Écoles offer admission on the strength of       €584 per year.                                     from secondary school.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 and Toulouse. They admit students
     the applicant’s academic record. The degree may be                                                         Most of France’s business schools are private; many are affiliated with local
                                                   >Resource center                                                                                             at various levels using a common
     earned in 2 to 5 years, depending on the amount         >Educational and research programs>Degree          chambers of commerce and industry.                                               examination administered
     of credit the applicant receives for his or her prior   descriptions>Mastère spécialisé                    The annual tuition varies widely but is generally between €2,000 and             independently by each of the four
     academic work.                                                                                             €30,000.                                                                         schools. Admission decisions are
                                                                                                                                                                                                 made on the basis of examination
                                                                                                                                                                                                 results or academic records,
                                                                                                                                                                                                 plus application and interview.
                                                                                                                Many of France’s business schools have attained international recognition
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Programs in the 4 veterinary
                                                                                                                by meeting the standards of various accrediting bodies, among them CGE,          schools lead to the degree of
                                                                                                                EQUIS, AACSB, and AMBA. Some forms of recognition apply to the school            doctor of veterinary medicine,
                                                                                                                itself, others to the degree conferred. All signify international recognition.   a government-sanctioned
                                                                                                                                                                                                 diploma required for practice as a
16                                                                                                                                                                                                                                17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Choose France

     Schools of
     architecture                                                                                                Schools of art
                                                                                                                 Almost 60 écoles supérieures (higher
                                                                                                                 schools) of art and 4 of applied arts are pu-
                                                                                                                 blic institutions of high quality that grant national                                   CampusArt
                                                                                                                 diplomas accredited by the French government:                                 
                                                                                                                 diplôme national d’arts plastiques (DNAP, 3 years),
     Postsecondary programs in architecture                                                                                                                                                              Apply online to the 60 member
                                                                                                                 equivalent to a licence) and diplôme national su-
     in France follow the harmonized                                                                                                                                                                     institutions of the CampusArt
                                                                                                                 périeur d’expression plastique (DNSEP, 5 years,         To learn more
     European system of degrees based on the                                                                     equivalent to a master). The four schools of applied
                                                                                                                                                                                                         network of French schools of art
     bachelor (licence in France), master, and                                                                   art (Boulle, Duperré, Estienne, Olivier de Serres)      >Resource Center                The CampusArt network offers
     doctorate.                                                                                                  grant the diplôme des métiers d’art (DMA, 2 years)      >Educational and research       applicants a choice of some
     • The first cycle of postsecondary study lasts three                                                        and diplôme supérieur d’arts appliqués (DSAA,           programs
                                                                                                                                                                                                         200 different art programs
     years and is capped by the diplôme d’études en         The nation’s 20 schools of architecture,             4 years).                                               >Subject area profiles
                                                                                                                                                                                                         at the licence and master
     architecture, equivalent to a licence.                 all overseen by the French Ministry of               After an initial phase devoted to a core curricu-       Directory of schools of art:
                                                                                                                                                                                                         levels. By completing a
     • The second cycle lasts two years and leads to        Culture, confer national diplomas.                   lum, the higher schools of art allow students to
                                                                                                                                                                                                         single online form, students
     the diplôme d’état d’architecte, equivalent to a                                 specialize in one of 3 areas: art, design, or visual
                                                                                                                 communication.                                                                          who have completed 3 years
                                                                                                                                                                                                         of art education may apply
     • The HMONP (habilitation à la maîtrise d’oeuvre       Two other schools deliver degrees that are           Private schools of art and those affiliated with chambers of commerce
                                                                                                                                                                                                         for admission to the entire
     en nom propre) is the sole professional credential     considered equivalent:                               and industry (the latter are known as écoles consulaires) confer certificates or
                                                                                                                 professional titles. Those that have earned accreditation are listed in the Réper-      network of schools and
     that entitles an architect to apply for a building     • The public Institut National des Sciences Appli-
                                                                                                                 toire National de Certification Professionnelle (national registry of occupational      track the progress of their
     permit. It requires a sixth year of study and an       quées (INSA) in Strasbourg.
                                                                                                                 certification, and classified according to the level of employ-       application through to the
                                                                                                                 ment for which they prepare their students.                                             offer of admission.
     • The third cycle offer a variety of specializations   • The private École Spéciale d’Architecture (ESA).
                                                                                                                 All such institutions admit students selectively by exam or interview.
     to award a master’s degree, as well as doctoral

                                                                                                                 Specialized schools
     programs in architecture in a number of universi-
     ty-affiliated research laboratories.

                                                                                                                 More than 3,000 schools and institutes, public and private, are categorized as “specialized
                                                                                                                 schools.” They offer degree programs in very specific areas—among them social work, paramedical fields,
                                                                                                                 tourism, culinary arts, and hotel management, among others.
                                                                                                                 These institutions offer government-accredited degrees as well as other credentials specific to the
                                                                                                                 institution that confers them. Programs demand from 2 to 5 years of study. Admission is by examination or
                                                                                                                 on the basis of the applicant’s academic record.

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