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Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers

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					Work, Rights and PRSPs


Graeme Buckley,
INTEGRATION/NPG
Rights Based Approaches
Grounded in the principles of:
 Universality and inalienability
 Indivisibility
 Interdependence and
  interrelatedness
 Equality and non discrimination
 Participation and inclusion
 Accountability and rule of law
This means…
   Participation: empowering people to take
    their own decisions and claim their rights
   Inclusion: promoting equality and non
    discrimination based on appropriate
    legislation
   Fulfilling obligation: protection and
    promotion through public accountability of
    states and other duty bearers
The ILO and PRSPs: Objectives
   EMPOWERING the constituents to participate in
    the drafting, implementation and review of
    poverty reduction strategies through social
    dialogue

   INCORPORATING employment and other
    aspects of decent work into PRSPs

   INFLUENCING development organisations
    (including donors) and Governments involved in
    designing and implementing poverty reduction
    strategies to embrace the fundamental principles
    and rights at work, employment policies, social
    protection and to listen to the voices of the social
    partners
The concept of Decent Work
  Six dimensions of Decent Work:
….from quantity to quality
(Guideline 9 of HRAPRS, ICESCR art.6 and 7)

1.   Opportunities for Work
2.   Work in conditions of Freedom
3.   Productive Work
4.   Equity at Work (between workers)
5.   Dignity at Work (between workers and
     employers)
6.   Security at Work, and

    Economic and Social Context of Decent Work
Are the PRSP principles rights based?



   Poverty focus
   Country driven/owned
   Comprehensive
   Results oriented
   Partnership based
   Long term perspective
Overall assessment of progress to date….the
challenges which remain:
(see ILO Governing Body Paper)



   (i) Many PRSPs need to include a more
   thorough analysis of employment and
   other aspects of decent work. This
   should then give rise to a more explicit
   role for decent work, including the
   international labour standards and
   social protection, in poverty reduction
   strategies.

RIGHT TO (DECENT) WORK
  (ii) Trade unions, employers’
  organisations and labour ministries
  need to be more systematically
  integrated into the participatory
  process underpinning the design and
  implementation of PRSPs. Without this,
  the participation and national
  ownership principles of the PRSP are
  seriously undermined.
RIGHT TO PARTICIPATE
  (iii) More attention should be placed
  on equity in addition to growth in
  PRSPs. More coverage of the policy
  implications related to redistribution
  need to be made, through, for
  example, reform of land rights,
  development of a fair, efficient and
  effective fiscal policy, promotion of the
  core labour standards and so on.
RIGHT TO ECONOMIC JUSTICE
The Declaration on Fundamental
Principles and Rights at Work

Member states agree to respect, promote and realise:


   Freedom of association and the
    effective recognition of the right to
    collective bargaining
   The elimination of discrimination in
    respect of employment and
    occupation
   The elimination of all forms of
    forced or compulsory labour
   The effective abolition of child
    labour

Eight Conventions : focus on the core
Ratifications

   None (Vanuatu, Timor Leste)
   One (Lao, Solomon Islands)
   Two (Myanmar, Oman, USA)

   All Eight (104 countries including
    Mauritania, Ethiopia, Yemen and
    Kazakhstan among many others
    challenged in implementation)
Giving effect to the Declaration

   Annual Review examines the
    performance from member states
    yet to ratify all eight Conventions
   Global Report: annual stocktaking
    of one of the categories of rights
   Technical cooperation programmes
   Committee of Experts/Committee
    on freedom of association
In country

   Trade unions ICFTU/WCL
   Ministries of labour: labour
    inspectorates
   Donors
   Civil society
PRSP: An opportunity for rights
   Basis of participation
    (empowerment/inclusion)
   The poverty diagnosis (causes,
    consequences and failures:
    identifying the poor)
   Centrality of partnership
   Emphasis on integrated, multi-
    sectoral approaches
   Link to the MDGs
PRSP: A challenge for rights
   Macroeconomic framework comes first
    (economic parameters for rights)
   Does the audience want to hear about
    rights? (rights and the political arena)
   The ownership/donorship tension
   The poverty of participation (it drops off
    at implementation and monitoring)
   Timeframe (PRSPs for 3+years but rights
    take longer)
Promoting rights in PRSPs

   Policy dialogue
   Advocacy through alliances
   Targeting particular groups
   Labour standards embedded in
    procurement policies and
    construction projects
   The economic case for rights
The economic arguments: the case
against

   Raise labour costs (by more than
    productivity) and reduce competitiveness
   Discriminate against the poorest who
    remain outside the formal sector/Benefit
    the organised elite at the expense of the
    unorganised
   Create rigidities in the labour market and
    welfare losses analogous to monopolies in
    product markets
The economic arguments: the case in
favour
   CLS promote social and economic stability (foreign
    investors put a high premium on predictability and
    stability because it reduces risk)
   CLS can make markets work better because they foster
    transparency, information flows and institutional checks
    and balances
   CLS reduce the waste of skills and capabilities which
    comes from discrimination at the workplace
   CLS promote human capital formation by eliminating child
    labour
   Elimination of discrimination may create new opportunities
    for marginalised groups – including women and
    indigenous peoples – so raising overall labour market
    participation rates
   Gains in terms of wage rates in the formal sector may put
    upward pressure on wage rates in the informal sector and
    enhance liquidity in the rural and informal economies
A Judgement?
   On balance the economic case for or against CLS
    as a component of poverty reduction strategies is
    difficult to prove empirically.
   The case is dependent on a variety of factors such
    as location and sector specific variables (e.g.
    the nature or type of collective bargaining in a
    given setting) and the extent to which the CLS
    are implemented
   There is also a strong normative dimension to
    the CLS. For example, it can be argued that
    implementing the CLS will lead to a compression
    of wage distribution which can be seen as both
    positive or negative depending on one’s
    perspective…from the perspective of today’s poor,
    it is probably more positive.
A Decent Work Audit of PRSPs 1
The Poverty Diagnosis:

   Opportunities for work              nearly 100%

   Productive work                     about 50%

   Work in conditions of
    freedom (equity & dignity) about 33%
    (gender discrimination and child labour)
A Decent Work Audit of PRSPs 2

The Poverty Reduction Strategy:
   Opportunities for work       nearly 100%
   Productive work              about 80%
   Social protection (security) about 40%

   Gender issues and (in Africa) HIV/AIDS
    feature very strongly but not as work place
    issues
Some rights PRSP issues

   Incentives (conditionality)
   Measurement
   Influencing donor agendas
   Making meaning of rights in
    informal and rural economies
   Migrants and refugees (an invisible
    group in PRSPs)
Thanks for your attention

http://www.undp.org/governance/hurist.htm

http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/labourstandardsJun
e04.pdf

http://www.odi.org.uk/rights/publications.html

				
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posted:8/16/2012
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