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					                          “Boot verbs”:
                       Stem-changing verbs

Now it is time to learn the famous boot verbs (sometimes called "shoe verbs"). The
correct grammatical term for boot/shoe verbs is stem-changing verbs.

This category of verbs is made up of a small number of -AR, -ER, -IR verbs.
The only difference between the verbs that fit into the category of "boot verbs," and
all the other verbs you've been working with up until now, is this:

When you conjugate these boot verbs, the conjugations that fit inside an
imaginary "boot" have their stem vowel changed from a single vowel to a double

Example 1: The "u" in the verb jugar (to play) has to be changed to "ue" for the
following conjugations:

 Subject Pronouns         Jugar

 yo                       juego

 tú                       juegas

 él ella usted            juega

 nosotros                 jugamos

 ellos ellas ustedes      juegan

The same rule holds true for the e that needs to stem-change to
ie . . . the o that needs to stem-change to ue . . . and the e that has to stem-change to
i in other verbs classified as boot-verbs.

What's the "stem of a verb," you ask? Well, here is how I would explain it. . . .
To understand what the "stem" is, we need to need to examine, and to be able to
identify all the possible parts of a verb.
Spanish boot-verbs, like non-boot verbs, can be made up of up to three (3) different
These elements (or "parts," if you prefer) are, in order, from the beginning to the end
of the verb:

1. the prefix.
2. the stem (or the root, as it's sometimes called).
3. the ending.

As an example, let's use the boot-verb preferir (i, i). * If we were to break it down
according to the above-mentioned, we find that the prefix is pre-, the stem is fer, and
the ending is -ir.

In a boot-verb, it is the stem that undergoes the spelling change when the verb is
conjugated into the present tense. You will remember that all Spanish verbs end in
either "-AR," "-ER," -IR."

So, in other words, the part of the verb that comes right before the verb end is
called the stem of the verb.

Here's a list of some of the most common boot verbs we might use on a daily basis.
Boot verbs are divided into their stem-changing groups:
u --> ue, o --> ue; e --> ie; and e --> i.

 e --> ie p199
 preferir (e, ie) -- to prefer
 querer (e, ie) — to want; to love
 cerrar (e, ie) — to close
 empezar (e, ie) -- to begin
 entender (e, ie) – to understand

 e --> i p228
 servir (e, i) -- to serve
 pedir (e, i) — ask for permission/order something

 o --> ue p223
 dormir (u, ue) -- to sleep dormir (ue, u) -- to fall asleep
 poder (u, ue) -- to be able (to do something) almorzar (ue, u) -- to eat lunch
 encontrar (u, ue) -- to die
 volver (u, ue) -- to return

 u --> ue
 jugar (u, ue) -- to play a game

So what does a boot or shoe have to do with Spanish verbs? It’s easy…
After you draw your boot/shoe, all you have to remember is this simple rule:
Everything INSIDE the "boot" changes its stem vowel!

                                     "E" to "IE."

 You'll notice the endings for boot verbs are exactly the same as the endings we use
 with regular verbs.
                                   "E" changes to "IE"

More e-ie boot verbs:
entender -- to understand
cerrar -- to close ( something )
pensar -- to think
comenzar -- to commence or to begin
empezar -- to start or to begin
perder -- to lose ( a game, your keys, etc. )
Here's another boot-verb example, this time using the "O to UE" changes inside the

                                   "O" goes to "UE"

 More o--ue boot verbs:
 volver -- to return El jueves vuelvo a Yakima.
 costar -- to cost ¿Cuanto cuesta una noche en el hotel?
 llover -- to rain Hace frio y llueve mucho.
    Here's the main "U goes to UE" verb

                                       "U" goes to "UE"

     jugar -- to play (board games, athletics) Juego Monopoly.




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