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Training Hall Sensors - Content 0107 Hall effect Physical basics Hall elements (electronical part) Selection guide Hall sensors (contain Hall elements and other components) Types www.jaquet.com Edwin Hall: Applications Discovery 1879 Current developments 1 Hall Effect 0107 Conductor in magnetic field VHall 1: Electrons 2: Hall element 3: Magnets 4: Field lines 5: Voltage supply www.jaquet.com 2 Source: Wikipedia Hall Effect 0107 Amplitude of Hall voltage VH VH k H I B kH: constant factor (depending on Hall element) I: current B: magnetic field strength Dimension of magnetic field strength „B“: 1 Tesla = 104 Gauss (1mT=10 Gauss) www.jaquet.com B field in a typical sensor Maximum (close to magnet): ~1-2 Tesla Toothed wheel (air gap 1.1mm): ~0.1 Tesla 3 Setup Hall Sensor Hall element + Magnet „System“ 0107 „Head“ Hall elements Magnet „System“ Support piece Print Printed circuit board Electronical components www.jaquet.com Housing Cable/connector Subassembly housing + electronics 4 Selection Guide Hall Elements Property Value 0107 Type of measurement absolute differential Output analogue digital Frequency static (0Hz to 20kHz) dynamic (a few Hz to10-20kHz) Temperature rating -40°C to 125°C higher Choppering not choppered Hall Element choppered Rotational alignment not necessary necessary www.jaquet.com Sensitivity high (5mV/Gauss) low Electrical properties Offset Noise Integration level Programmable Self calibration 5 Interpolation Manufactures 0107 Major manufactures: Allegro Microsystems Infineon Micronas Melexis Microelectronic Integrated Systems Differences in all properties mentioned before www.jaquet.com 6 General Setup 0107 Sensor „head“ Toothed wheel (Hall element+magnet) Output stage Amplifier Logic (e.g. push pull) Print www.jaquet.com Connector/cable 7 Differences Hall Sensors Property Value Comment 0107 Number of Hall elements 1 Speed 2 Direction 3 or 4 Redundance Output stage analogue seldom digital (amplifier) standard Sensitivity air gap approx. 0.5-3 mm (depending on target) Structures to be detected periodic e.g. involute gear not periodic e.g. flat Hall-Sensors Setup axial, radial alignment necessary www.jaquet.com Temperature rating high -40°C to 125°C low -20°C to 85°C Mechanical parameters diameter length cable, connector 8 Speed- and Direction Detection 0107 Speed: time from rising edge to rising edge (period time) Direction: Value of signal 1 at rising edge of signal 2 www.jaquet.com 9 Jaquet Terms I 0107 DSD: differential Hall element: Advantage: insensitive against magnetic disturbances Disadvantage: intermediate sensistivity, must be aligned 1 up to 4 channels (for direction detection, redundancy) Main application: railway DSF: dynamical Hall element (not down to 0 Hz): Advantage: large airgap www.jaquet.com Disadvantage: no zero speed detection Single channel Typical single speed channel: turbine of power plant 10 Jaquet Terms II DSS: 0107 Static Hall element: Advantage: zero speed detection, rotational symmetry Disadvantage: intermediate sensistivity Single channel Main application: industrial DSY: Static Hall elements: Advantage: zero speed detection, smallest 2 channel sensor Disadvantage: intermediate sensistivity, not for timing critical www.jaquet.com applications 2 Channel -> Direction Main application: hydraulics 11 Jaquet Terms III 0107 DSL Low cost sensors (similar DSS) DSM For timing critical applications DSI Sensors with „intelligence“ IQ (programmable sensor) www.jaquet.com High resolution sensor FTG : Old name for Hall as well as VR sensors 12 Jaquet Terms IV Greenline: Standard sensors (catalogue) 0107 D-Series: differential Hall element dynamic single channel E-Series: inductiv (coil) single channel F-Series: static www.jaquet.com single channel Y-Series: static 2 channels 13 Jaquet Terms V 0107 Ending of sensor names: STV, PHWR, PHZ,.... Z: analogue, 1 channel (no amplifier) V: digital, 1 channel („amplifier“) W: digital, „Quadrature“, 2 channels with phase shifted signals D: digital, 2 channels (1 speed, 1 direction) Particular „electronics“: www.jaquet.com .17: DSD-V-version for railway applications (also redundant) .19: DSD-W-version for railway applications special applications: special voltage for low speed, 14 suppression of „wrong“ pulses, ...
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