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Software Process Models _1_

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					  Iterative Development
   Royce, “Successful Software
 Management Style: Steering and
Balance”, IEEE Software sep/oct 05

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Key Ideas and/or Questions

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 Rationale of Iterative Development
“Traditional project management approaches in software-
intensive projects don’t encourage the steering and
adjustment needed to reconcile significant levels of
uncertainty in the
■ problem space (what the user really wants or needs),
■ solution space (what architecture and technology mix is
most appropriate), and
■ planning space (including cost and time constraints, team
composition and productivity, stakeholder communication,
and incremental result sequences).”

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  Just as the movie industry gets action on
  film, we too must get increments of software
  into executable form to make things tangible
  enough to assess progress and quality.

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This iterative management style is results rather
than activity-based. In the world of software, real results
are executable programs.

Everything else (requirements documents, usecase
models, design models, test cases, plans, processes,
documentation, and inspections) is secondary—simply
part of the means to the end.

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Precision vs Accuracy
 A common failure pattern is developing a
 five-digits-of-precision specification when the
 stakeholders have only a one-digit-of-precision
 understanding of the problem, solution, or plan.

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Evaluation of these ideas

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What do we apply to 541 project?

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Iterative Rework: the Good, the
Bad and the Ugly
    Richard E Fairley and Mary Jane
    Willshire, IEEE Computer, Sep 05

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Key Ideas and/or Questions

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Incremental build lets developers produce weekly builds of an
evolving product.

Each iteration involves a certain amount of rework to enhance and
fix existing capabilities (the good). However, excessive rework
could indicate problems in the requirements, the developers’ skills
and motivation, the development processes or technology used, or
all of the above (the bad). Exorbitant levels of rework result in truly
untenable situations (the ugly).

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Fig 3 – four dimensions

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 Amount of rework
For several years, our rule of thumb has been that total rework
(evolutionary plus both types of avoidable) is acceptable at 10 to
20 percent of the total effort for each reporting period in an
iterative development process. The reporting period typically
varies from a week to a month. Weekly analysis of rework data is
desirable in a project’s early stages. Less frequent reporting and
analysis is appropriate once rework stabilizes and remains within
the desired range.

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Excessive rework

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Insufficient Rework

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    Our Goal: Project Plan
 The size and important features of the
  product to be produced
 The division of tasks into iterations
 Size and effort estimations of work tasks

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Identify Subtasks
  Identify all the different subtasks necessary
   to achieve product
   – Include units if possible, e.g. number of ppt
  For each subtask, identify milestone(s) and
   completion criteria
  Establish dependencies

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Checkpoints, Milestones, or Inch-
   “A  checkpoint is an objectively identifiable
    point in a project”
   e.g. not “coding is 90% complete”
   possible – “design is ready for review,
    design has been reviewed by all team
   “a checkpoint for every five hours or so of

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Project Plan
  establish subtasks (wbs)
  establish checkpoints (wbs)
  establish dependencies (gannt or pert)
  establish dates (gannt chart)
  assign subtasks

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Project Plan for Iteration 1
  Must   have time in minutes for each leaf task
  No leaf task can be more than 7 days before
  Each leaf task must have completion

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Thursday, Jan 24
  Read   about Earned Value
   – Stellman and Greene “track the performance
     …” pp63-66
   – SOS 3.7 – work through exercise 3.6 on page
     36 – make sure you can get the same answers

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