Module-5-Session-2

Document Sample
Module-5-Session-2 Powered By Docstoc
					      Materials and the Supply Chain

      Session 2: Building Materials and
      the Environment




Green Recovery And Reconstruction: Training Toolkit For Humanitarian Aid
              SESSION 2 - OBJECTIVES
   By the end of this session, you will be able to:
    Demonstrate the environmental impacts of building
     material choices for reconstruction projects
    Apply the principles of the 3 Rs (reduce, reuse,
     recycle) to building material selection




Mod 5 Ses 2                                              2
                 Application to you:

     What you can do in your role as program officer,
      project planner, or funder to achieve the aims of
      environmentally sustainable materials selection
                in reconstruction programs.




Mod 5 Ses 2                                               3
          Two tools to inform selection of
                building materials

               Life Cycle Analysis
               Environmental Impact Assessment




Mod 5 Ses 2                                       4
          Tool 1: Life Cycle Analysis
      The Cradle to Cradle Life of a Brick
Extraction Processing Transport                   Building/                     Demo/
                                                 Maintaining                   disposal




               Colin Beatie   Colin Beatie                                       Colin Beatie
                                             Colin Beatie Photo/Jawad Jalali
                                                        UN

   Every step requires energy, and has an environmental cost
Mod 5 Ses 2                                                                                     5
                                       Extraction




              /
              Photo by colin-beattie.blogspot.com

  Mining the clay destroys habitat and consumes energy
Mod 5 Ses 2                                              6
                               Processing

      Six large trees are needed to fire approximately
      10,000 bricks – for 1 small house.




       UNEP photo - A brick kiln at Abu Shouk camp in Northern Darfur

Mod 5 Ses 2                                                             7
                                  Transport




              Strangecosmos.com


          Fuel is consumed in the transportation to the site
Mod 5 Ses 2                                                    8
                           Building / Maintaining




        UN Photo/Jawad Jalali


          Construction Workers in Kabul build a brick wall
                        for a new building.
Mod 5 Ses 2                                                  9
Demolition/disposal/reuse…Back to the cradle




       UN HABITAT photo


          Tsunami destruction in Banda Aceh, Indonesia –
          how easy is it to reuse the bricks for
          reconstruction?
Mod 5 Ses 2                                                10
This applies to all building materials, what are the energy costs
associated with the “life” of this nipa palm roofing thatch?




  Images from www.pacificworlds.com
Mod 5 Ses 2                                                     11
                 Embodied Energy…
          ...the energy used in the work of making a
          product. It is an accounting methodology which
          aims to find the sum total of the energy
          necessary for an entire product lifecycle:
          extraction, transport, installation, etc.

 Expressed as mega joules of energy needed
    to make a kilogram of product: Mj/kg


Mod 5 Ses 2                                                12
Photo by Colin Beatie




                          Embodied Energy
                A brick is not just a brick. It also represents….


        8.4 Mj per brick of embodied energy
        in the UK -- as determined by the Inventory of Carbon
        & Energy (ICE) of the University of Bath website
        (https://wiki.bath.ac.uk).




 Mod 5 Ses 2                                                        13
                                                                    13
               Quick Practice with EE
     Let’s build a wall……choosing the materials with
     the lowest EE, your choices are:
        Common Bricks
        Soil Cement Bricks
        Concrete
        Concrete Block
        Timber – Sawn Hardwood
        Timber – Sawn Softwood
        Particle Board or
        Plywood
                                  Colin Beatie


Mod 5 Ses 2                                            14
       EXAMPLE VALUES FROM THE ICE CHART
                 OF EE VALUES

                     MATERIAL      EE – Mj/kg
              Common Bricks           3.00
              Plywood                15.00
              Sawn Softwood           7.40
              Particle Board          9.50
              Sawn Hardwood           7.80
              Concrete Block          0.60
              Concrete                0.95
              Soil Cement Bricks      0.85



Mod 5 Ses 2                                     15
          Which material has the LOWEST EE?

                     MATERIAL      EE – Mj/kg
              Common Bricks           3.00
              Plywood                15.00
              Sawn Softwood           7.40
              Particle Board          9.50
              Sawn Hardwood           7.80
              Concrete Block          0.60
              Concrete                0.95
              Soil Cement Bricks      0.85



Mod 5 Ses 2                                     16
          Which material has the HIGHEST EE?
              Is this all you need to know to decide which
                            material to choose?
                           MATERIAL       EE – Mj/kg
                    Common Bricks            3.00
                    Plywood                 15.00
                    Sawn Softwood            7.40
                    Particle Board           9.50
                    Sawn Hardwood            7.80
                    Concrete Block           0.60
                    Concrete                 0.95
                    Soil Cement Bricks       0.85



Mod 5 Ses 2                                                  17
                      Analysis…
    Which are the materials        MATERIAL         EE – Mj/kg
     with the lowest embodied   Common Bricks           3.00
     energy from the ICE
     chart?                     Plywood                15.00

    What does this mean in     Sawn Softwood           7.40
     practical terms?           Particle Board          9.50
    What else do you need to
                                Sawn Hardwood           7.80
     know to use this
     approach successfully?     Concrete Block          0.60

                                Concrete                0.95

                                Soil Cement Bricks      0.85

Mod 5 Ses 2                                                       18
         Why is the concept of embodied
             energy relevant to us?




Mod 5 Ses 2                               19
              Tool 2: Environmental Impact
                       Assessment
   A brick is not just a brick – environmental effects will be
    different for different groups or locations or ecosystems
                              Local
              Earth,          population
                                                  Homeowners
              air and
              water



                   Wildlife                Artisans and
                   and                     builders
                   plants

Mod 5 Ses 2                                                       20
                     Assess who is affected




              http://www.speak.org.uk/files/images/Deforestation_2e.img_assist_custom.jpg


                           Wood harvesting leading to deforestation

Mod 5 Ses 2                                                                                 21
                 Assess what is affected




              Collection of traditional building materials
              at an unsustainable rate affects the ability
              for some species to regenerate and
              destroys habitat for other species.
Mod 5 Ses 2                                                  22
              Assess where are the effects?




              UNEP photo – S. Rocha


Mod 5 Ses 2                                   23
      Environmental Impact Assessment
                   Tools
    See Module 3 Environmental Impact Assessment
     Tools and Techniques
    Environmental Stewardship Review for Humanitarian
     Aid (WWF & American Red Cross)
    Annex VIII Project Environmental Review Record,
     UNEP, SKAT




Mod 5 Ses 2                                              24
              Three R Analysis

                 Reduce




 Recycle                         Reuse

Mod 5 Ses 2                              25
                                         25
              REDUCE Total Material Amounts

    Design for minimum response in terms of
     materials consumed. Put simply – use the least
     (but still acceptable) amount of materials in
     order to ensure the least cost and damage to
     the community and environment.
    Choose materials with lower embodied energy
    Buy materials with least inherent waste in their
     use
    Train workers/ artisans to minimize waste during
     construction

Mod 5 Ses 2                                             26
                        RECYCLE

     Recycle damaged materials where possible
     Use or buy materials with a high recycled content
      percentage




Mod 5 Ses 2                                               27
                        REUSE: The Gift of Rubble




              UNEP photo – Indonesia Tsunamoi aftermath

Mod 5 Ses 2                                               28
    Exercise: How can we put these materials
                 to good use?

   Green waste, such as trees and shrubs
   Concrete and asphalt
   Metal
   Brick
   Dirt
   Many materials can be recovered and re-used
    for their original purpose (bent roofing sheets)


Mod 5 Ses 2                                            29
       Wrong design - Wasted materials




              http://www.conceptrends.com




Mod 5 Ses 2                                 30
              Overall Resource Efficiency
     Environmentally-aware planners consider:
   Include environmental factors when conducting benefit-cost
    analyses for material selection and procurement options.
   Design to use fewer materials (and those with lower embodied
    energy).
   Use local sources – where this can be done in a sustainable
    way.
   Use materials with recycled content (e.g., fly ash)
   Consider disaster debris as a construction material
   Support only sustainable or legal sourcing of materials (e.g.,
    use of legal timber).
   Train workers/ artisans to minimize waste during construction
Mod 5 Ses 2                                                          31
              3-R Analysis in Practice
      Applications – What can you do in your role as funder,
      project planner, or program officer to achieve these
      aims of materials selection in reconstruction
      programs?
                              Reduce




                    Recycle            Reuse
                                                32

Mod 5 Ses 2                                                    32
              LUNCH




Mod 5 Ses 2           33

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:7
posted:8/15/2012
language:
pages:33