Science and technology Human existence has always been by alicejenny


									26. Science and technology
Human existence has always been connected to thinking. Thinking in itself is neither good nor bad. It
simply is and creates who we are. We are what we think and do. We started with simple ideas and
inventing and using tools and continued our growth through machines to complicated systems. We
had many questions that we so much wanted to find answers for. As soon as we took care of our
survival and our basic needs, we started to wonder who we are, why we are here and what the
meaning of all around us is. So they were not only the practical issues of our everyday life but
philosophical and spiritual. For a long time, science was here to discover the principles of this world
and religion to guide our spiritual life. Both disagreed on many things but if God really exists, they are
in essence studying the same thing.
The development has been always fast but in recent two-three centuries it was rapid. We live in an
age, when everything is changing so fast, we hardly have time to adapt and understand it. Future
seems ever closer and the present full of miracles. The world’s population grows and people need
and want more. Everybody wants to be happy and it seems that technology and science can give
us exactly what we need. Wonderful inventions make our lives easier, save our time and technology
has become an inseparable part of our everyday life.
Even simple inventions have the power to bring an important change. The invention of wheel is an
example. Almost all modern transport uses wheels today. The improvement in the field of transport,
the invention of trains and planes has made our planet smaller. It allowed many people to travel,
meet, study different cultures and exchange scientific ideas and theories. This was we have a better
idea who we are and it changed our thinking forever. Now we finally believe that everything is
possible and that we can travel to Mars and grow our organs as spare parts. Every day scientists
discover things that just moments ago were considered impossible or improbable.
Industrial revolution brought inventions like the steam engine (Watt), the electric light bulb (Edison) or
the first petrol-driven car (Benz). Thanks to these inventions, small businesses changed into large
factories, hand-made goods were replaced by machine-made products. Mass production started,
all sorts of goods became cheaper and more available to people.
The development still continues and it appears to be unstoppable. The speed at which we can
gather and share information is incredible. We can communicate almost instantly all over the world
and practically anybody can be my neighbour in virtual world of the Internet. Communication
technologies have made our planet even smaller and smaller. What is happening in part of our world
directly affects everything else. Our Planet has become a complex organism that is difficult to
predict and direct.
Medicine now allows millions of people to survive and live healthier and better quality lives. In
laboratories all around the world new vaccines and pills are tested and created. Thanks to
advances in medicine we have longer life expectation and produce better food. However, the
transport has made our planet smaller also for viruses and other diseases.
Even our homes are full of gadgets and household appliances such as: blenders, coffeemakers,
washing machines, dishwashers, mixers, microwave ovens, freezers, fridges, kettles, cookers, clothes
driers, hairdryers, irons, air conditioners, bread makers, roasters, food processors, scales, vacuum
cleaners, toasters, fans, clocks, heaters, sewing machines, ovens, telephones, televisions, computers,
CD players, DVD players, MP3 players, mobile phones, juicers, eclectic toothbrushes, alarm clocks,
radios and others.
PAPER – before it was invented people wrote on e.g. clay, tablets, silk, palm leaves, later papyrus.
Paper was invented in China in 105 AD. The first Chinese paper was made of silk, then the bark of
mulberry trees. Today most paper is produced by the chemical treatment of wood pulp.
ELECTRICITY – we can not imagine our life without electricity; we use it for lighting, heating, radio, TV,
etc. It all started in about 600 BC when the Greek philosopher Thales noticed that amber rubbed with
wool attracts light objects (as feather, straw). It was started to use in 17th century. Electricity which is
used as a form of energy is in fact electric current. It is produced in power stations by generators and
comes into our houses via cables.
THE TELEPHONE – it enables us to communicate with others both in everyday life and in business. It
dates back to 1876 when Alexander Graham Bell, physicist and inventor, developed his “speaking
box “. Another important name in the field of communication is Gugliemo Marconi, an Italian
electric engineer, who began radio experiments in 1894, and 4 years later he carried out the first
international (England – France) wireless transmission.
CAR - this invention made transport faster and more comfortable and significantly shortened travel
time. It was invented by two Germans, Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz (1885).
TELEVISION – is a relatively recent achievement, at least for the public, because it did not appear in
people’s houses until the 1950s. But for experts television as a means of transmitting pictures has
existed longer. The first television transmissions were made in England in 1926 by the Scotsman John
Logie Baird.
LASER – it was discovered in 1961. It‘s a beam of light at the same frequency but with far great
power. When the materials used are glass or crystal, this light is known as laser light. Laser is used in
industry for cutting, drilling or welding very hard materials, in space navigation it is used for
maintaining communication and measuring distances and it is also used in medicine in many kinds of
operations – the most common medical use is in eye surgery.
The best examples how the science can be abused are weapons - at first, meant as a defensive tool
used only in case of danger. But we all know that it isn’t like that. Weapon that influenced a world
most was the nuclear weapon. It is a weapon that derives its energy from nuclear reactions and has
enormous destructive power — a single nuclear weapon is capable of destroying a city. Nuclear
weapons have been used twice for war, by the United States against the Japanese cities of
Hiroshima (Little Boy) and Nagasaki (Fat Man) during World War II with dreadful results. Little Boy had
a force of 12,000 tons of TNT, it levelled all buildings and 100,000 people died. Very dangerous are
also chemical and biological weapons.
Developments in science and technology will have a dramatic effect on the future of work.
Postmen, clerks and secretaries will vanish in a paper-free society. All the routine tasks they perform
will be carried by computers. In education teachers will be largely replaced by teaching machines
which will provide far more knowledge than any human being. Moreover, most learning will take
place in the home via video conferencing. However, children will still go to school, until another
place is created where they can make friends and develop social skills through play. Even people in
traditional professions, where the knowledge was the most important, lost their jobs. They can be
easily substituted by computer with all the most up-to-date legal information. You might meet with
the computer judge.
It’s hard to figure out exactly what makes something a science but we can define it both as a
process of gaining knowledge, and as the organized body of knowledge gained by this process.
Science has distinctive aspects that make it unique. First aspect can be that science tries to ask
questions that can be tested. So you can’t ask the question ‘‘Why does the universe exist?‘‘. The right
question can be ‘‘When did the universe come into existence?‘‘ because you could design
experiments to test the answers. This reveals another characteristic of science – it usually involves
doing an experiment. In science your experiment has to be repeatable. One of the most popular
conceptions of what makes science different is that it follows the scientific method. This method
involves asking a question, performing an experiment, gathering observations and coming to

Science and technology is as old as the mankind. Science has started to develop as people have
sought to somehow improve their lives. The first inventions and discoveries were very simple. As the
first important discovery in the development of the mankind we consider the discovery of fire. On the
other hand the first important invention was the invention of wheel (about 4,000 B.C.). About the year
3,000 BC people started to live in towns, where science began to grow. Many important inventions
like writing, reading, counting, astronomy, medicine and chemistry began to develop. Man’s effort to
survive and to improve his way of life made him invent new and better tools, get deeper knowledge
and control of the forces of nature. As man’s knowledge grew people found it useful to classify it. It
was separated into various branches, such as physics – the study of natural forces, biology – the
study of living beings, chemistry – the study of materials.

Science has been very fast growing and our understanding has much grown in comparison with the
world hundred years ago. In that time patients battle illness, while doctors can’t do more than
counsel and comfort them and keep them clean. Now doctors treat and often cure patients with
variety of medicines and medical technologies. Public sanitation has eliminated many of the lethal-
diseases such as plague, dysentery, tuberculosis. Many cures have been found for infectious
diseases, flu, diabetes, etc. Penicillin (an antibiotic that kills bacteria) was discovered by Alexander
Fleming in 1928, insulin by F. Sanger in 1958. Quite a few people live longer owing to transplanted
organs, such as heart, kidneys, lungs or liver.
The only way to view some significant event was only to be there. Today we have television, where
the program can be instantaneously transmitted by satellites. The news will spread as well by radio,
newspaper, and the World Wide Web.

At the beginning of the 20th century most people travelled on foot or by horse-drawn vehicles.
Nowadays there is public transport in most towns, high-speed trains and supersonic planes to travel
long distances and cars to get to work, to shops or to go for a weekend break.
Equipment of houses has changed completely. In the kitchen you can find microwave which is
completely electronic or a washing machine which perfectly wash and dry used dishes for you. To
other useful appliances in house belongs vacuum cleaner, fridge, razor, flat-iron…
These all science results led to make our life easier and safer. The evidence of this fact can be the rise
of the life-expectancy. For example the life-expectancy in the USA in 1901 was 49 years, at the end
of century it was 77 years. In India and China it was around 63 years.
According to my opinion the most popular technical achievement in man’s history is computer. The
history of computers started actually in 1960s when the first electronic computer was developed.
From that time computers have undergone dramatic changes in size, speed, software and prize.
From the big computers that took a whole basket field and many people were needed to operate it,
gradually appeared smaller and smaller ones and noticeably more powerful. We know that
computers have already revolutionized the way how we live and work. They help us work faster and
more effectively. For example, in business, computers are used to store, process and retrieve data at
a speed that is thousand times faster than formerly. On PC we can write text, paint pictures, play
games or of course do other different activities. Today everyone works with computers.

Use of computer can be better if you have an access to the information highway - the Internet. It
was invented by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 and it enables people to get information that is normally
unavailable – from world libraries, museums and other institutions including business and finance
offices. But you can also send and receive e-mail letters that reach their destinations in a few
seconds or minutes irrespective of the distance or you can download music and film files. And it has
also enabled home-working to women with children or people living in distant places, who would
have to commute a long distances to work every day.
Another very useful branch of science is nuclear physics (branch of physics concerned with the
nucleus of the atom). The main use of nuclear physics is in nuclear power. Nuclear power station
produce a huge amount of electricity. The problem is that its very dangerous when occurs some
accident and also problems are with nuclear waste which is radioactive. Another usage is in X-ray
(form of electromagnetic radiation) which is widely used for diagnostic medical imaging and in
crystallography. Many people suffering from cancer were cured by a treatment with usage of

In 20th century a huge interest in universe came. First man in the universe was Yuri Gagarin from
Russia (1961) and the first men on the moon were Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin (1969) from USA.
From that time many space stations have been built, thousands of satellites are orbiting our planet
for communication purposes, weather forecast etc. Communications satellites can pick up signals
from a point on the Earth and relay them to the other side of the Earth by amplifying them and then
beaming down to a ground station. Some satellites carry cameras which take pictures of the Earth’s
surface to help meteorologists forecast. Other satellites carry cameras and telescopes which are
pointed out into space so that astronauts can get more information about distant stars and planets.

In house you have a washing machine, which will wash your dish for you; then you have an oven
that automatically order the course of baking according to the food you insert there; you have a car
which you use for a transport; you can buy things on-line so goods will be delivered right to your
house. As a science develops, people become lazier; simply they are living easier and easier life but
only from a physical side of man. From a mental side people get more and more stressed, they are
still in rush. People don’t do any sport because they simply don’t have any time. Besides a healthy
nutrition, people eat hamburgers, drink alcohol and smoke cigarettes. This all doesn’t influence our
health positively. And that’s why the civilization diseases came to existence. Right example can be
the heart attack or diseases which are related to metabolism, bloodstream. Many people die for
these diseases.

From the beginning of people’s existence they have used tools, various types of energy and
materials, generally for the purposes of production of nearly everything in our world. Almost every
human process for getting food and shelter depends on complex technological systems. At present,
modern industry largely depends on power, materials, machinery and production processes.
In early human history, the only power available was muscle power augmented by primitive tools,
such as the wedge or lever. The invention of the wheel (about 300 B.C.) was followed by the
watermill and windmill (12th century A.D.). Not until the 18th century did an alternative source of
power appear in the form of the first working steam engine developed and improved by James
Watt. The steam engine and other technical advances made possible the replacement of traditional
agrarian economy by one dominated by machinery and manufacturing. The sudden acceleration
of technical and economic development that began in Britain in the second half of the 18 th century
is called the Industrial Revolution. This transferred the balance of political power from the landowner
to the industrial capitalist and created an urban working class. The steam engine was originally
developed for draining mines but was rapidly put to use in factories and on the railways. Hand-made
products were replaced by machine-made products which increased in number, and together with
faster transportation by means of a railway, this meant a significant change in industry.
Michael Faraday´s demonstration of the dynamo in 1831 revealed the potential of the electrical
motor and became the basis of electrical engineering.
Electricity generated on a commercial scale was available from the early 1880s and was used for
electric motors which powered all kinds of machinery and for lighting, first by carbon arc lamp,
invented by František Křižík in 1880, and by an electric bulb invented by Thomas A. Edison in 1879.
Electricity is the most useful and most convenient form of energy, readily convertible into heat and
light and used to power machines. Electricity can be generated in one place (power stations/plants)
and distributed anywhere because it readily flows through wires.
The invention of the internal-combustion engine by German scientist Nicholas Otto in 1876 enabled
two Germans, Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz to create the first petrol-driven motorcar (1885). This
invention made transport faster and more comfortable and significantly shortened travel time.
The 1940s saw the explosion of the first atomic bomb and the subsequent development of the
nuclear power industry. Nuclear energy as well as natural gas, water power, oil and coal are current
sources of energy. Scientists try to increase the contribution of wind, tidal solar and geothermic
The earliest materials used by humans were wood, bone, horn, shell and stone. Metals were rare and
difficult to obtain, although forms of bronze and iron were used in 6000 B.C. and 1000 B.C. The
introduction of the blast furnace in the 15th century enabled cast iron to be extracted, but this
process remained expensive until charcoal was substituted by coke in 1709. This change ensured a
plentiful supply of cheap iron at the start of the Industrial Revolution.
Soon new materials were introduced, such as rubber, glass, leather, paper, bricks and porcelain and
later, after the mid-1880s, entirely new synthetic materials appeared. First dyes, then plastic and
celluloid and still later drugs were synthetized and synthetic fibres were made. This process still
continues with the growth of genetic engineering which enabled the production of synthetic insulin
and growth hormones.
Production process and equipment in the factories also changed as much as power and materials.
The lathe (potter´s wheel), known in antiquity, was not fully developed until the 18th century when it
was used to produce objects of great precision. The first attempts at automation were demonstrated
in the 18th century when looms were controlled automatically by punched cards. The first moving
assembly line appeared in 1870 in meat-packing factories in Chicago, USA, and then in the motor
industry in 1913. At present, electronic computers control fully automated plants.
Plenty of inventions and discoveries have influenced and changed human life, such as aircraft,
radio, television, telephone, X-ray machines, radar, air-cushion vehicles (hovercraft), electric
welding, photographs, birth-control methods, test-tube babies, penicillin and vitamin C.
Undoubtedly the transistor, integrated circuit (silicon chip) and laser were the three inventions that
have had the greatest impact on modern-day life.
Electronic and microelectronic industries, space research and genetic engineering probably
represent the branches where progress will continue most rapidly.
Space flights represent a special application of modern technology and science. The first satellites
were launched into orbit around Earth in 1957 by the Russians and soon the first man-operated
spacecraft was put into orbit. In 1961 Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human in
space aboard the spacecraft Vostok 1. In a few years manned missions to the Moon were achieved,
the first being Apollo 11. The first people to step onto the Moon´s surface on 20 th July 1969 were Nail
Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin. At present artificial satellites are used for scientic purposes,
communications, weather forecasting and military purposes.
Since the 1960s we have spoken about the scientific-technical revolution because at present both
science and technology are the most important phenomena which can contribute to solving the
problems of people on the earth: to find other alternative energy sources, to reduce pollution of all
kinds and protect the environment, to find ways how to feed the constantly increasing number of
people and to discover medicine against such diseases as cancer, AIDS or the latest Ebola virus
which threaten the contemporary world.
Not all inventions and discoveries, however, have brought people improvement and innovation.
Ballistic missiles, extra powerful laser weapons, nuclear and H-bombs and pollution of the
environment are only a few examples of how good ideas may be abused. Technology is dependent
upon how people use it, under what circumstances new ideas and inventions are introduces into life.
Science is systemized knowledge gained through experimentation, observation and study. There
exist many fields of sciences – natural sciences, social sciences, environmental sciences and so on.
Many discoveries (such as the fact that the Earth is not flat) were made through observation. Some
discoveries lead to invention of object, process or techniques.
Technology (a product of science) is the application of knowledge to achieve a practical result.
Society depends on technology and technology exists thanks to the needs of society. Technological
development changes society. However, our world has not always been like that. The industrial
revolution, which started in the 18th century in England, brought a major technological change. The
economy based on manual labour was replaced by an economy dominated by machine
manufacturing. The major achievements were the invention of steam power and powered
machinery. Since then, technology has become a part of our everyday life.
Society has made enormous scientific and technological progress in transport, medicine, biology
and information technology. We realise this when we compare how people travelled in the 18th
century and how they travel now. The progress in the car industry and aviation is really incredible. In
the middle of the 20th century people were able to leave the planet for the first time and explore the
Great progress has been made in the field of medicine. Science and technology has helped ease
the pain of certain types of diseases. It has even cured and prevented some diseases that were
considered incurable in the past. It helps prolong the life of people and makes the lives of the
handicapped easier. Nowadays, it is possible for doctors to help in surgeries that are taking place in
another part of the country or even on the other side of the world. The doctor can see the patient
and vital information about the patient on his video phone and speak directly to the surgeons
performing the operation.
In the field of biology, especially microbiology, the scientists do not prolong life, but they create in. In
vitro fertilization and cloning are currently the most debated issues in this field. The first one presents a
technique for the treatment infertility in which egg cells are fertilised outside the woman´s body.
Cloning an organism means creating a new organism with the same genetic information as a cell
from an existing one. This invention of molecular biology can be used for many purposes, e. g. to
produce organs or tissues to repair or replace damaged ones. However, many people do not agree
with human cloning saying that the potential for abuse is very big.
Advances in medical science mean that many diseases which were incurable in the past can now
be treated specially by means of gene therapy. Scientists can use genetic engineering to grow
crops and breed animals. The ability to manipulate genes could eventually change everything
about our way of life – what we eat, what we wear, how we live. Some people say that it is the key
to our future development, while others are starting to be worried about what these benefits will cost.
During the last decades, we have witnessed the biggest advance in information and communication
technology, especially in wireless technology. The most remarkable were the inventions of the cell
phone and the Internet. At the beginning of the 20th century, nobody could have imagined what life
would be like at the beginning of the 21st century. Technology evolves very quickly and the process is
unstoppable. Japan and the USA compete to be the first to introduce the high-tech on the market.
The amount of people using mobile phones has rapidly increased, especially in the Central and
Eastern Europe. Mobile phones have become either a symbol of comfortable, quick communication
or a fashion, mainly among youngsters. Newer and newer services for cell phones are being
developed; many of them allow users to download CD quality songs to their wireless phones. The cell
phone, the music player, the camera and the palm computer are being put together into one little
gadget. Current trends show that the gadgets are getting more and more sophisticated and young
people (even children) use them more and more easily.
A computer skill is becoming a basic skill acquired early in childhood. Information and
communication technologies are also getting more and more accessible. Computers have already
replaced people in some professions. Some people think that they will replace the teacher one day
too. Others argue that computers can only be used in education for acquiring passive knowledge
and for testing the knowledge. However, many types of interactive software are developed
nowadays and many European universities have even started to offer online study programmes.
Science and technology help us with minor everyday work (household appliances) but also with
important global issues like saving human lives or exploring the space. Without it our lives would be
much more difficult and our knowledge restricted. However, science and technology can be
misused, as has already happened many times. The car, for instance, has made us much more
independent but has started to be used for military purposes. It has also caused massive pollution
and the consumption of fuel has resulted in conflicts between nations. Almost all the technological
inventions can be misused in one way or another.
Nuclear power is used in nuclear power plants which generate electricity. Many organisations, such
as the independent, campaigning organisation Greenpeace, promote alternative ways of
producing electricity. The safety of nuclear power plants is debatable. They proved to be dangerous
in the 1980s of the 20th century in Chernobyl (the Ukraine) where a massive nuclear explosion put the
rest of Europe in danger. The inventions of nuclear physics are also used in medicine, both in
diagnosis and therapy and in other fields. However, the gun industry, especially nuclear weapons,
have become the most dangerous threat to the world we live in.
Technology provokes a consumer lifestyle, the opposite extreme of poverty. The consumer society
has been very harmful to the environment and it does not provide us with a sense of fulfilment. It
forces us to rely on material things because we suffer from social, psychological and spiritual
hungers. It also causes physical damage because this type of lifestyle provokes many diseases.
Scientists will continue to conduct research in medicine, microbiology and all the other fields of
science. Slovakia has many good researchers, but in recent years a lot of highly-qualified scientists,
programmers, technicians, doctors and teachers have left the country to find a better-paid job
elsewhere in the Western Europe, the USA or Canada. This phenomenon, called the brain drain, is
increasingly becoming a problem in many post-communist countries. It presents a serious loss for our
country and is caused by low salaries and a lack of job opportunities. It is therefore very important to
improve the economy as a whole and create good working conditions, so that this trend does not
continue for a very long time.
                                       Who is who in science?
Sir William Harvey (1578 – 1657), physician to James I and Charles I, who discovered the circulation of
blood. He showed that it was caused by the muscular action of the heart.
Sir Isaac Newton (1643 – 1727). English mathematician, physicist, astronomer and philosopher. He
discovered the law of gravity, created calculus, discovered that white lights is composed of many
colours and developed the three standard laws of motion still in use today. His universal law of
gravitation explained for the first time the phenomena of the universe, the tides and the motion of
objects on the earth. From 1703 until his death he was President of the Royal Society, and was
knighted in 1705. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Edmund Halley (1656 – 1742) astronomer, who was the first to predict the return of a comet since
known as Halley´s comet: he made contributions to the study of the moon and the motion of the
Henry Cavendish (1731 – 1810), English physicist who discovered hydrogen and determined the
composition of water and nitric acid. He also discovered the mass and density of the Earth.
James Watt (1736 – 1819), Scottish engineer who developed a new type of steam engine of much
greater efficiency than the previous types. He made Thomas Newcomen´s steam engine more
efficient by cooling the used steam in a condenser separate from main cylinder.
Robert Fulton (1765 - 1815), American engineer and inventor. He pioneered steam navigation with his
Clermont, the first commercially successful steamboat which appeared on the Hudson 1807. He
experimented with submarines and torpedoes, and built the Fulton, the first steam warship.
Humpry Davy (1778 – 1829) English chemist who discovered the elements sodium, potassium,
calcium, boron, magnesium, strontium and barium and proposed that hydrogen is present in all
George Stephenson (1781 – 1848) English engineer who constructed the first successful steam
locomotive (1814) and built the world´s first public passenger railway (1821) between Stockton and
Michael Faraday (1791 – 1867) English chemist and physicist who is known especially for the
discovery of the transformation of energy from mechanical to electrical which led to the later
discovery of the electric generator. He also investigated electrolysis. He experimented with
electromagnetism and discovered the induction of electric currents and made the first dynamo.
Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882), English scientist who developed the modern theory of evolution and
proposed the principle of natural selection. After research in South America and the Galapagos
Islands as a naturalist Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection and
later Descent of Man. He explained that the many species of living creatures are not the result of
acts of creation, but have developed from slight differences in individuals due to their special
surroundings and their struggle for existence. His theory aroused bitter controversy because it was
interpreted as saying that we were descended from monkeys and the Church took it as an attack on
the validity of the Scriptures. But Darwin lived to see his theories widely accepted.
Thomas Alva Edison (1847 – 1931), American inventor with over 1000 patents. In Menlo Park, New
Jersey, he produced his most important inventions, including the electric bulb in 1879. He
constructed a system of electric power distribution for consumers, the telephone transmitter, and the
Alexander Graham Bell (1847 – 1922), Scottish inventor, who patented his invention of the telephone
in 1876.
Ernest Rutherford (1871 – 1937) New Zealand physicist, a pioneer of modern atomic science. His main
research was in the field of radioactivity, and he discovered alpha, beta and gamma rays. He
named the nucleus, and was the first to recognize the ionizing nature of the atom. He was awarded
the Nobel prize in 1908.
Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955), German born US physicist. He profoundly influenced science in many
fields, such as radiation physics and thermodynamics, but is best known for formulating the theories
of relativity (1905 and 1915). He is also distinguished for his work for peace and justice. He received
the Nobel prize in 1921. In 1911 he became a lecturer in theoretical physics in Prague, in 1933 he
emigrated to the USA and became professor of mathematics in Princeton, New Jersey.
Sir Alexander Fleming (1881 – 1955), Scottish bacteriologist, who discovered the first antibiotic drug,
penicillin in 1928, although it did not come into use until 1941. In 1945 he won the Nobel prize.
Linus Carl Pauling (1901 -), American chemist who investigated the properties and uses of vitamin C
as related to human health. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1954. As he was an
outspoken opponent of nuclear testing, he also received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962.
James Dewey Watson (1928 -) American biologist whose research on the molecular structure of DNA
and the genetic code earned him the Nobel prize in 1962. He was born in Chicago. After attending
public schools in his native town, he entered the university there in 1943, when only 16. When he had
graduated, he did work in genetics at Indiana University and received his PhD in 1950. Then he went
to Europe and worked at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge from 1951 to 1953. There he met
Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins, and the collaboration resulted in the discovery of a structure for
DNA in 1953. DNA /desoxyribonucleic acid/ is the molecule of heredity, and to know its structure
enables science to know how the forms of life are transmitted from one generation to the next one.
The forms of life are passed on in the cells of the double helix from the parents to the next
generation. This major scientific advance in genetics led to the awarding of the 1962 Nobel Prize to
the whole team. J. Watson became the youngest ever holder of the Nobel Prize. After his return to
the USA he became professor of biology at Harvard University, Cambridge. His discovery stimulated a
rapid development of genetic engineering in America.
Technology vocabulary

hairdryer                        electronic dictionary          hair curlers
depilator                        electric lawnmower             robot vacuum cleaner
night light                      Bluetooth              microphone
bug                              (electric) fan         humidifier
Electric toothbrush              Washing machine        Dishwasher
WiFi                             Kettle                 Toaster
Bread maker                      Chest freezer          Rice cooker
Tumble drier                     Lava lamp              Nintendo DS
Video game machine               Laptop                 PDA
3G phone                         Answer machine         Flat screen television
Hands free phone                 Voice activated...     Car alarm
Car navigation                   MP3 player/ iPod       Walkman/ personal stereo
Air conditioner                  Remote control         Stereo
Massage chair                    Wii Fit                Tamagotchi
Furby                            Electric can opener    Foot spa
Battery charger                  Digital alarm clock    Projector
Digital voice recorder           Spotlight              Energy saving light bulbs
Water cooler                     Ice cube dispenser     Fridge (= refrigerator)
Microwave (oven)                 Hoover (= vacuum cleaner)      3D glasses
Wireless                         LAN Floppy disk        USB stick
Wireless mouse                   Touch screen           Desk lamp
Instant camera (= instamatic camera)                    Fax (machine)
Scanner                          Digital photocopier    Colour printer
Colour photocopier               Laminator              Electric pencil sharpener
Food processor/ mixer/ blender/ juicer                  Espresso machine
Drinks machine                   Vending machine        Ticket machine
Digital watch                    Digital radio          Heat detector
Smoke detector                   Laser pointer          Wireless keyboard
Boom box                         CD ROM                 DVD ROM
Surround sound speakers          Home cinema            Motion detector
Wireless headphones              GPS                    Electric blanket
Electric razor                   Barcode reader         Universal remote control
A laptop                         A Dictaphone           A smoke detector
An intercom                     A mobile phone             A projector
An answer machine               A fire extinguisher        Network
Evaporation                     Liquids                    Nanotechnology
Technological advances          Green technology           Stripped-down
Outlet                          Oomph                      Post
Make a shot                     Space rocket

Sciences and scientists                               database – databáza
archaeologist – archeológ                             desktop – stolný počítač
archaeology – archeológia                             download (a file) – uložiť súbor do počítača
area of research – oblasť výskumu                     file – súbor
bacteriologist - bakteriológ                          floppy disk – disketa
biologist – biológ                                    hard disk – pevný disk
biology – biológia                                    hardware – hardware
chemist – chemik                                      install – inštalovať
chemistry – chémia                                    IT – informačné technológie
computer science – informatika                        key – kláves
experiment – experiment                               keyboard – klávesnica
engineer - inžinier                                   laptop – prenosný počítač
chemical formula – chemický vzorec                    memory – pamäť
geneticist – genetic                                  menu – výber užívateľských možností
genetics – genetika                                   monitor – monitor
geologist – geológ                                    mouse – myš
geology – geológia                                    portable – prenosný
inventor – vynálezca                                  printer – tlačiareň
investigate – vyšetrovať                              run a program – spustiť program
linguist – lingvista                                  scanner – skener
linguistics – lingvistika                             setup – nastavenie
mathematician – matematik                             software – programové vybavenie
mathematics – matematika                              toolbar – panel nástrojov
physician - lekár                                     be out of order – byť mimo prevádzky
physicist – fyzik                                     break down – pokaziť sa
physics – fyzika                                      go dead – prestať fungovať
political science – politológia                       stop working – prestať fungovať
psychologist – psychológ
psychology – psychológia                              Space
research laboratory – výskumné laboratórium           alien – mimozemšťan, votrelec
scientific – vedecký                                  astronaut – astronaut
scientific theory – vedecká teória                    comet – kométa
scientist – vedec                                     countdown – odpočítavanie
social sciences – spoločenská veda                    extraterrestrial – mimozemský
sociologist – sociology                               launch – vypustiť, odštartovať
sociology – sociológia                                launch pad – štartovacia plocha
statistical data – štatistické údaje                  meteor – meteor
statistics – štatistika                               meteorite – meteorit
survey – prieskum                                     orbit – obežná dráha
                                                      outer space – medziplanetárny priestor
Computers                                             rocket – raketa
application – aplikácia, program                      satellite – satelit, družica
CD-reader – mechanika na čítanie CD                   shooting star – meteor
CD-ROM – mechanika na čítanie CD                      space shuttle – raketoplán
CD-writer – mechanika na zápis CD                     space station – vesmírna stanica
double-click – dvojklik                               space travel – kozmický let
computer programmer – programátor                     spacecraft – kozmická loď
configuration – konfigurácia, nastavenie              spacesuit – kozmický skafander
crash – spadnúť, zlyhať                               the universe – vesmír
customise – prispôsobiť                               UFO – unidentified flying object
voyage – cesta, let                                    iron - železo
                                                       cast iron - liatina
Fuel                                                   rubber - guma
coal – uhlie                                           leather - koža
oil – ropa                                             brick - tehla
petrol/gas – benzín / plyn                             porcelain - porcelán
natural gas – zemný plyn                               dye - farba
uranium - urán                                         celluloid – celuloid
electricity - elektrina                                synthetic fibres – syntetické vlákna
tidal - príliv                                         plastic – umelá hmota
geothermal power – geotermálna energia                 glass – sklo
solar power – slnečná energia                          paper – papier
windmill – veterný mlyn
watermill – vodný mlyn                                 Tools
a dam – priehrada                                      wedge - klin
mine coal – uhoľná baňa                                lever - páka
carry oil/gas by pipeline – prepravovať ropu           wheel – koleso, Volant
potrubím                                               lathe - sústruh
oil refinery – rafinéria ropy                          potter´s wheel – hrnčiarsky kruh
gas works - plynáreň                                   loom - krosná
                                                       knife - nôž
Electricity                                            hammer - kladivo
steam engine – parný stroj                             drive a nail in – zatĺcť klinec
aircraft – lietadlo                                    saw - píla
air-cushion vehicle - vznášadlo                        drill - vrták
radar - radar                                          chisel - dláto
radio - rádio                                          plane - hoblík
television - televízia                                 screw-driver - skrutkovač
telephone - telefón                                    screw in - naskrutkovať
X-ray machine - rontgen                                screw - skrutka
transistor – transistor, tranzistorové rádio           scythe - kosa
integrated circuit – integrovaný obvod                 mow grass – kosiť trávu
electric welding - zváranie                            cut/chop/split wood – štiepať drevo
penicillin - penicilín                                 paintbrush – maliarsky štetec
vitamin C                                              paint – farba, lak
test-tube babies – deti zo skúmaviek                   spanner - kľúč
birth-control pills – antikoncepčné pilulky            pair of pliers - kliešte
printing – tlač                                        pull out - vytiahnuť
photography - fotografia                               bend/twist wire – ohnúť drôt
laser                                                  pair of scissors - nožnice
compact disc - CD                                      spade - rýľ
radioactivity - rádioaktivita                          dig - kopať
                                                       rake - hrable
Materials                                              fork - vidlička
bone - kosť                                            hoe - motyka
stone - kameň                                          shovel - lopata
wood – drevo                                           ladder - rebrík
bronze - bronz
                                          Additional vocabulary

a growing number (of) – rastúci počet                  advance – pokrok
abuse - zneužitie                                      advance – postupovať
acceleration – zrýchlenie, urýchlenie                  aerial – antenna
access to – prístup k                                  air conditioner –
accessible – dostupný                                  alarm clock – budík
achievement – úspech                                   alternative source – alternatívny zdroj
adjustable – nadstaviteľný                             antibiotic drugs - antibiotiká
appliance – spotrebič                             descend – pokles, úpadok
as a whole – ako celok                            device – prístroj
assembly line – montážna linka                    digital (watch) – digitálne (hodinky)
augment – zväčšiť rozšíriť                        discovery – objav
automation - automatizácia                        dishwasher – myčka riadu
available – dostupný                              distribute - rozmiestniť
aviation – letectvo                               double helix – dvojitá špirála
ballistic missiles – balistické, vrhacie rakety   download – stiahnuť
barium - bárium                                   drill – vŕtačka
based on – založený na                            DVD player –
battery – bacteria                                dynamite – dynamit
Big Band theory –                                 earpiece – slúchadlo do uší
blast furnace – vysoká pec                        egg cell – vajíčko (v tele ženy)
blender – miešač                                  electic toothbrush – elektrická zbk
boron - bórum                                     electric bulb - žiarovka
brain drain – odliv mozgov                        electric current – elektrický prúd
bread maker – pekárnička na chleba                electrical engineering - elektrotechnika
breakdown – zlyhanie                              electronic – elektronický
breakthrough – prelom                             element – prvok, zložka
broom – metla                                     enable – umožniť
button – tlačidlo, gombík                         enemy – nepriateľ
cable – kábel                                     engine – stroj
cable TV – káblová televízia                      enhance – vylepšiť
calcium - vápnik                                  enormous – obrovský
calculus – výpočtová metóda                       equipment – zariadenie
camcorder – kamera                                event – udalosť
carbon arc lamp – uhlíková lampa                  evolution – evolúcia
CD player –                                       experiment – pokus
cell phone – mobilný telefón                      explosion of a bomb – výbuch bomby
charcoal – drevené uhlie                          fan – ventilátor
charge – nabíjať                                  feature – vlastnosť
charger – nabíjačka                               field – odbor
circuit board – doska s elektrickým obvodom       file – súbor
(pre počítač)                                     flow through wires – prúdiť cez drôty
circulation of blood – obeh krvi                  food processor – kuch. robot
claim – tvrdiť                                    for instance – napríklad
clock – nástenné hodiny                           forbidden – zakázaný
cloning – klonovanie                              formation – tvorba
clothes drier – sušička na prádlo                 freezer – mraznička
coffeemaker – kávovar                             fridge – chladnička
coke - koks                                       frozen – zamrznutý
commercial scale – obchodné meradlo               gadget – malý prístroj
computer-aided-design – CAD                       gain – získať
condenser - kondenzátor                           gas turbine – parná turbine
connection – spojenie                             generate – vytvárať
consumer – spotrebiteľ                            genetic engineering - genetické inžinierstvo
consumer lifestyle – konzumný spôsob života       get a prize – získať cenu
consumption of fuel – spotreba paliva             go off-line – odpojiť sa
contact lenses – kontaktné šošovky                gramophone – gramofón
convenience – pohodlie                            gravitation – gravitácia, príťažlivosť
cooker – varič                                    growing fear – rastúci starch
cordless – bezdrôtový                             growth hormone – rastový hormón
current trend – súčasný trend                     hairdryer – fén
cutting-edge – najnovší                           hammer – kladivo
cylinder – valec, bomba                           hard copy – papierová kópia
damaged – poškodený                               headphones – slúchadlá
debatable – diskutabilný                          headset – slúchadlá (k rádiu , telefónu)
decade – desaťročie                               heater – ohrievač
heavy machine – ťažké stroje                          MP3 player –
high-tech – najnovšia tech                            natural resources – prírodné zdroje
home-made production – domáca výroba                  natural sciences – prírodné vedy
hydrogen - vodík                                      node – uzol
impact – dopad                                        nuclear energy – atómová energia
improve facilities – zlepšiť príslušenstvo            nuclear power plant – jadrová elektráreň
in one way to another – tak či onak                   observation – pozorovanie
in vitro fertilization – oplodnenie v skúmavke        out-of-date – neaktuálny, zastaralý
increase – zvýšiť                                     oven – rúra
incredible – neuveriteľný                             palm – dlaň
incurable – nevyliečiteľný                            paranormal – nadprirodzený
induction – indukcia, vyvolanie                       peeler – škrabka
insulin - inzulín                                     performance – výkon
internal-combustion         engine    –    vnútorný   petrol driven motorcar – vozidlo poháňané
spaľovací motor                                       benzínom
invent – vynaliezť                                    phenomenon – úkaz, jav
invention – vynález                                   photocopier – fotokopírka
inventor – vynálezca                                  plastic – umelá hmota
ionizing nature – ionizujúca príroda                  plug – prípojka, elektrická zástrčka
iron – žehliť, žehlička                               plug and play – pripravený na použitie
ironing board – doska na žehlenie                     point of view – názor
It does not provide us with a sense of fulfilment     portable – prenosný
– Neposkytuje nám to pocit uspokojenia.               potassium - draslík
item – položka                                        potential for abuse – možnosť zneužitia
juicer – odšťavňovač                                  poverty – chudoba
kettle – kanvica                                      powered machinery – stroje poháňané
keypad – klávesnica                                   elektrickou energiou
lack of evidence – nedostatok dôkazov                 powerful – výkonný, silný
lack of job opportunities – nedostatok                precaution – bezpečnostné opatrenie
pracovných príležitostí                               precision tool – presný nástroj
landowner - statkár                                   previous– predchádzajúci
launch into orbit – vypustený do vesmíru              printing press – tlač
lawnmower – kosačka na trávu                          production process – výrobný proces
light bulb – elektrická žiarovka                      prolong life – predĺžiť život
link – spoj                                           promote – presadzovať
liquid crystal display – lcd                          properties of vitamin – vlastnosti vitamínu
log on – prihlásiť sa                                 punched cards – dierne štítky
loss – strata                                         purpose – účel
low salary – nízky plat                               rate – tempo, rýchlosť
machine-made production – strojová výroba             reading glasses – okuliare na čítanie
machinery - stroje                                    realise – uvedomiť
magnesium - horčík                                    reboot – reštartovať
major – významný                                      recent survey – nedávny prieskum
manned spacecraft – vesmírna loď s posádkou           reliable – spoľahlivý
manual – návod na použitie, príručka                  remarkable – pozoruhodný
manual – ručný                                        research – výskum
manual labour – manuálna práca                        research institute – výskumný ústav
manufacturer – výrobca                                researcher – výskumník
massive pollution – obrovské znečistenie              restricted – obmedzený
memory – pamäť                                        restriction – obmedzenie
mental illness – duševná choroba                      reveal - odhaliť
microwave oven – mikrovlnka                           roaster – pekáč
military – vojenský                                   robot – robot
minor – drobný                                        saw – píla
mixer – mixér                                         scale – škála
mobile phone –                                        scales – váha
molecule of heredity – dedičné molekuly               scientific progress – vedecký pokrok
motor – motor                                         scientist – vedec
scissors – nožnice                             to click a button – stlačiť tlačidlo
screwdriver – skrutkovač                       to conduct research – viesť, robiť výskum
Scriptures - Biblia                            to contain – obsahovať
security system – bezpečnostný system          to cure a disease – vyliečit chorobu
setting – nadstavenie                          to destroy – zničiť
sewing machine – šijací stroj                  to ease the pain – zmierniť bolesť
shelter - úkryt                                to emit – vyžarovať
skill – zručnosť                               to evolve – rozvíjať sa
social behaviour – spoločenské správanie       to exchange – vymeniť si
socket – (elektrická) zásuvka                  to explore the space – skúmať vesmír
sodium - sodík                                 to fix the problem – vyriešiť problem
soft copy – elektronická kópia                 to gain – získať
solar-powered – napájaný sln. energy.          to generate – vyrábať, generovať
source of information – zdroj informácie       to gossip – pokecať si
space research – vesmírny výskum               to have access to a computer – mať prístup k
spacesuit– skafander                           počítaču
speaker – reproduktor                          to increase rapidly – prudko sa zvýšiť
spriritual hunger – duševný hlad               to indicate – naznačiť, ukázať
steam – para                                   to invent – vynájsť
steam locomotive – parná lokomotíva            to keep a record (of) – viesť si záznam,
steam navigation – paroplavba                  evidovať si
steamboat - parník                             to perform an operation – uskutočniť operáciu
stink – smrdieť                                to persuade – presvedčiť
strap – objímka, strmeň                        to press a key – stlačiť kláves, tlačidlo
struggle - snaha                               to prevent a disease – predísť chorobe
substance – látka                              to prolong the life – predĺžiť život
supernatural – nadprirodzený                   to promote – presadzovať, propagovať
surgeon – chirurg                              to pull out the plug – vybrať zástrčku zo zásuvky
surgery – operácia                             to reduce the risk – zmenšiť riziko
switch on – zapnúť                             to rely (on) – spoľahnúť sa
systemized – systematizovaný, usporiadaný      to replace – nahradiť
telephone transmitter – telefónny vysielač     to run out of ink – minúť atrament
telescope – hvezdársky ďalekohľad              to send a short message – poslať SMS
television set – televízny prijímač            to switch off – vypnúť
the handicapped – postihnutí                   to switch on – zapnúť
the most debated issue – najdiskutovanejšia    to take out – vytiahnuť, vybrať
otázka                                         to witness – byť svedkom
theory of evolution – evolučná teória          toaster – touster
thermodynamics - termodynamika                 tool – nástroj, pomôcka
thermometer – teplomer                         touch-screen – dotyková obrazovka
threat – hrozba                                urban working class – mestská robotnícka
tide – príliv                                  trieda
tin opener – otvárač na konzervy               USB key – USB kľúč
tiny – drobný                                  vacuum cleaner – vysávač
tissue – tkanivo                               various alternatives – rôzne možnosti
to achieve – dosiahnuť                         video recorder – video rekordér
to act (as) – konať, správať sa (ako)          vital – nevyhnutný, podstatný
to allow – dovoliť                             washing machine – práčka
to be concerned (about) – byť niečím           waterproof – vodotesný
znepokojený                                    weapon – zbraň
to be dependent (on) – byť závislý na          weapon – zbraň
to be freely accessible – byť voľne dostupný   website – internotová stránka
to be harmful (to) – škodiť                    wire – drôt
to become widely used – stať sa všeobecne      wireless – bezdrôtový
používaným                                     X-ray machine – röntgen
to break down – pokaziť sa                     youngsters – mladí ľudia
to carry – nosiť
    Farming and agriculture

    Agriculture, or farming, is a primary industry. Farmers cultivate crops and rear animals to produce
    food and other products. Agriculture is affected by many of the same factors and concerns as other
    types of industry.
    There are a range of agricultural operations from large commercial farms to small subsistence farms.
    All of these farms work to supply the constant demand for agricultural produce.
    Primary industry
    Primary industries are those that make use of the Earth's natural resources - farming, fishing, forestry
    and mining.
    Farming systems
    Like any other industry, farming is a system of inputs, processes and outputs.

    Sheep farmer
           Inputs will be physical (land, sun, rain), human (labour) and capital (money for livestock and
    feed, seeds, equipment, wages).
           Processes are the activities on the farm that turn inputs into outputs. For example, feeding and
    caring for the animals or planting and tending to the crops.
           Outputs are products farmers sell at market or use to feed and clothe their families. Barley,
    hops, wheat, hay and straw are products from crops and meat, wool, leather and cheese are
    products from animals.
    In a sheep farm, for example, the inputs will include the sun and water required by the grass, the
    purchase of breeding stock and the farmer's labour. The processes will include herding and caring
    for the sheep and lambs. Finally, the outputs will include wool and meat.
    If a farm is to make a profit, the revenue from selling outputs must be greater than the cost of the

    Farms can be categorised according to what is being grown or reared, the size of the operation and
    the agricultural techniques being used.
    Farming can be:
          sedentary or nomadic
          subsistence or commercial
          arable, pastoral or mixed
          extensive or intensive
    Sedentary or nomadic?
          Sedentary farming is when a farm is based in the same location all the time.
          Nomadic farming is when a farmer moves from one place to another.
    Subsistence or commercial?
          Subsistence farming is when crops and animals are produced by a farmer to feed their family,
    rather than to take to market.
          Commercial farming is when crops and animals are produced to sell at market for a profit.
    Arable, pastoral or mixed?
          Arable farms grow crops. Crops are plants that are harvested from the ground to be eaten or
          Pastoral farms rear animals - either for animal by-products such as milk, eggs or wool, or for
          Mixed farms grow crops and rear animals.
    Extensive or intensive?
          Extensive farming is where a relatively small amount of produce is generated from a large
    area of farmland. Inputs will be low with either poor quality land or few workers.
          Intensive farming is where a large amount of produce is generated from a relatively small
    area of land. Inputs will be high to achieve a high yield per hectare. Inputs could be either fertilisers,
    machines or labour.
    Factors affecting farming
    Physical factors

    A hill farm
    Like other primary industries, farming is highly dependent on physical inputs such as:
          Weather and climate
          Slope or relief of the land
          Soil fertility
          Water and drainage
    These inputs are naturally occurring, so farmers must work with the physical factors of their farm's
    location. They can intervene in these inputs - for example by growing crops in a polytunnel (plastic
    tunnel greenhouse) to protect them from frosts and improve plant growth. However, such human
    interventions require extra inputs in the form of money or work.
    Human factors

    A market garden
    Like physical factors, these vary according to the type of farm and the country where the farm is
    located. Factors include:
           Government policy - eg EU subsidies and loans and US tax reductions.
           Labour - some farms require more labour than others, eg a market garden will employ more
    labourers than a hill sheep farm.
           Finance - money is needed
    Physical factors will determine which type of farming takes place in a particular area. Climate and
    relief are the dominant factors in determining which crops will grow and which animals are suited to
    the landscape.
    Arable farming
    Arable farming is common in the south-east where the summers are warm and the land is low, flat
    and fertile. The south-east also has good transport links and farms are close to markets in towns and
    cities such as London.
    Market gardening
    Human factors such as finance and proximity to markets are important to market gardening. It is
    common in East Anglia where fruit, vegetables and flowers are grown.
    Hill sheep farming
    Hill sheep farming takes place in the north and west of Britain in highland areas such as Snowdonia
    and the Lake District. There are cool summers and high rainfall. The climate and steep land make
    these areas unsuitable for growing crops.
    Dairy farming
    Dairy farming is common in the south-west and the west of England where the climate is warm and
    wet. There are also good transport links and good access routes to markets in these areas. The land
    may be flat or hilly, but not too steep.
    Mixed farming
    Mixed farming is found in areas where the climate and relief suit both crops and animals. It needs to
    be warm, but not too wet, and the soils need to be fertile and flat. Mixed farms need good transport
    links and accessibility to markets.

    The increasing global population creates a demand for more food and greater efficiency in farming.
    Attempts to address this rise in demand including the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) by the EU
    and the Green Revolution in LEDCs.
    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)
    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was set up in 1962 to secure food supplies at a fair price and
    to improve the standard of living of farmers in Europe.

    Grain mountain
    The demand for more and cheaper food meant that farmers received subsidies for the food that
    they produced. This led to overproduction and the creation of large surpluses known as grain and
    butter mountains and wine lakes.
    With the expansion of its borders in 2004, the EU could no longer afford to keep paying subsidies. The
    CAP changed in 2005 to give farmers a single subsidy rather than several different payments. This is
    known as the Single Payment System (or SPS). To qualify for the payment farmers have to manage
    their land carefully and ensure minimum standards of animal welfare.
    Farmers also have quotas, which means there is a limit to how much of certain products they can
    produce. Land also has to be set aside, ie not used for crops or animals, ito qualify for payment. Set
    aside land encourages local biodiversity and can be put to other uses such as campsites.
    Since the changes to the CAP, overproduction in the EU is no longer the problem it once was.
    Consequences of EU Food Mountains
    In times of famine, food mountains can be used as aid. In the past, the EU has given its surpluses of
    food to Africa. In the long term, this reduces the incomes of African farmers and increases
    unemployment. Countries can also become reliant on aid - therefore it is unsustainable and does not
    encourage self reliance.
    Soil erosion and salinisation
    Soil erosion
    This is a problem in parts of the UK that are very flat, such as East Anglia. When the soil is left bare
    after ploughing, the wind can pick up speed due to the flat land and blow away the unprotected
    In addition, hedgerows have been removed from farmland to allow machinery to be used more
    easily and farm the land more intensively. Hedgerows help to hold the soil together and act as
    valuable windbreaks.
    Consequences of soil erosion in MEDCs

    The effects of drought in Africa
            If the topsoil (the most productive layer of the soil) is removed, then crop yields can decline.
            Loss of biodiversity (a diverse range of wildlife) in rivers – fish species find it difficult to breed
    because they lay their eggs in the gravel at the bottom of rivers and deposition of sediment smothers
    the gravel. Eggs that are smothered in sediment do not receive sufficient oxygen to survive.
            Roads and footpaths can become slippery, causing a hazard to walkers, motorists and
            Drains can become blocked with eroded soil causing localised flooding.
            Sediment can find its way into water storage reservoirs, reducing storage capacity for water
    supplies and increasing flood risks.
            Phosphates (chemicals from fertilisers) in the soil can cause excessive algal growth in rivers,
    lakes and reservoirs. If the sediment finds its way to an estuary or is dredged and dumped out at sea
    it can also cause algal growth in marine water. Algal growth causes damage to ecosystems and
    can be toxic.
            Water quality can be reduced - it may require treatment before it becomes fit for human
            The navigability of water courses can be reduced because of deposition of sediment.
    Soil erosion is also a problem in LEDCs.
            The soil is exposed and vulnerable to erosion as a result of the removal of vegetation and
            Trees, which provide protection from the wind and rain, are removed to be used as fuel.
            Nomadic tribes have become more sedentary, which puts pressure on the land where they
            When soil is blown away the land becomes useless for grazing and crops and causes
    desertification. This is a problem in the Sahel region of Africa.
    Salinisation occurs when the water in soils evaporates in high temperatures, drawing salts from the soil
    to the surface. These salts are toxic to many plants and make the land unusable. This has
    consequences such as low yields, poor profits and even starvation. Irrigation of land - when water is
    brought to land that is naturally dry - can cause salinisation on desert margins.
    This is an example of inappropriate use of technology.
    Solutions for sustainable development
    Appropriate technology
    This means technology that is simple, cheap and suitable for use by local people. Typically the
    technology is also sustainable and often involves local people in the manufacture, therefore
    creating jobs and providing valuable skills for future development. Examples of appropriate
    technology include using boreholes for water, using wind power to pump the water and using
    renewable energy such as solar power. An example of innappropriate technology would include
    using fossil fuels, which pollute the atmosphere and are a non renewable energy source.
    In the 1960s plans were made to increase crop yields in LEDCs by introducing new hybrid strains of
    plants with higher yields. These plans became known as 'The Green Revolution'.
Ultimately, it was not a success as the crops concerned needed lots of expensive fertilisers and
pesticides and farmers' profits fell. However, by crossbreeding traditional and new varieties of crops,
there has been some success in improving the yields of rice and millet.


All industries can be thought of as a system of inputs, processes, outputs and feedback.
Industry as a system

1.    Inputs are the things that go into the system. The main three inputs are:
     o       Physical inputs. These include sun, soil and water in primary industries and raw materials
       such as cotton, metal or oil in secondary industries.
    o        Labour - either skilled or unskilled.
    o        Capital. This is the money invested in the business to pay for raw materials, staff,
       machinery and the buildings used for production and storage.
2.    Processes are all the things that happen to those inputs to help turn them into outputs. These
    o        Production - for example the manufacturing of cars, or the sewing of textiles.
    o        Factory maintenance, which is necessary to keep machines in working order.
    o        Packaging which protects products during transit and presents them in a way that
       makes customers want to buy them.
    o        Transport, which is needed to move products from the factory to the warehouse and
       then on to the shops.
3.    Outputs are the finished products, together with profits and wages.
4.    Feedback includes anything that refines or improves the system, such as:
    o        Customer feedback. Companies find out what consumers think of their products
       through market research. They may alter or adapt their range according to feedback to sell
       more products and maximise profits.
    o        A profit is the money left over after inputs (staff wages, raw materials, machinery and
       buildings) have been paid for. Profits need to be high enough to make it worthwhile for the
       company to continue investing in making the product. If profits fall too low, the company will
       need to change the inputs, process or outputs to improve profit or diversify into other
       products. If they do not they will go bust!

Classification of industry
Secondary industry
Secondary industries are those which take the raw materials produced by the primary sector and
process them into manufactured goods and products.
Examples of secondary industries include heavy manufacturing, light manufacturing, food
processing, oil refining and energy production.
Tertiary and quaternary industry
    The tertiary sector is also called the service sector and involves the selling of services and skills. They
    can also involve selling goods and products from primary and secondary industries. Examples of
    tertiary employment include the health service, transportation, education, entertainment, tourism,
    finance, sales and retail.

    The biggest area of expansion in the tertiary sector in the UK has been in financial and business
    services. According to government statistics, 25 years ago one in ten people worked in this industry,
    now it is one in five.
    The quaternary sector consists of those industries providing information services, such as computing,
    ICT (information and communication technologies), consultancy (offering advice to businesses) and
    R&D (research, particularly in scientific fields).
    The quaternary sector is sometimes included with the tertiary sector, as they are both service sectors.
    The tertiary and quaternary sectors make up the largest part of the UK economy, employing 76% of
    the workforce.
    Comparing employment structures
    The employment structure of a country shows how the labour force is divided between the primary,
    secondary and tertiary sectors. Different countries have different employment structures. The
    employment structure of a given country can tell you quite a lot about that country's economy.
    In the richest countries, for example, there will usually be more people working in the
    tertiary/quaternary sector than in the primary and secondary sectors. In the poorest countries, there
    tend to be more people working in the primary sector than in either the secondary or tertiary sectors.
    In the richest country (USA), most people work in the tertiary sector. In the poorest country (Nepal),
    most people work in the primary sector. In Brazil, the labour force is more evenly distributed between
    the three sectors.
    Note that the quaternary sector has been included in the tertiary sector.
    Industrial location factors
    Different industries require different inputs. Industries are more likely to locate where these inputs are
    readily and cheaply available. Factors that influence where an industry locates include:
           Power supply
           Communications - including transport, telecommunications.
           Labour supply - including workers with the right skills.
           Access to market - where the goods are sold.
           Grants and financial incentives - usually from governments.
           Raw materials
    Use the activity below to check your understanding of how these factors affect industrial location
    decisions. Work out where on the map would be the best site for each company and then click on
    that location.
    Agglomeration and footloose industries
    These are two 'special cases' of industrial location.
    Agglomeration is when a number of producers in the same or related industries group themselves
    together. They do this to benefit from local skill pools, economies of scale or the prowess of a locality
    in a particular field. An example is the large number of financial services companies (eg banks and
    insurance companies) which are headquartered in the City of London.
    Footloose industries are those that are less dependent on factors that tie them to a specific
    geographical location. Unlike manufacturing industries, tertiary or services companies do not have to
    be near a source of raw materials. As long as they have suitable transport, energy and
    communications links, they can locate themselves virtually anywhere in the world. Examples of
    footloose industries are computer software development, telephone sales and call-centres.

    Material gathered from:

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